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JRM

Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics

ISSN : 0915-3942(Print) / 1883-8049(Online)
DOI : 10.20965/jrm.issn.1883-8049
Editors-in-Chief : Yoshihiro Takita (National Defence Academy of Japan)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief : Koichi Osuka (Osaka University),
Takayuki Tanaka (Hokkaido University)

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2017-09-21T17:38:51+0000

Vol.12 (2000)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Intelligent Control in Coming New Generation

Special Issue on Intelligent Control in Coming New Generation

: pp. 603-604
Intelligent Control in Coming New Generation
Shigeyasu Kawaji and Tetsuo Sawaragi

In the early 1970s, a concept of intelligent control was proposed by Fu, and since then the advancement of control technologies as a migrate of control theory, artificial intelligence and operations research has been actively attempted. The breakthrough of this concept was to integrate a human judgment and a concept of value as well as management theory into conventional control theoretic approaches, and synthesize these as artificial intelligence. A number of unconventional control techniques have evolved, offering solutions to many difficult control problems in industry and manufacturing. Saridis proposed a general architecture for intelligent control and proposed a design principle of such a hierarchical system as the principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence. During the first generation of intelligent control, a number of intelligent methodologies besides the purely symbolic and logical processing of human knowledge were introduced. They are broadly called soft computing techniques that include artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, and chaos theory. These techniques have contributed much to the advancement of intelligent control from the viewpoint of its “intelligence” part, but no solutions are provided from a control theoretic viewpoint, and the definition of intelligence in terms of control theory is still left questionable. To discuss this issue, we initiated a specialist’s meeting on survey of intelligent control in 1997 organized under the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, and discussed the current status as well as future perspectives of intelligent control. Some of the papers contributed to this special issue are results obtained in this series of meetings. During that time, the framework of intelligent control has entered the second generation. In the first stage, this framework was discussed in terms of utilized methodologies such as control theory, artificial intelligence, and operations research seeking optimal combinations of these methodologies wherein a distinction is made between the controller, the plant, and the external environment and representations as well as state concepts utilized were a priorily determined and fixed without flexibility. In contrast, the second generation intelligent control system must emphasize a biologically inspired architecture that can accommodate the flexible and dynamic capabilities of living systems including human beings. That is, it must be able to grow and develop increasing capabilities of self-control, self-awareness of representation and reasoning about self and of constructing a coherent whole out of different representations. Actually, a new branch of research on artificial life and system theory of function emergence has shifted the perspectives of intelligence from conventional reductionism to a new design principle based on the concept of “emergence”. Thus, their approach is quite new in that they attempt to build models that bring together self-organizing mechanisms with evolutionary computation. Such a trend has forced us to reconsider the biological system and/or natural intelligence. In this special issue, we focus on the aspects of semiosis within a multigranular architecture and of emergent properties and techniques for human-machine and/or multiagent collaborative control systems in the coming new generation. These topics are mutually interrelated; the role of multivariable and multiresolutional quantization and clustering for designing intelligent controllers is essential for realizing the abilities to learn unknown multidimensional functions and/or for letting a joint system, which consists of an external environment, a human, and a machine, self-organize distinctive roles in a bottom-up and emerging fashion. This special issue includes papers on proposals of conceptual architecture, methodologies and reports from practical field studies on the hierarchical architecture of machines for realizing hierarchical collaboration and coordination among machine and human autonomies. We believe that these papers will lead to answers to the above questions. We sincerely thank the contributors and reviewers who made this special issue possible. Thanks also go to the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, Prof. Makoto Kaneko (Hiroshima University), who provided the opportunity for editing this special issue.

: pp. 605-613
A Control-Theoretic View of Intelligent Control
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Shigeyasu Kawaji
: pp. 614-627
Emerging Intelligence for Next-Generation Intelligent Systems and Control
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Tetsuo Sawaragi
: pp. 628-639
Human-Integrated Supervisory Control of Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles
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S. Narayanan, Heath A. Ruff, Narasimha Rao Edala, Jonathan A. Geist, Kiran Kumar Patchigolla, Mark Draper and Mike Haass
: pp. 640-649
Semiotic Approach to Perceptual State Construction for Behavior-Based Robot through Recursive and Progressive Deepening Utilization of Memory
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Tetsuo Sawaragi and Satoshi Iwatsu
: pp. 650-655
Flexible Intelligence Machine Control and its Application to Jacket Tank Temperature Control
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Masaki Arao, Toshihiro Tashima, and Shigeyasu Kawaji
: pp. 656-663
Building up Embodiment in Learning Agents Using A Gaussian Radial Basis Function Neural Network
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Hajime Murao and Shinzo Kitamura
: pp. 664-674
A New Fuzzy Inference Method for Symbolic Stability Analysis of Multigranular Intelligent Control System
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Hidehiro Yamamoto and Takeshi Furuhashi
: pp. 675-681
System Identification and Control using Probabilistic Incremental Program Evolution Algorithm
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Yuehui Chen and Shigeyasu Kawaji
: pp. 682-688
Knowledge Acquisition by Improved Fuzzy ID3 Algorithm and Stability Analysis for Jacket Tank Temperature Control
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Masaki Arao, Masahito Tanaka and Shigeyasu Kawaji
: pp. 689-701
Control of a Mobile Service Robot Using Human Evaluations of Task-related Movement Patterns
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John Travis Butler and Arvin Agah
: pp. 702-705
Fault Detection of Automobile Transmission Gears Using General Parameter Methods
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Yasuhiko Dote, Seppo J. Ovaska, and Xiao-Zhi Gao
: pp. 706-711
Bolt Tightening Using Impact Wrench Based on Neural Networks
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Toru Fujinaka, Hirofumi Nakano, Michifumi Yoshioka, and Sigeru Omatu
: pp. 712-717
A Co-operative Transferring Task by Mobile Manipulators
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Kazuya Yasui, Toshiyuki Murakami, and Kouhei Ohnishi
: pp. 718-724
The Evaluation Method of Arousal Level by Local Fractal Analysis of Facial Skin Temperature
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Hisaya Tanaka and Hideto Ide
: pp. 725-730
Determination of MRCP Evocation Model and Its Parameters
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Hisaya Tanaka, Ayako Shinokubo and Hideto Ide

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Intelligent Integrated Systems for Human-Oriented Information Society

Special Issue on Intelligent Integrated Systems for Human-Oriented Information Society

: p. 501
Intelligent Integrated Systems for Human-Oriented Information Society
Michitaka Kameyama

Recent advance in the information technology makes our society very convenient from the viewpoint of human-to-human information communication. However, our new living style will require not only human-tohuman communication but also autonomous intelligent applications that support human beings such as an intelligent robot system, an intelligent transportation system, and a security/safe system as shown in Figure. These applications will contribute to human-oriented information society.Intelligent vehicle Home service robot Security The use of special-purpose VLSI processors capable of processing a large amount of real-world data is essential to make such applications realistic. In recent industrial trend, the special-purpose processors are called “System LSIs”. One of the most important environmental informations in real-world applications is a vision information. The factor common to the applications is to catch an environment information moment by moment and to respond quickly with it. Therefore, it is important to make the response time from inputs to outputs very small. In this case, sensor data transfer bottleneck is not allowed as well as memory-to-PE (Processing Element) data transfer bottleneck. An image sensor signal processing VLSI together with image sensor devices is a key issue in such applications. From the above point of views, this special issue was planned to demonstrate the recent results of this area. Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to the authors for their efforts and contributions to this special issue and also the members of the Editorial Board for their cooperation.

: pp. 502-507
A CMOS Image Sensor with Non-Destructive High-Speed Imaging Mode and Its Applications
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Dwi Handoko, Shoji Kawahito, Minoru Kumahara, Nobuhiro Kawai , Yoshiaki Tadokoro and Akira Matsuzawa
: pp. 508-514
A Binary Image Sensor for Motion Detection
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Tomohiro Nezuka, Takafumi Fujita, Makoto Ikeda and Kunihiro Asada
: pp. 515-520
Device and System Development of General Purpose Digital Vision Chip
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Takashi Komuro, Shingo Kagami, Idaku Ishii, and Masatoshi Ishikawa
: pp. 521-526
Stereo Vision VLSI Processor Based on Pixel-Serial and Window-Parallel Architecture
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Masanori Hariyama and Michitaka Kameyama
: pp. 527-533
Path Planning Based on Distance Transformation and Its VLSI Implementation
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Masanori Hariyama and Michitaka Kameyama
: pp. 534-540
Design of a VLSI Processor Based on an Immediate Output Generation Scheduling for Ball-Trajectory Prediction
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Hideki Kazama, Masanori Hariyama, and Michitaka Kameyama
: pp. 541-544
Tracking of Moving Object by Phase-only Correlation
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Hiroshi Sasaki, Kazumasa Nomura, Hiroshi Nakajima and Koji Kobayashi
: pp. 545-551
A Next-Generation Intelligent Car for Safe Drive
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Takashi Emura, Masaaki Kumagai, and Lei Wang
: pp. 552-558
Development of a Low Resistance Micro Electro Magnetic Distance Sensor Using High Aspect Ratio Photo Resist
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Xianhe Ding, Katsutoshi Kuribayashi and Takao Hashida
: pp. 559-566
Study on Roller-Walker – Multi-mode Steering Control and Self-Contained Locomotion –
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Gen Endo and Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 567-576
Robot Manipulation Using Virtual Compliance Control
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Hisaaki Hirabayashi, Koichi Sugimoto, Atsuko Enomoto and Ichirou Ishimaru
: pp. 577-584
Planning Strategy for Task of Unfolding Clothes (Classification of Clothes)
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Kyoko Hamajima and Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 585-592
Construction of Cooperative Space Robot Systems and Analysis of Their Working Abilities
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Jun Kobayashi, Ryozo Katoh and Fujio Ohkawa
: pp. 593-602
Evaluation of Wheel Performance on Rough Terrain and Development of HS Wheel
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Yasuyuki Uchida, Kazuya Furuichi and Shigeo Hirose

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Advanced Space Robotics

Special Issue on Advanced Space Robotics

: p. 333
Advanced Space Robotics
Takashi Kuboda

Toward the turn of the century, several missions to explore deep space such as the moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets are being planned for scientific observation. Recently, many researchers have studied and developed lunar or planetary rovers for unmanned planet surface exploration. Microrover missions have received much attention. In July 1997, NASA/JPL succeeded in the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover moved over the Martian surface gathering and transmitting voluminous amounts of data back to the Earth. NASA plans to send robots to Mars in 2003 and 2005 Missions. In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched the Nozomi, a Mars’s orbiter. ISAS plans to send Lunar-A spacecraft with penetrators to the moon and is also promoting the MUSES-C mission for asteroid sample return. ISAS and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) are cooperatively promoting the SELENE mission, whose major objectives are to acquire scientific data on lunar origin and evolution, and to develop technology for future lunar exploration. NASDA launched the ETS-VII satellite in 1997 for rendezvous docking and orbital robotics experiments. The International Space Station (ISS) is under construction by international cooperation. We will shortly start robotics activities onboard the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) named KIBOU for the ISS. Space robotics including Al is a key technology for planetary exploration. Space robotics is expected to support space activities, such as external vehicular activities (EVA) and internal vehicular activities (IVA) for future space utilization. Future space projects will require space robotics technology to construct, repair and maintain satellites and space structures in orbit. This special issue on advanced space robotics introduces updated mission results and advanced research activities of space organizations, institutes, and universities, although it does not include all. We hope that this special issue will be useful to readers as an introduction to advanced space robotics in Japan, and that more robotics and Al researchers and engineers will become interested in space robotics and participate in space missions. We thank those researchers who have contributed their advanced research activities to this special issue, and deeply appreciate their earnest efforts.

: pp. 334-342
Moving Method of Space Robot Pushing Walls
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Toshiaki Iwata and Hiroshi Murakami
: pp. 343-350
Hardware Experiments of Autonomous Space Robot – A Demonstration of Truss Structure Assembly –
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Kei Senda, Yoshisada Murotsu, Akira Mitsuya, Hirokazu Adachi, Shin'ichi Ito, and Jynya Shitakubo
: pp. 351-355
Force Control of a Space Manipulator
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Katsuyoshi Tsujita, Kazuo Tsuchiya and Yousuke Kawano
: pp. 356-363
Experimental Verification of an Advanced Space Teleoperation System Using the Internet
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Yuichi Tsumaki, Toshihiko Goshozono, Koyu Abe, Masaru Uchiyama, Ralf Koeppe and Gerd Hirzinger
: pp. 364-370
Development and Space Operation of Advanced Robotic Hand System
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Kazuo Machida, Hirotaka Nishida and Kenzo Akita
: pp. 371-377
Precise In-Orbit Servicing by Multisensory Hand-Connected with Long Arm
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Kazuo Machida, Yoshitsugu Toda and Mitsushige Oda
: pp. 378-384
An Experimental Teleoperation System for Dual-Arm Space Robotics
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Woo-Keun Yoon, Yuichi Tsumaki and Masaru Uchiyama
: pp. 385-393
A Practical Control Scheme for Autonomous Capture of Free-Flying Satellites by Space Robotic Manipulator based on Predictive Trajectory
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Hiroyuki Nagamatsu, Takashi Kubota and Ichiro Nakatani
: pp. 394-401
Teleoperation Techniques for Assembling an Antenna by using Space Robots – Experiments on Engineering Test Satellite VII –
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Shinichi Kimura, Shigeru Tsuchiya, Yasufumi Nagai, Kazuo Nakamura, Kenichi Satoh, Hajime Morikawa and Nobuaki Takanashi
: pp. 402-410
Space Robot Dynamics and Control: a Historical Perspective
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Kazuya Yoshida
: pp. 411-416
The SpaceDyn: a MATLAB Toolbox for Space and Mobile Robots
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Kazuya Yoshida
: pp. 417-424
Summary of NASDA’s ETS-VII robot satellite mission
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Mitsushige Oda
: pp. 425-431
Design Concept and System Architecture of Reconfigurable Brachiating Space Robot
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Ryoichi Hayashi, Saburo Matunaga and Yoshiaki Ohkami
: pp. 432-437
Semi-Autonomous Telescience System for Planetary Exploration Rover
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Tetsuo Yoshimitsu, Miharu Ootsuka, Takashi Kubota and Ichiro Nakatani
: pp. 438-442
Mission-Task Support Aspects of Planetary Rover for Surface Analysis
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Nobuto Yoshioka
: pp. 443-445
AI, Robotics and Automation in Space
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Ichiro Nakatani
: pp. 446-452
Design of Three-wheeled Planetary Rover Tri-StarII
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Shigeo Hirose and Hiroyuki Kuwabara
: pp. 453-458
Development of Magnetic Recording to GOV-Rope
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Hisaya Tanaka, Nobuyuki Sudou, Hideto Ide and Masafumi Uchida
: pp. 459-465
Motion Planning for Six-Legged Locomotion Robot Based on Hierarchical Knowledge Using Genetic Programming
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Kentarou Kurashige, Toshio Fukuda and Haruo Hoshino
: pp. 466-473
An Evolutionary Algorithm for CT Image Reconstruction
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Fathelalem F. Ali, Kazunori Matsuo, Zensho Nakao and Yen-Wei Chen
: pp. 474-479
Determination of Meat Quality by Image Processing and Neural Network Techniques
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Kazuhiko Shiranita, Kenichiro Hayashi and Akifumi Otsubo
: pp. 480-493
Open-loop Force Control of A Three-finger Gripper Through PWM Modulated Pneumatic Digital Valves
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Giorgio Figliolini and Massimo Sorli
: pp. 494-500
Autonomous Formation of Transportation Order under Dynamical Environment
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Toshimitsu Higashi, Kosuke Sekiyama and Toshio Fukuda

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechatronics (ICRAM'99)

Special Issue on 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechatronics (ICRAM'99)

: p. 193
2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechatronics (ICRAM’99)
Toshiro Noritsugu

ICRAM’99 has been organized by UNESCO Chair on Mechatronics and Mechatronics Research and Application Center of Bogazici University, Istanbul in Turkey, during 24-26 May 1999, co-sponsored by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Industrial Electronics Society and IEEE Robotics and Automation Society. The purpose of this conference is to provide an international forum for the discussion on the most recent advances in the field of mechatronics. The program of the conference contains three kinds of papers, 4 plenary papers, 44 long papers and 90 regular papers. The long papers have been published by Springer-Verlag (ISBN 981-4021-34-2), under the name Recent Advances in Mechatronics (Eds. Okyay Kaynak, Sabri Tosunoglu and Marcelo Ang Jr.). The long papers have been presented in the following 12 sessions: Advances in Robotics, Motion control 1, Intelligent Techniques in Mechatronics 1, Virtual Techniques and Telecommanding, Robust Adaptive Control, Design of Mechanical System 1, Fault Detection and Inspection 1, Motion Control 2, Intelligent Techniques in Mechatronics 2, Analysis of Mechatronic Systems, Mobile Robots 1 and Biomedical Applications. For the regular papers, Modeling and Simulation, Trajectory Planning and Control, Variable-Structure Control Systems, Control of Mechatronic Systems, Production Automation, Machine Vision, Adaptive Control, Design of Mechatronic Systems 2, Measurement Technology, Intelligent Systems, Control of Robot Manipulators, Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Education and Training in Mechatronics, Neural Networks and Applications, Fuzzy Systems, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Applications, Mobile Robots 2, Control Applications and Sensors and Actuators. The papers have been submitted to the conference from 30 countries in the world. From Japan 14 papers have been presented, one plenary paper, S long papers and 8 regular papers. This special issue comprises 10 papers edited from the conference papers contributed from Japan. Each paper has been revised and updated for this issue from the original conference paper to describe the recent status of research and development of mechatronics in Japan. The included papers are concerned with some important and attractive subjects such as mobile robot, robot behavior evolution, nanoelectromechanical system, magnetic suspension, human symbiotic robot, stereovision, force control of robot, soft pneumatic actuator and so on. I would like to thank all the authors for their valuable contributions to this issue.

: pp. 194-201
Computational Intelligence for Mobile Robotic Systems – Decision Making, Learning, and Planning –
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Toshio Fukuda and Naoyuki Kubota
: pp. 202-208
A Method of Robot Behavior Evolution Based on Intelligent Composite Motion Control
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Masakazu Suzuki
: pp. 209-217
Macro to Nano Tele-Manipulation Towards Nanoelectromechanical Systems
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Metin Sitti and Hideki Hashimoto
: pp. 218-223
Development of a Hysteresis Amplifier with an H-bridge Drive for Self-Sensing Magnetic Suspension
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Takeshi Mizuno and Yuji Ishino
: pp. 224-230
Design Strategies of Human Symbiotic Robot WENDY
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Toshio Morita, Hiroyasu Iwata and Shigeki Sugano
: pp. 231-234
New Stereovision for Human-Robot Communications
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Junichi Takeno, and Zichuan Xu
: pp. 235-241
Error Recovery of Autonomous Mobile Robot With Global Matching
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Yasunori Abe, Yoshio Tanaka, Shintaro Sakamoto, Toshio Fukuda, Fumihito Arai, and Masaru Shikano
: pp. 242-248
Coordinated Transportation of a Single Object by Omni-Directional Mobile Robots with Body Force Sensor
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Yasuhisa Hirata, Kazuhiro Kosuge, Tomohiro Oosumi, Hajime Asama, Hayato Kaetsu and Kuniaki Kawabata
: pp. 249-253
Development of an Active Worktable and Its Application to Force Control of Robot Manipulators
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Shin-ichi Nakajima
: pp. 254-260
Soft Planar Actuator using Pneumatic-Rubber Balls
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Toshiro Noritsugu, Daijyu Kaneshiro and Takashi Inoue
: pp. 261-267
Development of the Quadruped Walking Robot for Humanitarian Demining (Proposal of the System and Basic Experiment of Several Foot-end-effectors)
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Keisuke Kato and Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 268-274
Proposition and Basic Experiments of Shape Feedback Master-Slave Arm (On the Application for the Demining Robots)
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Keisuke Kato and Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 275-280
An Advanced Pilot Training and Control System for Underwater Robotic Vehicles
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Gerald Seet, Tan Kok Cheng, Michael W. S. Lau, and Eicher Low
: pp. 281-285
Application of the Robust Pole Assignment Technique for Vibration Control of Structures
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Takashi Fujimoto
: pp. 286-291
Development of Vital Sign Sensor by Using Fiber-optics
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Eiji Toba, Takahiro Shimada, Tuyoshi Kamoto, Toyonori Nishimatsu and Hiroaki Ishizawa
: pp. 292-303
Deforming and Cutting Operation with Force Sensation
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Atsuko Tanaka, Koichi Hirota and Toyohisa Kaneko
: pp. 304-309
Proposal of Artificial Larynx Using PZT Ceramics Vibrator as Sound Source
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Katsutoshi Ooe, Toshio Fukuda, and Fumihito Arai
: pp. 310-317
Design and Experiments of In-pipe Inspection Vehicles for ø25, ø50, ø150 Pipes
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Shigeo Hirose, Hidetaka Ohno, Takeo Mitsui and Kiichi Suyama
: pp. 318-324
Human Dynamic Skill in High Speed Actions and Its Realization by Robot
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Aiguo Ming and Makoto Kajitani
: pp. 325-332
Development of a Golf Swing Robot to Simulate Human Skill
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Aiguo Ming and Makoto Kajitani

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on ROBOMEC'99

Special Issue on ROBOMEC'99

: p. 65
ROBOMEC’99
Kazuhito Yokoi

This special issue is proposed in honor of the Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics authorized as the International Journal of the Robotics and Mechatronics Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers from 1999. The 1999 JSME Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ROBOMEC’99) was held in Tokyo, on June 11-13, 1999, sponsored by the Robotics and Mechatronics Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. The purpose of the conference was to aid establishment of new industries using advanced Robotics and Mechatronics technologies. In the technical sessions, 81 sessions were held and a total of 579 papers presented to 946 participants. This special issue has been organized by editing papers presented at ROBOMEC’99 to distribute the significant results of the conference. I thank the authors who have contributed their papers to this special issue and thank Editor in Chief Prof. Makoto Kaneko (Hiroshima University), who has been indispensable in organizing this special issue. I also thank the Editors for the selection of papers.

: pp. 66-71
Development of Dual Mode X-screw -A Novel Load-Sensitive Linear Actuator with a Wide Transmission Range-
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Tetsuto Hagiwara and Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 72-77
Self-diagnosis System of an Autonomous Mobile Robot Using Sensory Information
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Shinnosuke Okina, Kuniaki Kawabata, Teruo Fujii, Yasuharu Kunii, Hajime Asama and Isao Endo
: pp. 78-83
Development of an Omnidirectional Rolling Leg Mechanism for Application in a Locomotion Machine
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Nobutoshi Yamazaki and Takehiro Nishiie
: pp. 84-90
Development of Suspender Device Controlled by Gyroscopic Moments (Outline of Original Device and Its Improvement)
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Fumihiro Inoue, Kouji Watanabe, Akira Wakabayashi, and Yoshitsugu Nekomoto
: pp. 91-95
Proposition of Microrover System for Lunar Exploration
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Yoji Kuroda, Yasuharu Kunii and Takashi Kubota
: pp. 96-102
Miniaturization of Self-Reconfigurable Robotic System using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators
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Eiichi Yoshida, Shigeru Kokaji, Satoshi Murata, Kohji Tomita and Haruhisa Kurokawa
: pp. 103-109
Path Planning and Control for a Flexible Transfer System
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Naoyuki Kubota, Yusuke Nojima, Fumio Kojima, Toshio Fukuda and Susumu Shibata
: pp. 110-117
Wearable System Based on Concept of Action and Speech Sharing Between Human-and System
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Taketoshi Mori, Katsutoshi Asaki and Tomomasa Sato
: pp. 118-125
Assembly Support Based on Human Model -Provision of Physical Support According to Implicit Desire for Support-
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Yasuhisa Hayakawa, Ikuo Kitagishi, Yusuke Kira, Kensuke Satake, Tetsuya Ogata and Shigeki Sugano
: pp. 126-134
An Embodied Interaction Robots System Based on Speech
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Tomio Watanabe, Masashi Okubo and Hiroki Ogawa
: pp. 135-143
Design of Human-machine Cooperative Telemanipulation Based on Extended Virtual Tool Dynamics
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Tomotaka Itoh, Akitaka Ando, Fumiyoshi Omura, Takashi Matsui, Kazuhiro Kosuge and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 144-149
Adaptive Logic Circuits Based on Net-list Evolution
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Tomokazu Shindo, Hiroshi Yokoi and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 150-157
Walking Microrobot Mechanism with an Exoskeleton
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Tetsuji Dohi, Kousuke Kishi, Takashi Yasuda, and Isao Shimoyama
: pp. 158-164
A Control Method for Gathering Patterns of Multiple Micromachines
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Yoshiki Shimomura, Hitoshi Hasunuma, Kazunori Makino, Masataka Koyama, Yasuo Nakano and Yasuo Otsuki
: pp. 165-171
Analysis of Swimming Properties and Design of Spiral-Type Magnetic Micromachine
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Masahiko Sendoh, Noriyuki Ajiro, Kazushi Ishiyama, Mitsuteru Inoue, Toshiyuki Hayase and Ken Ichi Arai
: pp. 172-179
Real-time FEM Control System for Connected Piezoelectric Actuators
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Daigoro Isobe, Hiroshi Nakamura and Ryuta Shimizu
: pp. 180-189
A Study on Evolutionary Design in Balancing Morphology and Intelligence of Robotic Systems
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Kohki Kikuchi and Fumio Hara
: pp. 190-192
Toner Removal System from Copied Paper
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Kohki Isago

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Virtual Reality

Special Issue on Virtual Reality

: p. 1
Virtual Reality
Takashi Takeda

Special Issue on Virtual Reality Achieved by Researchers in Kyushu This special issue on virtual reality technologies recently developed by researchers in Kyushu has been compiled to introduce their activities to readers throughout the world. Kyushu Island, in southwest Japan, has long played an important role in Japan’s cultural progress. Kyushu researchers have contributed much, for instance, to the steel making and shipbuilding industries. The Kyushu region is an important IC production base for such key devices as computers. While the region plays important roles in modern industry, it is also blessed with a moderate climate and a rich natural environment, providing residents with a comfortable of living. The region has thus served deeply for international exchanges with neighboring Asian nations since ancient times, thanks to its geographical advantages. The region has served to help develop Japan with advanced technology acquired in such international exchanges in every era. Thanks to its environment, people in the region are blessed with a deeply rooted sophisticated spirit and culture. They have an excellent engineering sense important to goods production and are highly creative and innovative. Reflecting these factors, the new field of virtual reality technology has been readily adopted and R&D on virtual reality is active in the region. Achievements in virtual reality developed in Kyushu are presented in this issue to introduce the region’s to colleagues worldwide and promote international exchange. We hope that our contributions will be of aid to researchers around the globe.

: pp. 2-10
Presentation of Assembly Condition and Subassembly Function Using Two Force Feedback Displays
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Ryoko Furusawa, Kazuaki Tanaka, Norihiro Abe, Katsuya Matsunaga and Hirokazu Taki
: pp. 11-17
Operation Supporting System of Tools in Virtual World
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Kazuhiro Annoura, Norihiro Abe, Kazuaki Tanaka, and Hirokazu Taki
: pp. 18-23
Measuring Device for Large Piping Structures
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Kazuo Ichimura, Kiyohide Yui and Takakazu Ishimatsu
: pp. 24-28
Three-D Measurement Using Laser Theodolite
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Kazuo Ichimura, Mitsuyoshi Fujii, Youichi Tasaki and Takakazu Ishimatsu
: pp. 29-34
Modular Distributed Control Architecture for Cooperative Soccer-Playing Robot Agents
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Gen'ichi Yasuda
: pp. 35-39
Interaction Using Multiview Representation in a Large-Scale Virtual Environment
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Dahlan Nariman, Hiroaki Nishino, Kouichi Utsumiya, and Kazuyoshi Korida
: pp. 40-47
Visual Interface For Remote Control
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Kazunori Shidoji, Katsuya Matsunaga, Masahiko Minamoto, Yasuhiro Nose, Kazuhisa Ebuchi and Yuji Matsuki
: pp. 48-52
Construction of Virtual Reality System for Arm Wrestling with Interactive Evolutional Computing
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Sinichi Kamohara, Yutaka Ichinose, Takashi Takeda and Hideyuki Takagi
: pp. 53-59
Rehabilitation Support by Multiaxis Force Display
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Shinichi Kamohara, Takashi Yamada, Yutaka Ichinose, Takashi Takeda, and Hideyuki Takagi
: pp. 60-65
AUV with Variable Vector Propeller
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Yutaka Nagashima, Takakazu Ishimatsu and Jamal Tariq Mian

Vol.11 (1999)

No.6

(Dec)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 455-460
Robot Hand and Finger Motion Using EMG
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Masafumi Uchida, Hisaya Tanaka, Hideto Ide and Syuichi Yokoyama
: pp. 461-467
Improvement of Maneuverability of Man-Machine System for Wearable Nursing Robots
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Satoki Morishita, Takayuki Tanaka, Kazuo Yamafuji and Naoki Kanamori
: pp. 468-472
Environment Mapping Robot Using Supersonic Sensor
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Masafumi Uchida, Tanaka Hisaya, and Hideto Ide
: pp. 473-476
Power Assist Control Developed for Walking Support
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Yasuhiro Nemoto, Saku Egawa and Masakatsu Fujie
: pp. 477-482
Design Methodology of Drive Guide for Crawl Stair Lift
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Satoshi Hashino
: pp. 483-489
Estimation of Oxygen Desaturation by Analyzing Breathing Curves
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Yoshifumi Nishida, Takashi Suehiro and Shigeoki Hirai
: pp. 490-494
Computer Interface Developed for the Person with Disabled Upper Limb
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Tsumoru Ochiai, Yoshio Fukuda, Osamu Takami and Ryouji Matsui
: pp. 495-501
Recognition of Similar Patterns by Mutilayer Nets and Detection of Rotated Angle and Scale Ratio
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Hiromu Gotanda, Kousaku Kawai and Tatsuya Yamaoka
: pp. 502-509
Fuzzy Behavior-Based Control for a Task of Three-Link Manipulator with Obstacle Avoidance
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Palitha Dassanayake, Keigo Watanabe and Kiyotaka Izumi
: pp. 510-517
Joint Positions and Robot Stability of the Omnidirectional Crawling Quadruped Robot
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Xuedong Chen, Keigo Watanabe and Kiyotaka Izumi
: pp. 518-523
Torque Reduction Method for Redundant Manipulator
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Kenji Uematsu and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 524-530
Intelligent Sensor Fault Detection of Vibration Control for Flexible Structures
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Masahiro Isogai, Fumihito Arai and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 531-533
Autonomous Mobile Robot Carrying Food Trays to the Aged and Disabled – Robot Technology and Results of the Field Evaluation Test –
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Tsugito Maruyama and Muneshige Yamazaki

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on ICAM'98 (2)

Special Issue on ICAM'98 (2)

: pp. 349-355
An Adaptive PI Control System for an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot
Abstract
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Kazuya Sato, Keigo Watanabe, Kiyotaka Izumi and Makoto Watanabe
: pp. 356-361
Reaction Force Control of a Parallel Biwheel Vehicle Driven with a Stepping Motor
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Nobuaki Hiraoka and Toshiro Noritsugu
: pp. 362-366
Empirical Measurement toward an Emergent Perceptibility of Autonomous Robots
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Jun Hakura and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 367-373
Modeling and Feedback Control for Vibratory Feeder of Electromagnetic Type
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Tomoharu Doi, Koji Yoshida, Yutaka Tamai, Katsuaki Kono, Kazufumi Naito and Toshiro Ono
: pp. 374-379
On-line Identification of Furnace Parameters for Coal-Fired Boiler Control
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Yukio Fukayama, Kotaro Hirasawa, Katsumi Shimohira, Toshikazu Tsumura, and Koji Yamamoto
: pp. 380-386
Laser Detection and Fast Negotiation of Steps with Unknown Position and Height by a Variable-Structure-Type 4-Wheeled Robot
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Takeshi Kikkawa, Osamu Matsumoto and Kazuo Tani
: pp. 387-392
Design of a Robotic System that Plays with a Yoyo
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Koichi Hashimoto and Toshiro Noritsugu
: pp. 393-398
An Analysis and Generation of Bunraku Puppet’s Motions Based on Linear Structure of Functional Factors, Emotional Factors and Stochastic Fluctuations for Generation of Humanoid Robots’ Actions with Fertile Emotions
Abstract
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Motofumi Hattori, Masahiko Tsuji, Satoshi Tadokoro, Toshi Takamori and Kazuhito Yamada
: pp. 399-403
High-speed End Milling of Extruded Aluminum Alloys Using Articulated Robot
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Kazunori Shimizu, Shin-ichi Matsuoka, Nobuyuki Yamazaki and Yoshinari Oki
: pp. 404-410
Kinematic Synthesis of In-Parallel Actuated Mechanisms Based on the Global Isotropy Index
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Yukio Takeda and Hiroaki Funabashi
: pp. 411-416
Odometry in Cooperative Multi-Mobile Robots
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Masafumi Hashimoto, Takanori Kurazumi and Fuminori Oba
: pp. 417-422
In-pipe Mobile Micromachine Using Fluid Power Adaptable to Pipe Diameters
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Kazuhiro Yoshida, Ken Takahashi, and Shinichi Yokota
: pp. 423-430
Intelligent Monitoring System for Grinding Process by Recurrent Fuzzy Inference -Evaluation of Inferred Surface Roughness Using Degree of Fuzziness-
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Futoshi Kobayashi, Fumihito Arai, Toshio Fukuda, Makoto Onoda and Yuzo Hotta
: pp. 431-435
New Fabrication of Multiple-Layer Microcoil Using Anodic Oxidized Aluminum
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Kenichi Muraki and Katsutoshi Kuribayashi
: pp. 436-442
Cordless Optical Power Supply for Micromachine
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Hidenori Ishihara and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 443-447
Micro Autonomous Robotic System
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Hidenori Ishihara and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 448-453
Study of a Brush-Type Micro-Robot Using Micro Coreless Motor
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Kiyoshi Ioi

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on ICAM'98 (1)

Special Issue on ICAM'98 (1)

: p. 237
Assistive Device Technologies
Toshiro Noritsugu

Mechatronics is one of the most powerful technologies to overcome various industrial and social problems arising in the 21st century, for example, realization of the recycle manufacturing system, global consideration on the environment, development of human-oriented technology. The 3rd International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics (ICAM’98)-Innovative Mechatronics for the 21st Century hass been held in Okayama August 3-6, 1998, following the 1st and 2nd held in Tokyo in 1988 and 1993, sponsored by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. The purpose of the conference is to promote the creation of new technologies and industries such as advanced robotics and human-oriented technology for the coming 21st century. Two plenary talks and 35 technical sessions including 11 specially organized sessions were opened. In technical sessions, a total of 149 papers was presented, of which 61 papers were in organized sessions and 88 papers in general sessions. Some 47 papers came from 17 countries abroad and 102 papers from Japan. A number of registered participants excluding invited guests was 40 from other countries and 163 from Japan. After the technical program, the Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics symposium was held for tutorial reviews of future robotics and mechatronics, mainly focusing on “human collaboration” technology. More than 100 persons attended the symposium. Organized sessions included Analysis and Control of Robot Manipulators, Modeling and Control of Nonholonomic Underactuated Systems, Human Perspective Characteristics and Virtual Reality, Robotic Hand Design Grasping and Dexterous Manipulation, Healthcare Robotics, Advanced Fluid Power Control Technology, Advanced Robot Kinematics, Human Directed Robotics, Computer Support for Mechatronics System Design, Robotic Control, and Motion Control of Special Motors. Robotics was a main subject, but fluid power technology, fundamental motion control technology, and so on were also discussed. “Human collaboration” technology dealing with interaction between humans and robots attracted great attention from many participants. General sessions included Manufacturing, Vision, Micro Machine, Electric Actuator, Human-Robot Interface, Processing Technology, Fluid Actuator, Legged Locomotion, Control Strategy, Soft-Computing, Vehicle, Automation for Agriculture, Robot Force Control, Vibration, and Robot Application. Many studies have been presented over comprehensive subjects. This special issue has been organized by editing the papers presented at ICAM’98 for widely distributing the significant results of the conference. I would like to thank the authors in this special issue who have contributed their updated papers. Also, I would like to thank to Prof. Makoto Kaneko (Hiroshima University), whose work has been indispensable in organizing this special issue.

: pp. 238-243
Formation and Piezoelectric Property of PZT Film Synthesized Hydrothermally
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Yoko Ohba, Takaaki Tsurumi, Etsuo Sakai and Masaki Daimon
: pp. 244-250
Development of a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Micromotion Device Consisting of Soft Gel Actuators
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Satoshi Tadokoro, Shinji Yamagami, Tetsuya Kimura, Toshi Takamori and Kesuke Oguro
: pp. 251-257
Analysis of an Opto-Pneumatic Control System and Improvement of its Control Performance
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Tetsuya Akagi, Shujiro Dohta and Hisashi Matsushita
: pp. 258-262
Transformation and Mechanical Properties of TiNi Thin Films Sputter Deposited at Various Argon Pressures for Micromachine Actuators
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Seiji Shimizu and Katsutoshi Kuribayashi
: pp. 263-268
Air Impact Drive for Positioning by Pulse and Continuous Air Pressure
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Mohammad Hossein Kouklan, Yousef Hojjat and Toshiro Higuchi
: pp. 269-273
Mechanism Design of Anthropomorphic Robot Hand: Gifu Hand I
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Haruhisa Kawasaki and Tsuneo Komatsu
: pp. 274-282
Stability Analysis of Planar Grasp with 2D-Virtual Spring Model
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Takayoshi Yamada, Sushanta Kumar Saha, Nobuharu Mimura and Yasuyuki Funahashi
: pp. 283-288
Simulation of Pipeline Dynamics Using an Optimized Finite Element Model
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Kazushi Sanada
: pp. 289-297
Sub-optimal Operating Time for Saving Energy of an Articulated Manipulator
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Teruyuki Izumi and Hai Zhou
: pp. 298-303
Dynamic Walking Control of the One-Legged Robot With Controlling Rotor (Directional Walking with Yaw Angle Control)
Abstract
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Kan Taguchi, Yasuyuki Momoi and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 304-309
Biped Walking Using Multiple-Link Virtual Inverted Pendulum Models
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Takayuki Furuta, Hideaki Yamato and Ken Tomiyama
: pp. 310-314
Self-Powered Active Vibration Control Using Regenerated Vibration Energy
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Kimihiko Nakano, Yoshihiro Suda, and Shigeyuki Nakadai
: pp. 315-320
Assembly Sequence Planning Using Inductive Learning
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Takeshi Murayama, Bungo Takemura and Fuminori Oba
: pp. 321-325
Fruit Harvesting Robotics
Abstract
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Naoshi Kondo and Mitsuji Monta
: pp. 326-330
Feasibility Study of Fault Diagnostics Using Multiple Neural Networks
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Yukiyasu Shimada and Kazuhiko Suzuki
: pp. 331-335
Noncontact Hold and Transfer Control by a Two-link Robot Arm with a Magnetic Robot Hand
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Hiroyuki Kojima, Osamu Itagaki and Toshio Kobayashi
: pp. 336-341
A Study of the Multipurpose Intelligent Guided Vehicle for Education
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Kouki Yamaji and Shinichiro Kamiya
: pp. 342-348
Motor Driving Control of an X-Y-Z Table Using a Photoelectric Device and Optical Pattern Recognition
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Koki Yamaji and Yoshihisa Muraoka

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Agro-Robotics

Special Issue on Agro-Robotics

: pp. 171-172
Agro-Robotics
Yasushi Hashimoto

The first intelligent agro-robot for tomato harvesting appeared at Tampa, Florida, in 1983. The presentation by Prof. N. Kawamura at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Kyoto University, strongly impressed participants in the international symposium for agricultural machinery. Since then, several companies have become interested in developing intelligent agro-robots. As the one of the first, Toshiba demonstrated an intelligent robot for mass propagation in the biotechnological process at Exposition for Flowers in Osaka in 1990. In 1990, the IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS’ 90) was held at the Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., in Tsuchiura, Japan, through cosponsorship of the Robotics Society of Japan and SICE, where two agricultural robotics sessions were first organized by Prof. P. Dario, one of the editors of this journal. In 1991, the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) first conducted international workshop on Mathematical and Control Applications in Agriculture and Horticulture at Matsuyama, Japan, featuring a session for agro-robotics presenting several academic cases developed in companies including Toshiba, mentioned above. Several types of intelligent robot were introduced to agricultural applications as agro-robots. Agricultural machinery has a long history, with tractors and combines the main mechanized targets and far from intelligent robot. Highly advanced industrial technology including robots for factory automation widens field applications to new areas in agriculture and agricultural production must consider new labor based on the declining number of farmers in agriculture. New needs of agriculture are being covered by highly advanced engineering-technology developed in manufacturing plants, and it is to be noted that fruitful cooperation has begun in the new field liking industrial and agriculture technology, well demonstrated by the papers in this special issue. The first and second papers, by Tokunaga et al. and by Ogasawara et al., are from the high technology engineering project, Faculty of Engineering, at Kumamoto University, supported from 1994 to 1996 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan. A watermelon harvesting robot developed as a new target has never been applied in industry. This research is not very important for developing new engineering in robotics and extremely useful in agricultural application. The third and fourth papers, by Noguchi et al. and Yamashita et al., are from engineering in agricultural machinery in interesting research on transportation robots. Prof. Noguchi and his group at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Hokkaido University, presents a dramatic example of mobile agro-robotics in the field, while Prof. Yamashita, of the Department of Biomechanical Systems, Ehime University, and Prof. Sato developed a vehicle for greenhouse automation anticipating the new agriculture of the 21st century. The fifth paper, by Arima et al., is from agricultural machinery engineering in typical agricultural machinery firms in Japan. The cucumber harvesting robot was developed by ISEKI & Co., Ltd. The sixth paper, by Kobayashi et al., is from the Institute of Agricultural Machinery, BRAIN, and describes a grafting robot. The seventh paper, by Kondo et al., is agricultural machinery engineering involving to the intriguing technology of cutting robots. A chrysanthemum cutting robot is developed for biotechnological applications. Kondo is regarded as an up-and-coming young leader in IFAC activities. The eighth paper, by Dr. Hayashi, is involves agricultural machinery engineering in typical agricultural machinery firms in Japan. It introduces an automatic milking system developed by Kubota Co., Ltd. in cooperation with the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, The Netherlands (IMAG-DLO). The ninth paper, by Dr. Yamada, involves agricultural machinery engineering in typical agricultural machinery firms in Japan, and introduces a transplanting robot developed by Yanmar Agricultural Equipment Co. Ltd. The final paper in this fascinating series is by Prof. H. Murase, who chairs the Technical Committee on Intelligent Control in Agricultural Automation, IFAC, has encouraged engineering for system control in agricultural applications since 1988, when the first working group for agricultural engineering was set up and chaired by myself. Agro-robotics has been discussed through several international workshop and symposium sponsored by IFAC since then. Note that IFAC is one of the most active international societies in control engineering taking on all problems in any phase involving robotics, as is done by IEEE. Prof. Murase is one of the most active chairmen in the 46 Technical Committees (TCs) and presents the global scope of agro-robotics in IFAC in conclusion, which is expected to be very useful. I thank Prof. A. Shimizu of Ehime University for his important advice and the authors contributing to this issue, especially Profs. T. Inoue and S. Kawaji of the Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, for their kind cooperation in different engineering fields. Last, I thank Editor in Chief, Prof. T. Fukuda, the Deputy Chief Editors, Prof. M. Kaneko, and the Editors for providing this chance to demonstrate advances in agro-robotics in this special issue, which will encourage the development of robotics in ever widening applications.

: pp. 173-182
Algorithm and Design of an Intelligent Digital Integrated Circuit for a Watermelon Harvesting Robot
Abstract
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Yusuke Tokunaga, Toshihide Hakukawa, and Takahiro Inoue
: pp. 183-192
Intelligent Algorithm for Biped Robot for Harvesting Watermelons
Abstract
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Ken'ichi Ogasawara, Masaki Arao and Shigeyasu Kawaji
: pp. 193-199
Vision Intelligence for Mobile Agro-Robotic System
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Noboru Noguchi, John F. Reid, Qin Zhang, Lei Tian and Al C. Hansen
: pp. 200-207
Automated Vehicles for Greenhouse Automation
Abstract
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Jun Yamashita and Kazunobu Sato
: pp. 208-212
Cucumber Harvesting Robot and Plant Training System
Abstract
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Seiichi Arima and Naoshi Kondo
: pp. 213-219
Grafting Robot
Abstract
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Ken Kobayashi, Masato Suzuki and Sadao Sasaya
: pp. 220-224
Chrysanthemum Cutting Sticking Robot System
Abstract
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Naoshi Kondo and Mitsuji Monta
: pp. 225-226
Automatic Milking System
Abstract
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Masahiko Hayashi
: pp. 227-230
Development of Transplanting Robot
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Hisaya Yamada
: pp. 231-233
IFAC Commitment on Research and Development in Biorobotics
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Haruhiko Murase

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Vision

Special Issue on Vision

: p. 87
Vision
Shunichiro Oe

The widely used term Computer Vision applies to when computers are substituted for human visual information processing. As Real-world objects, except for characters, symbols, figures and photographs created by people, are 3-dimensional (3-D), their two-dimensional (2-D) images obtained by camera are produced by compressing 3-D information to 2-D. Many methods of 2-D image processing and pattern recognition have been developed and widely applied to industrial and medical processing, etc. Research work enabling computers to recognize 3-D objects by 3-D information extracted from 2-D images has been carried out in artificial intelligent robotics. Many techniques have been developed and some applied practically in scene analysis or 3-D measurement. These practical applications are based on image sensing, image processing, pattern recognition, image measurement, extraction of 3-D information, and image understanding. New techniques are constantly appearing. The title of this special issue is Vision, and it features 8 papers from basic computer vision theory to industrial applications. These papers include the following: Kohji Kamejima proposes a method to detect self-similarity in random image fields – the basis of human visual processing. Akio Nagasaka et al. developed a way to identify a real scene in real time using run-length encoding of video feature sequences. This technique will become a basis for active video recording and new robotic machine vision. Toshifumi Honda presents a method for visual inspection of solder joint by 3-D image analysis – a very important issue in the inspection of printed circuit boards. Saburo Okada et al. contribute a new technique on simultaneous measurement of shape and normal vector for specular objects. These methods are all useful for obtaining 3-D information. Masato Nakajima presents a human face identification method for security monitoring using 3-D gray-level information. Kenji Terada et al. propose a method of automatic counting passing people using image sensing. These two technologies are very useful in access control. Yoji. Ogawa presents a new image processing method for automatic welding in turbid water under a non-preparatory environment. Liu Wei et al. develop a method for detection and management of cutting-tool wear using visual sensors. We are certain that all of these papers will contribute greatly to the development of vision systems in robotics and mechatronics.

: pp. 88-97
Stochastic-Computational Approach to Self-Similarity Detection in Random Image Fields
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Kohji Kamejima
: pp. 98-103
Real-time Scene Identification Using Run-length Encoding of Video Feature Sequences
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Akio Nagasaka and Takafumi Miyatake
: pp. 104-111
Automated Visual Inspection for Solder Joints of PCB Based on 3-D Image Analysis
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Toshifumi Honda, Hisae Yamamura, Mineo Nomoto, Takanori Ninomiya, Tomoharu Horii and Yoshio Miyawaki
: pp. 112-116
Development of Simultaneous Measurement of 3-D Shapes and Normal Vectors for Specular Objects
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Saburo Okada, Masaaki Imade and Hidekazu Miyauchi
: pp. 117-122
Face Identification by FG Sensor
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Masato Nakajima
: pp. 123-128
Counting Passers-by Using a Color Camera
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Kenji Terada, Takumi Ando and Jun'ichiro Yamaguchi
: pp. 129-134
Image Processing for Automatic Welding in Turbid Water
Abstract
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Yoji Ogawa
: pp. 135-139
Cutting Tool Wear Detection and Tool Management Using Visual Sensors
Abstract
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Liu Wei, Akira Ishii and Seiji Hata
: pp. 140-147
Servocontrol of a Mobile Robot by Using Genetic Algorithms
Abstract
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Jun Tang, Keigo Watanabe and Katsutoshi Kuribayashi
: pp. 148-152
Study of Motion Monitoring Using an Accelerometer – Unrestrained Measurement –
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Hisaya Tanaka, Akihiro Nakata and Hideto Ide
: pp. 153-164
Evolutionary Collision Free Optimal Trajectory Planning for Mobile Robots
Abstract
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M.M.A. Hashem, Keigo Watanabe and Kiyotaka Izumi
: pp. 165-170
Mobile Robot Architecture in Intelligent Space
Abstract
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Joo-Ho Lee, Noriaki Ando and Hideki Hashimoto

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Mobile Robot

Special Issue on Mobile Robot

: p. 1
Mobile Robot
Kiyoshi Komoriya

Mobility, or locomotion, is as important a function for robots as manipulation. A robot can enlarge its work space by locomotion. It can also recognize its environment well with its sensors by moving around and by observing its surroundings from various directions. Much researches has been done on mobile robots and the research appears to be mature. Research activity on robot mobility is still very active; for example, 22% of the sessions at ICRA’98 – the International Conference on Robotics and Automation – and 24% of the sessions at IROS’98 – the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems – dealt with issues directly related to mobile robots. One of the main reasons may be that intelligent mobile robots are thought to be the closest position to autonomous robot applications. This special issue focuses on a variety of mobile robot research from mobile mechanisms, localization, and navigation to remote control through networks. The first paper, entitled “Control of an Omnidirectional Vehicle with Multiple Modular Steerable Drive Wheels,” by M. Hashimoto et al., deals with locomotion mechanisms. They propose an omnidirectional mobile mechanism consisting of modular steerable drive wheels. The omnidirectional function of mobile mechanisms will be an important part of the human-friendly robot in the near future to realize flexible movements in indoor environments. The next three papers focus on audiovisual sensing to localize and navigate a robot. The second paper, entitled “High-Speed Measurement of Normal Wall Direction by Ultrasonic Sensor,” by A. Ohya et al., proposes a method to measure the normal direction of walls by ultrasonic array sensor. The third paper, entitled “Self-Position Detection System Using a Visual-Sensor for Mobile Robots,” is written by T. Tanaka et al. In their method, the position of the robot is decided by measuring marks such as name plates and fire alarm lamps by visual sensor. In the fourth paper, entitled “Development of Ultra-Wide-Angle Laser Range Sensor and Navigation of a Mobile Robot in a Corridor Environment,” written by Y Ando et al., a very wide view-angle sensor is realized using 5 laser fan beam projectors and 3 CCD cameras. The next three papers discussing navigation problems. The fifth paper, entitled “Autonomous Navigation of an Intelligent Vehicle Using 1-Dimensional Optical Flow,” by M. Yamada and K. Nakazawa, discusses navigation based on visual feedback. In this work, navigation is realized by general and qualitative knowledge of the environment. The sixth paper, entitled “Development of Sensor-Based Navigation for Mobile Robots Using Target Direction Sensor,” by M. Yamamoto et al., proposes a new sensor-based navigation algorithm in an unknown obstacle environment. The seventh paper, entitled “Navigation Based on Vision and DGPS Information for Mobile Robots,” S. Kotani et al., describes a navigation system for an autonomous mobile robot in an outdoor environment. The unique point of their paper is the utilization of landmarks and a differential global positioning system to determine robot position and orientation. The last paper deals with the relationship between the mobile robot and computer networks. The paper, entitled “Direct Mobile Robot Teleoperation via Internet,” by K. Kawabata et al., proposes direct teleoperation of a mobile robot via the Internet. Such network-based robotics will be an important field in robotics application. We sincerely thank all of the contributors to this special issue for their cooperation from the planning stage to the review process. Many thanks also go to the reviewers for their excellent work. We will be most happy if this issue aids readers in understanding recent trends in mobile robot research and furthers interest in this research field.

: pp. 2-12
Control of an Omnidirectional Vehicle with Multiple Modular Steerable Drive Wheels
Abstract
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Masafumi Hashimoto, Fuminori Oba and Toru Eguchi
: pp. 13-16
High-Speed Measurement of Normal Wall Direction by Ultrasonic Sensor
Abstract
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Akihisa Ohya, Yoshiaki Nagashima and Shin’ichi Yuta
: pp. 17-24
Self-Position Detection System Using a Visual-Sensor for Mobile Robots
Abstract
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Takayuki Tanaka, Yasunori Yamazaki, Hiroki Watanabe, Takeshi Katae and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 25-32
Development of Ultra-Wide-Angle Laser Range Sensor and Navigation of a Mobile Robot in a Corridor Environment
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Yoshinobu Ando, Takashi Tsubouchi and Shin’ichi Yuta
: pp. 33-38
Autonomous Navigation of an Intelligent Vehicle Using 1-Dimensional Optical Flow
Abstract
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Masaki Yamada and Kazuo Nakazawa
: pp. 39-44
Development of Sensor-Based Navigation for Mobile Robots Using Target Direction Sensor
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Motoji Yamamoto, Nobuhiro Ushimi, and Akira Mohri
: pp. 45-53
Navigation Based on Vision and DGPS Information for Mobile Robots
Abstract
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Shinji Kotani, Ken’ichi Kaneko, Tatsuya Shinoda and Hideo Mori
: pp. 54-59
Direct Mobile Robot Teleoperation via Internet
Abstract
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Kuniaki Kawabata, Takeshi Sekine, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Hajime Asama and Isao Endo
: pp. 60-66
Impedance Control Using Anisotropic Fuzzy Environment Models
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Fusaomi Nagata, Keigo Watanabe, Kazuya Sato and Kiyotaka Izumi
: pp. 67-71
Analyzing a Robotized Workcell to Enhance Robot’s Operation
Abstract
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Marco Ceccarelli
: pp. 72-77
Adaptive Formation Plays in Simulated Soccer Game Based on Pheromon as Communication Media and Reward Resources
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Masao Kubo, Sadayoshi Mikami, Yukinori Kakazu and Mitsuo Wada
: pp. 78-85
Development of Mobile Robot Elevator Utility System
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Kazuhiro Mima, Masahiro Endou, Aiguo Ming, Chisato Kanamori and Makoto Kajitani

Vol.10 (1998)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Analysis and Simulation Systems for Robotics and Mechatronics

Special Issue on Analysis and Simulation Systems for Robotics and Mechatronics

: p. 463
Analysis and Simulation Systems for Robotics and Mechatronics
Haruhisa Kawasaki

Superior analysis and simulation systems play an important part in robotics and mechatronics R&D. Developing apparatuses involves repeating planning, trial manufacture, experiments, analysis, and improvement. Simulation and analysis are now executed before trial manufacture, decreasing the number of trial manufacture, shortening development, and cutting development cost. Virtual reality is often applied to simulation, and commercialization without trial manufactures will eventually be possible. Most commercialized simulation software are being improved for general use based on software made by researchers because existing analysis and simulation do not function sufficiently and researchers are often required to develop their own analysis and simulation. Simulation developed for research thus may be used by many technical experts and researchers in the future. This special issue introduces seven reports on basic mechanism analysis developed to survey simulation research. Michisuke Jo et al. developed a mechanism kinetic analysis Motor Drive using FORTRAN and MATLAB. This article, entitled Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms Using Motor Algebra and Graph Theory, considers kinematic analysis method using the latest drive version. Haruhisa Kawasaki et al. are developing robot analysis ROSAM II using C and Maple V. This article, entitled Symbolic Analysis of Robot Base Parameter Set Using Grobner-Basis, considers base parameter analysis of general robots with closed links. Hajime Morikawa et al. developed a robot simulator kinematically simulated by connecting graphic icons. This article, entitled Network-Based Robot Simulator Using Hierarchical Graphic Icons, considers construction of a robot simulator, kinetic analysis of multiple robot arms, dynamic analysis of forest trimmers, and an example applying remote control to space robots. Shigeki Toyama et al. developed general-use mechanism analysis simulator AI MOTION. This article, entitled Dynamic Autonomous Car Mobile Analysis Simulating Mechanical Systems Analysis, considers an autonomous car travel simulator dynamically modeling tires combined into AI MOTION. The simulator analyzes the connection of tire rigidity, car width, caster radius, and motion performance. Takayoshi Muto et al. developed dynamic behavior simulator BDSP for hydraulic systems. This article, entitled Software Package BDSP Developed to Simulate Hydraulic Systems, considers construction of BDSP that analyzes hydraulic systems using easy block diagrams. The simulator analyzes fluid line, nonlinear elements, and discrete time control. Shinichi Nakajima et al. developed a two-dimensional jaw movement simulator for clarifying the function of muscles in lower jaw motion. This article, entitled Development of 2-D Jaw Movement Simulator(JSN/SI), considers hardware and a control system for chewing food at a required force. Yoshiyuki Sankai et al., in Robot Objective Parallel Calculation and Real-time Control Using a Digital Signal Processor, consider parallel distributed and realtime control by DSP for constructing control in an actual robot. This issue discussed analysis and simulation developed for robotics and mechatronics R&D. Most systems are applicable to general-purpose situations. We hope this issue helps deepen the understanding of the status and applications of simulation research in mechatronics and promotes further development in the field.

: pp. 464-474
Kinematic Analysis of Mechanisms Using Motor Algebra and Graph Theory
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Michisuke Jo and Tomoyoshi Sasaki
: pp. 475-481
Symbolic Analysis of Robot Base Parameter Set Using Grobner-Basis
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Harushisa Kawasaki and Toshimi Shimizu
: pp. 482-487
Network-Based Robot Simulator Using Hierarchical Graphic Icons
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Hajime Morikawa and Nobuaki Takanashi
: pp. 488-493
Dynamic Autonomous Car Mobile Analysis Simulating Mechanical Systems Analysis – First Dynamic Characteristics of Running Mouse –
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Shigeki Toyama and Yasuo Murakuki
: pp. 494-498
Software Package BDSP Developed to Simulate Hydraulic Systems
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Takayoshi Muto, Junji Fukumori, Akio Seko and Hironao Yamada
: pp. 499-504
Development of 2-D Jaw Movement Simulator (JSN/S1)
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Shin-ichi Nakajima, Toyohiko Hayashi and Hiroshi Kobayashi
: pp. 505-514
Robot Objective Parallel Calculation and Real-time Control Using a Digital Signal Processor
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Yoshiyuki Sankai, Tetsuya Nii and Shinichi Kariya
: pp. 515-520
Sketching for Porcelain Using Image Processing
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Kazuhiko Shiranita, Kenichiro Hayashi and Akifumi Otsubo
: pp. 521-527
Evaluation of Picture-taking System for Railway Vision
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Hiroshi Sasama
: pp. 528-532
Optopneumatic Interface for Controlling Pneumatic Power Circuits
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Guido Belforte and Gabriella Eula
: pp. 533-537
Device Developed to Measure Drive Roller
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Hisaya Tanaka, Nobuyuki Sudo and Hideto Ide
: pp. 538-541
Unattended Production Based on Cooperation between Offline and Online Robots
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Hong-Zhi Yang, Kazuo Yamafuji, Kouichiro Arita and Naoki Ohara

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Complex Systems in Robotics (2)

Special Issue on Complex Systems in Robotics (2)

: pp. 377-386
Mobile Operations Performed by Mobile Manipulators on Irregular Terrain – Torque Compensation Using Neural Networks for Disturbance Torques Produced by Irregular Terrain –
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Mamoru Minami, Masatoshi Hatano and Toshiyuki Asakura
: pp. 387-393
Acquiring Behavioral Rules for Action-Based Robot Environments
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Koji Yamada, Satoshi Endo and Hayao Miyagi
: pp. 394-399
Applying Vibrational Potential Method to Shop Scheduling Problems
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Ibrahim Kebbe, Hiroshi Yokoi and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 400-406
Multilegged Vehicle Using Multireactive Agent
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Kensuke Takita, Hiroshi Yokoi and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 407-412
Navigation for a Behavior-Based Autonomous Mobile Robot
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Kazumi Oikawa and Takeshi Tsuchiya
: pp. 413-417
Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Behavior Generation by Reinforcement Learning
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Keitaro Naruse and Yukinori Kakazu and Ming C. Leu
: pp. 418-423
A Framework for Evolution of Computer Systems on the Fly
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Norberto Eiji Nawa and Takeshi Furuhashi
: pp. 424-430
Chaotic Evolutionary Parallel Computation on Intelligent Agents
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Naoki Kohata, Toru Yamaguchi, Takanobu Baba and Hideki Hashimoto
: pp. 431-438
GA-Based Q-CMAC Applied to Airship Evasion Problem
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Yuka Akisato, Keiji Suzuki, and Azuma Ohuchi
: pp. 439-444
Self-Tuning Neuro-PID for Stabilization of Double Inverted Pendulum
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Yoshiyuki Kishida, Sigeru Omatu and Michifumi Yoshioka
: pp. 445-449
Consideration of Local Wind Energy
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Kouki Yamaji, Takaaki Hashimoto, Shoushi Inoue, and Yutaka Konishi
: pp. 450-454
Deformation of Windmill Support and Operation
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Kouki Yamaji, Shoushi Inoue, Terumi Yamamoto, Yutaka Konishi and Takaaki Hashimoto
: pp. 455-461
Evaluation of Slit Light System for Objects with Metallic Reflection and Application to Iron Wheels
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Hiroshi Sasama

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Complex Systems in Robotics (1)

Special Issue on Complex Systems in Robotics (1)

: p. 283
Complex Systems in Robotics
Sadayoshi Mikami, and Mitsuo Wada

The Really “intelligent” robots predicted by science fiction have yet to appear, and robotics research seems to have reached a wall in dealing with the real-world environment. The robot is a unique device that it interfaces directly with the environments, including humans, machines, and nature. The world is very complex and changes dynamically. Robotic research must thus consider how to deal with such dynamcal complex world by means of machines. Our special issues on the complex systems in robotics introduce current representative approaches and attempts to answer these questions. The approach from a complex system point of view deals with new directions in robotics, for the above reasons and provides ways to view things dynamically, in a way that goes beyond traditional static control laws and rules. As these issues show approaches are divergent and ongoing. Modeling and forecasting the world is not haphazard. If requires direction. Even robots that navigate traffic, for example, must have a model to forecast unknown dynamics. Human interfacing requires far more difficult approaches than we take now. Recent developments in theory of chaos and non-linear predictions are expected to provide ways to enable these approaches. Robot interaction with the environment is one of the fundamental characteristics robots, and any interaction incorporates underlying dynamics; even robot-to-robot interaction exhibits deterministic dynamics. We will see how to deal with such complex phenomena through the articles predicting chaotic time series in these issues. Very rapid adaptation to the world is another way of coping using a brute-force approach. Reinforcement learning is a promising tool for working in a complex unknown environment. Learning robots affect both their environment and other robots. This is the situation in which we must think of the emergence of complexity. This may provide a rich source of possible tasks, and we must consider its dynamic nature of it. Many interesting phenomena are shown in the papers we present, applying reinforcement learning in multi-robots, for example. Finding good solutions wherever possible is a rather static solution but must incorporate the mechanism of how nature generates complexities and rich variations. Evolutionary methods, which many papers deal with in this issue, involves trends in complex systems sciences. Robotics applications must consider practical achievements such as rapidity, robustness, and appropriateness for specific applications. These issues provide a variety of robots and automation problems. Of course there are lots of other ways for this quite new approach and it should be worth cultivating because it is just the way we expect that robots should go. These special issues are organized from many papers submitted by researchers, all of whom we thank for their contributions. We hope these issues will help readers to familiarize themselves with the many trends in researches beyond engineering approaches and treat their practical implementation. This area is now very active, and we hope to see many papers related to this theme submitted to this journal in future.

: pp. 284-288
Generation Method of Evaluation for a Robot Considering Relations with Other Robots
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Kazuya Ohkawa, Takanori Shibata and Kazuo Tanie
: pp. 289-294
TD Learning with Neural Networks
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Norio Baba
: pp. 295-300
Position Estimation of Vehicle Using GPS Data and Internal Sensor Data
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Toshihiro Aono
: pp. 301-304
Chaotic Short-Term Prediction to Water Flow into Hydroelectric Power Stations
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Masaya Koyama and Tadashi lokibe
: pp. 305-310
Chaos Universal Learning Network Clustering Control
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Kotaro Hirasawa, Junichiro Misawa, Jinglu Hu, Junichi Murata, Masanao Ohbayashi and Yurio Eki
: pp. 311-314
Robotic Mind -Subjectivity & Objectivity-
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Tetsuro Yabuta
: pp. 315-325
Set Representation Using Schemata and its Constructing Method from Population in GA
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Naohiko Hanajima, Mitsuhisa Yamashita and Hiromitsu Hikita
: pp. 326-332
Autonomous Mobile Robot Behavior Control Using Immune Network
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Yuji Watanabe, Akio Ishiguro and Yoshiki Uchikawa
: pp. 333-337
Kinematic Description of Self-Organized Leg Motion Transition in Human Locomotion Learning
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Takashi Yokoi, Akihiko Takahashi and Tomohiro Kizuka
: pp. 338-349
Sensory Network for Mobile Robotic Systems with Structured Intelligence
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Naoyuki Kubota and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 350-357
Logistic Chaos Protects Evolution against Environment Noise
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Masao Kubo, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Sadayoshi Mikami and Mitsuo Wada
: pp. 358-363
Velocity Measurement for Planar Motions of Machines Using the LM Measuring Device
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Hua Qiu
: pp. 364-369
Collision-Free Trajectory Planning for a Two-Dimensional Mobile Robot by Optimizing Continuous Curves
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Hiroaki Ozaki and Chang-jun Lin
: pp. 370-376
Design Analysis of a Pneumatic Force Control Servosystem with Pressure Proportional Valve
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Massimo Sorli and Alessandro Vigliani

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Handling of Flexible Object

Special Issue on Handling of Flexible Object

: pp. 167-169
Handling of Flexible Object
Masaru Nakazawa

It is difficult to introduce highly versatile automation using robots to handling deformable objects such as thread, cloth, wire, long beams, and thin plates in plant production processes, compared to the handling of rigid objects. Office equipment handles deformable objects such as paper and plastic. Problems unique to these objects is caused by speeding up such equipment and demand for upgrading its accuracy. In agriculture and medical care, automatic, intelligent handling of deformable objects such as fruit and animals has long been desired and practical systems sought. Deformable objects whose handling should be versatiley and accurately automated are classified into two groups based on handling: (A) Flexible, mostly thin, fine objects capable of elastic deformation (B) Soft objects easily crushed, such as soft fruits or animals The problem in handling the first group is controlling object deformation of an infinite degree of freedom with a finite number of manipulated variables. In contrast, a significant problem in handling the second group is often how to handle them without exerting excessive stress and how to handle them safely and reliably. The handling of these two groups differ greatly in mechanics and control theory, and this special issue focuses on the first group — flexible objects — mechanical collection and transport studies, control, and software. Recent studies on their handling are classified into four groups for convenience based on handled objects and types of handling task: (a) Control of deformation, internal force, and vibration or path planning of flexible objects (mainly thin plates and beams) using single or multiple manipulators. (b) Task understanding in insertion of elastic into rigid parts and vice versa, and the study of human skills to help robots accomplish these task. (c) Approaches on improved accuracy, intelligent control, and vibration damping in handling and transfer of sheets and strings with low flexural rigidity, represented by paper or wire. (d) Strategies for grasping and unfolding sheets such as cloth whose flexural rigidity is almost nil. For (a), studies are active on deformation control by two robot hands attempting to grasp cloth. 1-3) In the automobile industry, so-called flexible fixtureless assembly systems are advancing in which two robots process or assemble parts in mid-air without a fixed table to reduce lead time and cost. These systems are mostly developed assuming handled parts are rigid. Nguyen et al. work assuming parts such as sheet metal whose deformation must be taken into consideration.1) Nakagaki et al. propose form estimation that considers even plastic deformation in wire handling by robots, in connection with the development of robots for electric wire installation.4) Many studies cover flexible wire as elastic beams,3-9) but comparatively few focus on bending deformation of thin plates. This special edition includes a paper by Kosuge et al. on thin-plate deformation control. Vibration control of grasped objects becomes important as speed increases. Matsuno kindly contributed his paper on optimum path planning in elastic plate handling. In controlling the deformation of elastic bodies, the mechanics of objects handled is often unknown. This special issue features a paper by Kojima et al. on an approach to this problem by adaptive feed-forward control. For (b), we consider three cases: (1) A cylindrical rigid body inserted into a hole on an elastic plate. (2) An elastic bar inserted into a hole on a rigid body. (3) A tubular elastic body put on a cylindrical rigid body. This special issue carries papers on these problems by Brata et al., Matsuno et al., and Hirai. For (2), a paper by Nakagaki et al.10) covers electric wire installation. For (3), the paper by Shima et al.11) covers insertion of a rigid axis into an elastic hose. Robot skill acquisition is an important issue in robotics in general, and the above papers should prove highly interesting and information because they treat studies by comparing robot and human skills in accomplishing work and acquiring concrete skills knowledge. For (c), attempts are made to theoretically analyze sheet handling mechanisms and control developed based on trial and error, and to structure design theory based on such analysis. These attempts are related to the increased accuracy and speed and enhanced intelligence of sheet-handling office automation equipment such as printers, facsimile machines, copiers, and automated teller machines. Yoshida et al. conducted a series of studies on the effects of guides forming paper feed paths and of inertia force of paper by approximating sheets with a chain of discrete masses and springs.12-14) This special edition also features a study on sheet sticking and jamming. Okuna et al. handles a system of similar nature, mechanical studying the form of paper guides.15) Introducing mechanisms to control the positioning of sheets is effective in raising sheet transfer accuracy. Feedback control that regulates feed roller skew angle as a manipulated variable is proposed.16) Increased reliability in separating single sheets from stacked effectively reduces the malfunction rate in sheet-handling equipment. Ways of optimizing the form of sheet-separation rollers17) and estimating frictional force between separation gates and sheets 18) are also proposed. This special issue contains a proposal by Nakazawa et al. of a mechanism that uses reactive sheet buckling force, made in connection with development of a newspaper page turner for the disabled as technology for separating single sheets. Dry frictional force is most widely used for transporting sheets, but is not stable and may even act as an obstacle to improving accuracy. Niino et al. propose a sheet transfer mechanism that uses electrostatic force.19) For improving the accuracy of flexible wire transmission, this special issue carries a study on transporting flexible thin wire through tension control at multiple points, from a study by Morimitsu et al. on optical fiber installation. The thickness of wire used in equipment is becoming increasingly slim and flexible, along with the equipment it is used in. Tension control in the production process is an important factor in the manufacture of such thin wire. Production efficiency constantly calls for increased transfer speed. It has thus become important to estimate air resistance and inertia and to measure and control the tension of running wire. Studies20,21) by Batra, Fraser, et al. which deal the motion of string in the spinning process provide good examples for learning analytical techniques for air drag and inertia. In string vibration where inertia dominates, attempts are made to control vibration by boundary shaking22,23) and feed-forward/back control.24) For (d), highly versatile robots for handling cloth are being developed, and the software technology for automatic cloth selection and unfolding by robot hands is a popular topic.25-27) Ono et al. comment on the nature of problems in developing intelligent systems for handling cloth and similar objects whose bending rigidity is low and which readily fold and overlap—a paper that will prove a good reference in basic approaches in this field. Mechanical analyses are indispensable to studies on (a) through (c). In contrast, information technology such as characteristic variable measurement, image processing, and discrimination, rather than mechanical analyses, play an important roles in studies on (d). This special issue features a study by Hamashima, Uraya et al. on cloth unfolding as an example of such studies. Studies up to now largely assumed that properties of grasped objects did not change environmental influences such as temperature and humidity. Such influence is often, however, a major factor in handling fiber thread and cloth. This special issue has a paper contributed by Taylor, who studies handling method to prevent influence by such environmental factors. The objective of this special issue will have been achieved if it aids those studying the handling of flexible objects by providing approaches and methodologies of researchers whose target objects differ and if it aids those planning to take up study in this field by providing a general view of this field. References: 1) Nguyen, W. and Mills, J., “Multi-Robot Control For Plexible Fixtureless Assembly of Flexible Sheet Metal Auto Body Parts,” Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2340-2345, (1996). 2) Sun, D. and Shi, X. and Liu, Y., “Modeling and Cooperation of Two-Arm Robotic System Manipulating a Deformable Object,” Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2346-2351, (1996). 3) Kosuge, K., Sakaki, M., Kanitani, K., Yoshida, H. and Fukuda, T., “Manipulation of a Flexible Object by Dual Manipulators,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 318-323, (1995). 4) Nakagaki, H., Kitagaki, K., Ogasawara, T. and Tukune H., “Handling of a Flexible Wire -Detecting a Deformed Shape of the Wire by Vision and a Force Sensor,” Annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ROBOMEC’96), 207-210, (1996). 5) Wakamatsu, H., Hirai, S. and Iwata, K., “Static Analysis of Deformable Object Grasping Based on Bounded Force Closure,” Trans. of JSML, 84-618 (C), 508-515, (1998). 6) Katoh, R. and Fujmoto, T., “Study on Deformation of Elastic Object By Manipulator -Path Planning of End -Effector-,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, 13-1, 157-160, (1995). 7) Yukawa, T., Uohiyama, M. and Inooka, M., “Stability of Control System in Handling a Flexible Object by Rigid Arm Robots,” JSME Annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ROBOMEC’95), 169-172, (1995). 8) Yukawa, T., Uohiyama, M. and Cbinata, G., “Handling of a Vibrating Flexible Structure by a Robot,” Trans. JSME, 61-583, 938-943, (1995). 9) Sun, D. and Liu, Y., “Modeling and Impedance Control of a Two-Manipulator System Handling a Flexible Beam,” Trans. of the ASME, 119, 736-742, (1997). 10) Nakagaki, H., Kitagaki, K. and Tukune, H., “Contact Motion in Inserting a Flexible Wire into a Hole,” Annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ROBOMEC’95), 175-178, (1995). 11) Shimaji, S., Brata, A. and Hattori, H., “Robot Skill in Assembling a Cylinder into an Elastic Hose,” Annual Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ROBOMEC’95), 752-755, (1995). 12) Yoshida, K. and Kawauchi, M., “The Analysis of Deformation and Behavior of Flexible Materials (1st Reprt, Study of Spring-Mass Beam Model of the Sheet,” Trans. of JSME, 58-552, 1474-1480, (1992). 13) Yoshida, K., “Analysis of Deformation and Behavior of Flexible Materials (2nd Report, Static Analysis for Deformation of the Sheet in the Space Formed by Guide Plates),” Trans. JSME, 60-570, 501-507, (1994). 14) Yoshida, K., “Dynamic Analysis of Sheet Defofmation Using Spring-Mass-Beam Model,” Trans. JSME, 63-615, 3926-3932 (1997). 15) Okuna, K., Nishigaito, T. and Shina, Y., “Analysis of Paper Deformation Considering Guide Friction (Improvement of Paper Path for Paper-Feeding Mechanism),” Trans. JSME, 60-575, 2279-2284, (1994). 16) Fujimura, H. and Ono, K., “Analysis of Paper Motion Driven by Skew-Roll Paper Feeding System,” Trans. JSME, 62-596, 1354-1360, (1996). 17) Shima, Y., Hattori, S., Kobayashi, Y. and Ukai, M., “Optimum of Gate-Roller Shape in Paper Isolating Methods,” Conference of Information, Intelligence and Precision Equipment (IIP’96), 61-62, (1996). 18) Suzuki, Y, Hattori, S., Shima, Y. and Ukai, M., “Contact Analysis of Paper in Gate-Roller Handling Method”, Conference on Information, Intelligence and Precision Equipment (IIP’95), 19-20, (1995). 19) Niino, T., Egawa, S. and Higuchi, T., “An Electrostatic Paper Feeder,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, 60-12,1761-1765, (1994). 20) Batra, S., Ghosh, T. and Zeidman, M., “An Integrated Approach to Dynamic Analysis of the Ring Spinning Process , PartII: With Air Drag,” Textile Research Journal, 59, 416-424, (1989). 21) Fraser, W., Ghosh, T. and Batra, S., “On Unwinding Yarn from a Cylindrical Package,” Proceedings of Royal Society of London, A, 436, 479-438, (1992). 22) Jacob, S., “Control of Vibrating String Using Impedance Matching,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference (San Francisco),468-472, (1993). 23) Lee, S. and Mote, C., “Vibration Control of an Axially Moving String by Boundary Control,” Trans. of the ASME, J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 118, 66-74, (1996). 24) Ying, S. and Tan, C., “Active Vibration Control of the Axially Moving String Using Space Feedforward and Feedback Controllers,” Trans. ASME, J. of Vibration and Acoustics, 118, 306-312, (1996). 25) Ono, E., Ichijo, H. and Aisaka, N., “Flexible Robotic Hand for Handling Fabric Pieces in Garment Manufacture,” International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 4-5,18-23, (1992). 26) Paraschidis, K., Fahantidis, N, Petridis, V., Doulgeri, Z., Petrou, L. and Hasapis, G, “A Robotic System for Handling Textile and Non Rigid Flat Materials,” Computers in Industry, 26, 303-313, (1995). 27) Fahantidis, N., Paraschidis, K, Petridis, V., Doulgeri, Z., Petrou, L. and Hasapis, G., “Robot Handling of Flat Textile Materials,” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 4-1, 34-41, (1997).

: pp. 170-177
Manipulation of Sheet Metal by Multiple Robots
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Kazuhiro Kosuge, Hidehiro Yoshida, Toshio Fukuda, Kiyoshi Kanitani and Masaru Sakai
: pp. 178-183
Optimal Path Planning for Flexible Plate Handling Using an n-Link Manipulator
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Fumitoshi Matsuno
: pp. 184-190
Deformation Control of Elastic Object by Robot Arm – High-Precision Deformation Control by Adaptive Feed-forward Control –
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Hiroyuki Kojima, Masakazu Kamei and Tsuneo Akuto
: pp. 191-196
Cylinder Insertion into Hole of Flexible Rubber Plate – Insertion Force Related to Position and Posture of Cylinder –
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Akas Sureng Brata, Keiji Sasaki and Shigeyuki Shimachi
: pp. 197-202
Cylinder Insertion into Hole of Flexible Rubber Plate – Path Search for Local Minimum Insertion Force by Shifting Fitted Zone Regression –
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Keiji Sasaki, Akas Sureng Brata and Shigeyuki Shimachi
: pp. 203-208
Task Understanding for the Beam-in-Hole Task with Initial One-Point Contact
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Fumitoshi Matsuno and Motohiro Kisoi
: pp. 209-213
Transferring Human Motion to Mechanical Manipulator in Insertion of Deformable Tubes
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Shinichi Hirai
: pp. 214-220
Sheet Sticking and Jamming Caused by Creases and Curling
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Kazushi Yoshida, Noriaki Hagiwara and Masaaki Aida
: pp. 221-228
Study on Single Sheet Separation from Stacked Flexible Sheets
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Masaru Nakazawa, Takashi Kawamura and Hirotaka Ishikawa
: pp. 229-234
Long-Distance Optical Fiber Cable Installation System Using Automatic Control Puller
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Takenori Morimitsu and Masao Terasawa
: pp. 235-243
Unfolding Folded Fabric Using Outline Information with Vision and Touch Sensors
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Eiichi Ono, Nobuyuki Kita and Shigeyuki Sakane
: pp. 244-251
Planning Strategy for Task Untangling Laundry – Isolating Clothes from a Washed Mass –
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Kyoko Hamajima and Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 252-257
Service Robot for Housekeeping – Clothing Handling –
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Takashi Kabaya and Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 258-263
The Influence of Environmental Conditions on Automated Fabric Handling
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Paul M. Taylor, Didier M. Pollet and Paul J. W. Abbott
: pp. 266-271
Emotion Analysis using FST
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Hisaya Tanaka, Hideto Ide and Yuji Nagashima
: pp. 272-277
Trajectory Tracking Control of a Flexible Mobile Robot using Disturbance Observer
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Hiroyuki Kojima, Toshihilo Hashimoto and Sadao Shimoyama
: pp. 278-282
Development of Oxygen Sensor Using Fiber-optics Coupler
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Eiji Toba, Masahiro Ichikawa, Junji Kazama, Toyonori Nishimatsu and Hiroaki Aizawa

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Robotics and Mechatronics for Fusion Experimental Reactor (ITER)

Special Issue on Robotics and Mechatronics for Fusion Experimental Reactor (ITER)

: pp. 69-70
Robotics and Mechatronics for Fusion Experimental Reactor (ITER)
Eisuke Tada

Engineering design activities (EDA) demonstrating the science and technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), are being conducted based on the four-party international collaboration of Japan (JA), the U.S.A (US), Europe (EU), and Russia (RF). EDA basically concerns engineering design required for ITER construction and technical development confirming design feasibility. In engineering R&D design, the central role is being played by an International Joint Design Team (JCT) consisting of scientists and engineers from the four parties, conducting work on detailed component design, buildings and plant facilities design, safety analysis and evaluation, and comprehensive overall system design. In engineering R&D, whose final objective is to demonstrate engineering technology necessary for ITER construction, a wide variety of technical development ranging from data acquisition on material characteristics to verification of system performance is being conducted through equal participation of the four parties. Because of the importance of principal ITER components, such as superconducting coils, vacuum vessel, in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and remote maintenance equipment, a large-scale project has been set up for manufacturing prototypes, including full-scale models, and for demonstrating performance. In-vessel components such as blankets and divertors are exposed radioactivity of 14 MeV neutrons due to DT operation, and therefore must be maintained or replaced remotely. Plansbased on stage-by-stage ITER operation call for shielding blankets to be replaced by blankets for breeding tritium. Diverters require scheduled maintenance and replacement because they are subjected to severe plasma heat and particle loads. For in-vessel components that undergo scheduled maintenance, remote maintenance is an important technical issue that may affect the performance of ITER, so component structures and layout consistent with remote handling receive top priority and will be subjected to remote maintenance demonstration-testing of using full-scale models. Remote ITER maintenance focuses on technologies involving radiation-hard devices designed for a gamma radiation environment, remote operation and metrology and control for precisely handling heavy in-vessel payloads, and welding and cutting and inspection in narrow confines. Thus, use must be made of robot technologies in Japan and a design concept conceived that meets unique ITER needs. Because device handling precision, the working environment, and other factors surpass conventional technical levels, technical data on large-scale tokamaks, experience in handling heavy payloads in industry, and nuclear field environmental resistance must be studied and system development, including technical demonstrations, conducted on a full engineering scale. This is the backer of ITER device design and development. Good prospects exist for developing a large number of remote maintenance equipment satisfying ITER specifications through the development of a new remote maintenance concept that calls for the handling of heavy payloads with high precision, the acquisition of technical data confirming concept feasibility, the development of components having 2 to 3 times higher resistance to radiation than anything available previously, and the development of remote maintenance based tools that cut, weld, and inspect in narrow confines. In final development, steady progress is being made in fabricating, testing, and demonstrating full-scale remote maintenance. This Special Issue summarizes these achievements and provides an overview of the remote maintenance design on in-vessel components, introducing current status and plans on remote maintenance technology in which the Japan Home Teams is engaged in. Topics covered include the following: 1. Remote Maintenance Development for ITER 2. Blanket Remote Maintenance Development 3. Diverter Remote Maintenance Development 4. In-Vessel Metrology and Viewing Development 5. Pipe Welding and Cutting Tool Development 6. Pipe Inspection Tool Development 7. Thick-Plate Welding and Cutting Tool Development 8. Radiation-Hard Component Development 9. Standard Component Development 10. Data Acquisition and Control

: pp. 71-77
Remote Maintenance Development for ITER
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Eisuke Tada and Kiyoshi Shibanuma
: pp. 78-87
Development of Blanket Remote Maintenance System
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Satoshi Kakudate, Masataka Nakahira, Kiyoshi Oka and Kou Taguchi
: pp. 88-95
Development of Divertor Remote Maintenance System
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Nobukazu Takeda, Kiyoshi Oka, Kentaro Akou and Yuji Takiguchi
: pp. 96-103
Development of ITER In-Vessel Viewing and Metrology Systems
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Kenjiro Obara, Satoshi Kakudate, Masataka Nakahira and Akira Ito
: pp. 104-109
Development of Bore Tools for Pipe Welding and Cutting
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Kiyoshi Oka, Akira Ito and Yuji Takiguchi
: pp. 110-115
Development of Bore Tools for Pipe Inspection
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Kiyoshi Oka, Masataka Nakahira, Kou Taguchi and Akira Ito
: pp. 116-120
Development of Thick Wall Welding and Cutting Tools for ITER
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Masataka Nakahira, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Kentaro Akou and Koichi Koizumi
: pp. 121-132
Development of Radiation Hardness Components for ITER Remote Maintenance
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Kenjiro Obara, Satoshi Kakudate, Kiyoshi Oka, Akira Ito, Toshiaki Yagi and Yousuke Morita
: pp. 133-138
Development of Standard Components for Remote Handling
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Kou Taguchi, Satoshi Kakudate, Masataka Nakahira and Akira Ito
: pp. 139-145
Measurement and Control System for ITER Remote Maintenance Equipment
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Kiyoshi Oka, Satoshi Kakudate, Nobukazu Takeda, Yuji Takiguchi and Kentaro Akou
: p. 146
Introduction to Reactor Structure Laboratory – Remote Maintenance Development for ITER –
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Eisuke Tada
: pp. 147-153
An Efficient Computational Algorithm of Adaptive Control for Closed-Loop Robots and Experiments
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Yasuhito Oooka, Haruhisa Kawasaki and Nobuhito Takemura
: pp. 154-157
Study of Stress Analysis Using Facial Skin Temperature
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Hisaya Tanaka and Hideto Ide
: pp. 158-165
Simple Adaptive Control of Systems with Bounded Nonlinear Disturbances
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Kazuya sato, Keigo Watanabe, Masahiro Oya and Toshihiro Kobayashi

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Promoting Intellectual Sports

Special Issue on Promoting Intellectual Sports

: p. 1
Promoting Intellectual Sports
Shigeo Hirose

Are you acquainted with Hackel’s hypothesis? Humans evolved over several billion years from simple creatures living in the sea, to quadrupeds, and finally to bipeds. According to the hypothesis of Ernst Heinrich Hackel (1834-1919), the same evolution takes place in eggs in the human birth process; that is, the phylogeny followed by the species reappears in the process of ontogeny. This hypothesis implies a very important suggestion regarding the training of young engineers who will be the support and driving force of the advanced technology society. Humans built a wonderful advanced technology society by accumulating the technologies developed by their predecessors. If this is to continue, what will be the best way of training genuine engineers able to further develop current advanced technologies? Neither top-down desk theory that teaches theories recursively based on experience nor superficial technical skill training designed to enable students to use state-of-the- art technology products can produce really creative engineers. Most important is not such education but the real experience in which students touch an object, designs the object themselves, and complete the object; that is, the process in which students experience for themselves the phylogeny of technology that humans followed in the process of ontogeny as individual engineers. The training of engineers is the most suitable field for applying Hackel’s hypothesis. We are living in an age flooded with products that make the most of advanced technology. Most products incorporate advanced technology in the form of a black box, which makes the essence of an object more difficult to understand than in the past. Systematic efforts should be made to introduce a new system in which children experience Hackel’s hypothesis without difficulty. One effective measure of achieving this objective is to popularize intellectual sports — games of making objects that liberate people from the conventional fixed concept of objector product manufacturing synonymous with manufacturing activities, and enables them to unconsciously train their engineering sense by letting them naturally accept manufacturing in the process of their growth. F1 contests and human bird contests are examples of such games, but robot contests are a much better example. This is because human-like robots easily attract people’s attention and that the process of constructing robots enables people to learn engineering technology “naturally.” Based on this view, we have compiled reports on the experiences of instructors who conduct creative education through manufacturing of articles, particularly instructors conducting robot contests. The information provided in this special issue will, we hope, serve as research material for instructors starting engineering education and creative education through manufacturing. We aldo hope this issue will contribute to the spread of intellectual sports.

: pp. 2-6
Introduction of “Intelligent Sport”
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Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 7-13
The Design of Projects and Contests – the Rules of the Game
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Rolf Faste and Bernard Roth
: pp. 14-17
Creative Design I as Practical Education
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Hitoshi Tokura
: pp. 18-21
Of Intelligent Robot Contest and Intelligent Working Mobile Robot Japan Cup
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Eiji Nakano
: pp. 22-26
An Analysis of Contesting Robots – Micro Mouse and Sumo Robots
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Chie Kasuga
: pp. 27-29
ROBOLYMPIA Robot Contest
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Toshihiro Tsumura
: pp. 30-33
RoboCup-97
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Minoru Asada
: pp. 34-39
Robot contest “Robocon Yamanashi”
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Noriaki Kiyohiro, Hiroshi Makino and Hideo Mori
: pp. 40-46
Machine Design Education to Stimulate Student Imagination and Originality at Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University
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Motoji Yamamoto
: pp. 47-50
Graduation Thesis on the Manufacture of Mechanism Arts – Educational Reactions on the History of Technology from Students and Effects of Creative Education –
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Ichirou Tsutsumi
: pp. 51-55
Educational Effects of Robot Contests
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Makoto Ami
: pp. 56-61
Active Suspension Control of Elastic Car Structure
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Yasuhisa Fujisaki, Katsuaki Kodaka, Yasuhumi Kawagou, and Kazuto Seto
: pp. 62-68
Estimation of Median-Plane Moving Sound Images by Analytic Hierarchy Process – Headphones –
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Manabu Ishihara, Makoto Matsuo and Jun Shirataki

Vol.9 (1997)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Emerging Technology in Manufacturing

Special Issue on Emerging Technology in Manufacturing

: p. 419
Emerging Technology in Manufacturing
Yoshimi Takeuchi

Manufacturing yields value from worthlessness. Thus, in recent years, manufacturing technologies have been undergoing rapid change in order to produce products of high quality, at a low cost and with short lead times. Improvements and innovations, with regard to manufacturing technologies, range from the fundamentals to large-scale systems. Therefore, the guest editor would like to introduce the new manufacturing technology, together with the latest research results. One of the most recent key technologies is the so-called rapid-prototyping technology. It shortens the development period of new products from the design stage. Many rapid-prototyping technologies are being developed concurrently. In this issue, the state of the art is explained clearly by an expert in the field. For mechanical products, manufacturing capabilities are highly dependent upon machine tools. In this issue, there is a research paper concerned with a design method for multi-purpose machine tools that can fabricate a variety of products. Machining efficiency is strongly influenced by the positioning accuracy and feed velocity of the axis movement of the machine tools. A control algorithm that can achieve high speed and accuracy is proposed in a paper in this issue. In order to make the most of NC machine tools, it is essential to provide NC data rapidly However, it is difficult to generate NC data, especially for multi-axis control machine tools capable of machining workpieces with complicated shapes. The development of 6-axis control CAM software for creating sculpted surfaces is reviewed in the issue. Another paper deals with NC data generation for sculpted surface processing using virtual reality. In FA systems, the nature of the programming/execution environment is shifting from a concentrated one to a distributed one, and a worker-friendly manufacturing environment is required for the workers. Two papers are presented for realizing such environments. Recently, ultra-precision machining and micro-machining technologies have been attracting great interest as a result of their ability to produce micro-mechanisms and micro-robots. One paper describes production of a prototypical tiny part with a sculpted surface using an ultra-precision milling machine. Another is related to simulation of an atomic level cutting mechanism that applies molecular dynamics. Manufacturing technology is making tremendous progress, and is putting promising new technologies into use toward the goal of realizing intelligent manufacturing systems, IMS. The guest editor heartily hopes that this issue aids in comprehension of the emerging technology in the manufacturing field.

: pp. 420-426
Technological Trends of Rapid Tooling by Layer Laminate Manufacturing
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Takeo Nakagawa
: pp. 427-433
Design and Evaluation of a New-Type Multifunctional Machine Tool – Functional Requirements and Design –
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Nobuhiro Sugimura, Shigeru Ueno, Nozomi Mishima and Soichi Hachiga
: pp. 434-438
Experimental Assessment for Examination of Curves and Surfaces by Auditory Sense
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Hidetomo Takahashi and Satoshi Kanai
: pp. 439-445
Development of CAM System Based on Simulation of the Copy Operation – An Application to the Boundary Representation Method and High Efficiency Machining –
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Masahide Kohya, Hiroyuki Narahara and Hiroshi Suzuki
: pp. 446-454
A Study on Controlling Algorithm to Realize High-Speed & High-Accuracy Control Systems – Proposal of modified Delta Operator –
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Tatsu Aoki, Yuji Furukawa and Nobuyuki Moronuki
: pp. 455-460
A Combined Molecular Dynamics and Rigid-Plastic FEM Simulation of Atomic Level Cutting
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Keiji Manabe, Manabu Isobe and Kanji Ueda
: pp. 461-467
The Programming/Execution Environment for Distributed FA Control Systems (1st Report) – The Design and Implementation of the Glue Logic –
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Masayuki Takata and Eiji Arai
: pp. 468-474
Distributed Anthropocentric FA System – Manufacturing Machine and Human Interface with Intervention Support System –
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Jie Zhu, Tohru Ihara, Kimihiro Amano and Hiroyuki Hiraoka,
: pp. 475-479
Manufacture of Micropropellers by Means of Ultraprecision Milling Machine
Abstract
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Yoshimi Takeuchi, Kiyoshi Sawada and Toshio Sata
: pp. 480-481
Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing System Laboratory
Abstract
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Yoshimi Takeuchi
: pp. 482-489
Allocation of Proximity Sensors for Obstacle Detection of a Robot Manipulator
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Takahiro Tsuchiya and Ryosuke Masuda
: pp. 490-495
3-D Measurement and Computer Graphics of Huge Rock
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Kazutaka Fujimoto, Sumio Nagata, Takakazu Ishimatsu
: pp. 496-502
Natural Motion Generation of Biped Locomotion Robot using Hierarchical Evolutionary Algorithm in the Various Environments
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Takemasa Arakawa and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 503-504
Computer Interface Device for the Handicapped to Use Head Movement
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Osamu Takami, Naoki Irie and Takakazu Ishimatsu
: pp. 505-511
The Study of Topograph Analysis of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
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Hisaya Tanaka, Hideto Ide and Yuji Nagashima

No.5

(Oct)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: p. 317
Honda’s Humanoid Leads A New Robotic Century
Takayuki Tanaka

The Honda Humanoid announced in the Nikkei Newspaper December 20, 1996, impressed down not only our generation of the famous animation named “Gundom,” but also professors as a great impulse. I had, through talks with colleagues, assumed that this type of human robot would be realized far in the future. I was given an opportunity to see the real product at a workshop sponsored by the International Robot and Factory Automation Association in February 1997. Representative researchers and students came to this workshop with high expectations and excitement. The Honda Humanoid was presented by Hiroyuki Yoshino, vice president of Honda Motor Co. Ltd. The real product was not exhibited at the workshop but presented through video films. However, it was worthy of being called a “fantastic” humanoid. The Humanoid caused viewers to imagine that it was created part of mankind in the real world. It had lived only in the animation or imaginary world. I was really amazed at the shocking behavior of the Humanoid. This is reality! The Humanoid walks on flat floors, on stairs, and on irregular surface smoothly just like a person. It also changes direction freely. If it is pushed from the front, it moves one leg backward to resist the force applied. It walks dynamically like a person wearing space gear. I got gooseflesh. During a break, I found some people mortified at being “beaten” in the creation of a biped walking robot and also those who were excited by the development. The Honda Humanoid will open a new century of robots, and shows the value of taking up a pioneering challenge. I congratulate the Honda development team and its great achievement!

: pp. 318-323
Velocity-Based Control of Manipulator/Vehicle System Floating on Water
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Hisashi Kajita and Kazuhiro Kosuge
: pp. 324-331
An Analysis of Inverse Kinematics of Robot Manipulators using Grobner Basis
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Toshimi Shimizu and Haruhisa Kawasaki
: pp. 332-340
A Learning Control Application for a Pneumatic Manipulator on Impact Motion
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Ismail Altuncu and Toshiro Noritsugu
: pp. 341-347
Micro SCARA Robot for Miniature Parts Assembling
Abstract
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Toyomi Miyagawa, Kohei Hori, Yukihisa Hasegawa, Koichi Suzumori and Hajime Sudo
: pp. 348-353
Autonomous Mobile Robot System for Long Distance Outdoor Navigation on University Campus
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Shoichi Maeyama, Akihisa Ohya and Shin'ichi Yuta
: pp. 354-361
Development of an Infrared Sensory System with Local Communication Facility for Collision Avoidance of Multiple Mobile Robots
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Sho’ji Suzuki, Yoshikazu Arai, Shin'ya Kotosaka, Hajime Asama,Hayato Kaetsu and Isao Endo
: pp. 362-372
New Design Methodology for RCC Using Elastomer Shear Pads
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Sangwan Joo, Naotaka Yoshihara, Yasuhiro Masutani, Atsushi Nishikawa and Fumio Miyazaki
: pp. 373-379
Simulation Language for Multiple Mobile Robots
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Yoshinobu Adachi and Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 380-386
Environment Recognition and Path Planning by Multiple Mobile Robots
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Toshiyuki Kumaki, Masahito Nakajima and Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 387-392
Bending and Torsional Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using H-infinity Based Approach
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Indra N. Kar and Kazuto Seto
: pp. 393-397
Difference of Solution Regions due to Net Polarity
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Hiromu Gotanda, Hiroshi Shiratsuchi, Katsuhiro Inoue, and Kousuke Kumamaru
: pp. 398-405
Studies on Cardinality of Solutions for Multilayer Nets and a Scaling Method in Hardware Implementations
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Hiromu Gotanda, Hiroshi Shiratsuchi, Katsuhiro Inoue and Kousuke Kumamaru
: pp. 406-411
A Study on Quantification of Weight Sensation by EMG
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Hisaya Tanaka, Yoshimi Nakazono and Hideto Ide
: pp. 412-418
Study on Non-Contact Hold and Transfer Control of Spherical Magnetic Body by Magnetic Robot Hand with Prototype Gap Sensor System
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Kojima, Osamu Itagaki, Toshikazu Okabe, and Toshio Kobayashi

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Robot with Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation

Special Issue on Robot with Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation

: p. 247
Robot with Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation
Kan Taguchi

Recently, demand has risen for outdoor robots in architecture, civil engineering, agriculture, fire fighting, or restorations of earthquake disasters. For such cases, robots should have both locomotion and manipulation to work in unknown and unassisted fields. Since robot locomotion and manipulation have been researched independently, robots with integrated locomotion and manipulation are anticipated. However, problems involve the cooperative control of locomotor and manipulators or their integrated mechanisms. In January 1994, the Robotics Society of Japan set up an integrated locomotion and manipulation robot research committee whose aim is identify different aspects of such robots, such as analysis and synthesis of mechanisms, control theory for integrated locomotion and manipulation, and actual on-job applications. The Committee includes researchers from industry, government laboratories, and academia, who have discussed the possibilities of new type robots. The Committee organized sessions such as “Robots with Integrated Locomotion and Manipulations” in the 12th (1994) to 14th (1996) annual conferences of the Robotics Society of Japan and “Integrated Locomotion & Manipulation” in International Robotics Symposium IROS96. A special issue of “Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation” for the Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan was compiled and published in November 1995 by the Committee. In November 1996, the Committee handed in its final report to the Society and adjourned. The final report is in Japanese. As a Committee member, I have wanted to introduce some of the Final Report in English. Fortunately, the editors of the Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics have given me the opportunity to publish these reports in a special issue. Other Committee members have agreed to contribute as well. I thank the Committee — especially Chairman Dr. Tatsuo Arai (MEL), who encouraged me in writing this article. Special thanks go to Prof. Yamafuji, who introduced me to the editors who gave me the chance to publish this article.

: pp. 248-250
Promises and Problems of Locomotion and Manipulation Integrated Robot
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Kan Taguchi
: pp. 251-255
Robots with Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation and Their Future
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Tatsuo Arai
: pp. 256-261
Mobile Robot in the Clean Room – SEL-CARRY ACE –
Abstract
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Masanori Onishi
: pp. 262-266
Control Strategy for Mobile Manipulators
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Hisashi Osumi and Eisuke Konishi
: pp. 267-274
Three-Dimensional Stability Criterion of Integrated Locomotion and Manipulation
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Kan Yoneda and Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 275-282
Development of the Intelligent Mobile Robot for Service Use Report 1: Environmental-Adjustable Autonomous Locomotion Control System
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Takayuki Tanaka, Kazuo Yamafuji and Hidenori Takahashi
: pp. 283-286
Position Control of a Manipulator on PWS-type Locomotor
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Kan Taguchi, Hiroyuki Handa and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 287-292
Farming Robots
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Junichi Sato
: pp. 293-298
Development of a Construction Robot for Marking on Ceiling Boards
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Kouetsu Tanaka, Makoto Kajitani, Chisato Kanamori and Yasunori Abe
: pp. 299-303
Soft Computing with New Physical Measure of Controllability for Intelligent Control of the Two-Link Manipulator (1st Report: Study of Free Motion of Nonlinear Control Object)
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Viktor S. Ulyanov, Kazuo Yamafuji, Sergei V. Ulyanov, Ludmila V. Litvintseva, and Kan Taguchi
: pp. 304-309
Intrinsically Safe Pneumatic Amplifier for Mechatronic Systems
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G. Belforte, G. Eula, A. Ivanov, A. Manuello Bertetto and V. Viktorov
: pp. 310-316
Automapping by Autonomous Mobile Robot using Ultrasonic Range Sensor
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Shogo Kimura, Hisaya Tanaka and Hideto Ide

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Element Technology for VR

Special Issue on Element Technology for VR

: pp. 169-170
Element Technology for VR
Hisato Kobayashi

The most common means for sending and receiving information is language. It is often difficult, however, to represent information in linguistic symbols or determine what the communicator really means. It is natural to feel more comfortable with information received directly through sensory organs such as the eyes or skin. Conventionally, most then coded information was received via media. When television appeared in the latter half of the 20th century. Non coded information was first distributed to individual households. Critics warned that the Japanese would be made a nation of fools by the now technology. Certainly, releasing the human brain from coding work may cause it to lose some acuity, but however, no remarkable side effects of television have been found. Virtual reality (VR) encourages non coded information to be directly used. VR technology has drawn increased attention for several years, but only its convenience has been emphasized, and not its side effects. The only exception is the Sony head-mount game display, whose use is prohibited by small children. Since this product is the only one that has the possibility of becoming popular in the general household, considerations have been given to possible side effects. Taking the above into account, VR technology is still in its infancy, unlike television when it appeared, and there is no sign VR will spread to individual households. Conversely, VR technology has sufficient room to grow until its side effect can be discussed seriously. VR technology is very attractive. Many cannot imagine a life without television. In the same way, they will not be able to imagine life without VR in the future. In any case, VR technology should be developed positively and fully, and any side effects resolved sa a matter of course. The five human senses are visual, aural, olfactory, taste, and tactile. For the visual sense, almost all two-dimensional problems have been solved, and for the aural sense, almost all problems, including stereos, have been solved. The olfactory and taste senses are still not solved and it is difficult to reproduce them from the viewpoint of engineering. The three-dimensional visual sense and olfactory sense can possibly developed as VR technology. Including this olfactory sense, the following are categorized into VR technology: sensing the posture and position of the body and the inner force sense that feels response. The stereoscopic visual sense is reported along with the reproduction technique of the tactile and inner force senses in this special issue. The stereoscopic visual sense is proposed in many different ways. A typical example includes the head-mounted display that reproduces independent images in both eyes. Another way involves glasses with a liquid crystal shutter to mask the left and right eyes alternately and present ulternate images independent of the display. Yet anothor system uses a polarizing lens. A specially treated display surface is provided or holography is used to enable even the naked eye to see stereoscopic images. The reproduction features of the inner force and tactile senses are mechanical. They contain actuators to generate the required force or uses changes in the surface structure. Any one of these features is large and has the disad vantage of restricting movements. VR element technology is making progress on a daily basis and will provide satisfactory performance in the near future. Realistic applications must be established to promote and disseminate VR element technology. The most important application is to remote control of robots or providing so-called telepresence. Robot will often be used for non routine outdoor tasks. In this case, an operator is needed to operate the robot. The telepresence technique is used to change a task in an unfavorable or dangergerous outdoor environment to one indoors in a favorable environment. With the progress of this systematization and applied technique, its convenience will be recognized, leading to further growth of this field. When this field makes sufficient progress, possible side effects will be an issue, mostly likely in the near future.

: pp. 171-176
20 DOF Five Fingered Glove Type Haptic Interface – Sensor Glove II –
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Toshio Kitada, Yasuharu Kunii and Hideki Hashimoto
: pp. 177-184
Space Interface Device for Artificial Reality – SPIDAR –
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Makoto Sato, Yukihiro Hirata and Hiroshi Kawarada
: pp. 185-192
Application of Surface Display into Shape Forming Task
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Koichi Hirota, Jun Saito and Michitaka Hirose
: pp. 193-196
Media Heavy Industries
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Michitaka Hirose
: pp. 197-202
A Study on Tele-Existence of the Tactile Sense
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Tohru Ifukube
: pp. 203-207
Application of Artificial Reality in Manufacturing Industry
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Masanori Igoshi
: pp. 208-212
Recognition by Inconsistent Information from Visual and Haptic Interface
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Yukio Fukui, Makoto Shimojo and Juli Yamashita
: pp. 213-219
A Virtual Work Space for Both Hands Operations
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Masahiro Ishii, Motohiro Swawatari and Makoto Sato
: pp. 220-230
Design and Evaluation of a Visual Display with a Sensation of Presence in Tele-existence System
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Susumu Tachi and Hirohiko Arai
: pp. 231-238
Active Visual Feedback Control of Robot Manipulator
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Wei-Yun Yau and Han Wang
: pp. 239-242
Extraction of Features in EEG
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Ichiro Hamamoto, Hisaya Tanaka, Masafumi Uchida and Hideto Ide

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on New Evolution in Vision System

Special Issue on New Evolution in Vision System

: pp. 83-84
New Evolution in Vision System
Masanori Idesawa

A human being can carry on his activities flexibly in his three-dimensional environment by grasping and judging objects and various situations in the external world through his senses. Of these senses, the visual sense plays the most important role. And almost all the processing of visual information is carried out by the brain, just as the saying, “The eye is a branch of the brain,” goes. We see things not with the eye but rather with the brain. The mechanism of information processing inside the brain is an ultimately fine example of an information system, and in recent years, attention has increasingly been paid to the elucidation of this mechanism among information scientists as well as information processing engineers. In the past, studies on the visual function have been carried out and developed energetically by neuro-physiologists and anatomists, as well as by psychologists and psycho-physicists. In recent years, new research techniques and measurement methods have been developed and refined and, so, past knowledge has been corrected or new discoveries made; for this reason, it is now _ cnsidered necessary to carry out studies from new standpoints, including ng information science and other scientific fields. It is desired that automatic systems, such as robots and the like, be also equipped with a visual system corresponding to the human visual sense. Studies on the artificial realization of visual functions and their applications, which started roughly in the latter half of the 1960s, were concerned, at the initial stages, with the reading of characters and figures as pattern recognition and image processing. After that time, various fields of research have been formed and developed, such as image understanding as well as robot vision and computer vision as visual systems for intelligent robots. From about 1985, research called “Shape from X” based on computational vision by Marr1) has been carried out actively. Recently, however, the research in this field has collide with a mysterious wall, and has therefore been somewhat in a stagnant state. For this reason, a new breakthrough is strongly desired just about now. In order to make clear the true nature of this wall and bring about a breakthrough, this special issue concerning “new development of vision systems” has been planned with the view to constructing a new paradigm in the artificial realization of visual functions, such as computer vision, etc., and their applications. It is our wish that progress be made not only in the construction of a new paradigm for promoting themes and studies in robot vision, stereo vision, etc., including recent knowledge and simulation of the human visual system, but also in research and development work with future research advances taken into account. Now, the present author would like to reminisce about research situations in this field at about the time when he was a student. In the latter half of the 1960s, the automatic reading of marks and characters under the name of pattern recognition was being pushed forward as a national project. It was around that time that an automatic zip code reading system was created. And, attempts were started on image processing and on intelligent robots furnished with a visual capability. A little before that time, efforts had been seen to learn and apply the mechanisms of living creatures in engineering fields, such as cybernetics, bionics,etc., with the result that studies using animals have been carried out in earnest. At that time, a large number of cats, rabbits, and others were forced to cooperate (?) in a sacrificial and devoted way as “volunteers(?)” in studies by engineers. At about the time when the enthusiasm for this bionics cooled off, the present author as a graduate school student was fortunate enough to pay a visit at national research institute which was playing a leading role in research on robots and pattern recognition in Japan. An image-acquiring device based on a TV camera, which can be obtained cheaply nowadays, was priced at that time at more than several million yen in spite of its slow input speed (taking a dozen or so minutes for inputting a single image) and low performance. At that time, there were only a handful of universities and research institutes which were in possession of an image-acquiring device using a TV camera. For this reason, a stereo vision system equipped with a pair of TV cameras was considered a dream beyond a dream. The research who was giving a tour at that time said by way of an explanation, “If another TV camera image acquiring device were available, it would be possible to realize a stereo vision system capable of recognizing three-dimensional objects through binocular stereo viewing, but we have been able to purchase only a single unit due to a low budget and a high cost of the unit.” At that time, the author, who was also interested in stereo vision in connection with the development of “a system for generating solid figures from three-dimensional drawings”2), had been convinced that binocular stereo viewing was not such a simple topic. For this reason, this arrogant student was audacious enough to ask, “I think that the use of two TV cameras will make possible the input of a pair of two-dimensional pictures but will not lead to the realization of stereo vision, so do you have any new idea?” Incidentally, it is now possible to obtain a device that costs only a 200th of the price charged at that time but has a level of performance (input speed) more than 200 times as high as before. In the case of computers, too, the performance has improved dramatically, and the price has become remarkably cheaper. From the situation as existed at that time, today’s situation appears totally to be a dream, and is one in which stereo vision would be a simple matter. What is surprising, however, is that unfortunately stereo vision has not been so simple as was thought at that time and is far from being realized even now. And, as stated previously, studies in this field have recently crashed an inexplicable wall, and are somewhat in a stagnant state. A new breakthrough is desired at about this time, and it is getting increasingly more opportune to make use of results achieved in fields, such as psychology, brain science, and the like. This is by itself a very good thing, but blind adoption may be somewhat disputable. It is not the case that all the past knowledge in these fields is totally correct, and a great deal of that knowledge may have to be corrected for studies to be conducted from a new point of view. In introducing such results, it is strongly desired to review the current situation from a new standpoint; in other words, rather than repeating the age of cybernetics or bionics of that time, the present age is hoped to become an age of “neo-cybernetics” or “neo-bionics” in the true sense of the word.

: pp. 85-91
A Study on Visual Mechanism with Optical Illusions
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Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 92-97
3D Image Media and Computer Vision -From CV as Robot Technology to CV as Media Technology-
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Yuichi Ohta
: pp. 98-103
Simulation of Depth Interpolation from Surface Boundary in Binocular Viewing
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Weifu Shi and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 104-110
Direct Interpretation of Dynamic Images and Camera Motion for Visual Servoing Without Image Feature Correspondence
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Koichiro Deguchi
: pp. 111-120
Saccade Mechanism Based on Processes for Depth Estimation and Incongruity Detection between Binocular Retinal Images – Analysis of Gazing Positions and Inter-saccade Intervals –
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Hiroaki Kudo, Kenya Uomori, Mitsuho Yamada, Noboru Ohnishi and Noboru Sugie
: pp. 121-125
Volume Perception and a Processing Method of Unpaired Region in Stereo Vision
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Tatsuya Iwamoto and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 126-131
Matching of Affine Transformed Images by Using Similarity Based on Local Concentric Features
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Atsushi Sakai, Seiji Ujifuku, and Yoshihiko Nomura
: pp. 132-134
Some Notes for Anaglyph Stereo Method in the Presentation of Moving Objects
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Hitomi Koike and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 135-139
A Corner Detection Using Adaptive Octants Filter
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Atsushi Sakai and Yoshihiko Nomura
: pp. 140-145
Uncertainty Analysis of Three-Dimensional Coordinate Measuring Machines
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Jiro Matsuda
: pp. 146-151
Emergence and Effectiveness of Communication Interface in a System of Distributed Intelligent Agents
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Arvin Agah and George A. Bekey
: pp. 152-159
Study on the Control of a Robot with Very Large Number of Freedoms
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Shigeru Kurono, Shigeto Aramaki, Yoshikazu Fujino and Takashi Toyofuku
: pp. 160-167
Trajectory Tracking Control for a Mobile Robot Using Stochastic Fuzzy Controller
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Jun Tang, Keigo Watanabe, and Akira Nomiyama

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Human Oriented Technology in Robotics and Mechatronics

Special Issue on Human Oriented Technology in Robotics and Mechatronics

: p. 1
Human Oriented Technology in Robotics and Mechatronics
Mitsuo Wada

As a desire for leeway and richness in human living rises with the twenty-first century close at hand, the following problems are becoming social subjects of discussion; a rapid progress in the coming of the advanced aged society, a large number of women’s participation to the society, and the internationalization of our life; a decrease in population of the young generation , an increase in the responsibility of an age of DANKAI (people who were born in a baby boom just after the World War II), and an increase in handicapped people caused by the rising accidents. In such circumstances, the technology that is based on the society and can cope with the various needs result from the transition and diversity of value judgment in our life is requested. This technology includes how to live healthily, how to lead a worthwhile life, how to make the most of spare time, reduction of domestic affairs, prevention of stress, realization of the safe and received social life that occurs no accidents, consideration on a global scale to our environment and so on. Therefore, in point of the human oriented technical development in the fields of robotics and mechatronics, development and realization of the “human friendly”, “reliable” technology are greatly expected that considers the mind and the intellect concerning human nature and sociality and especially thinks highly of human individuality. The human oriented technology in robots and machines is a technology to join men ourselves, life and technology at a “mind” level. Its produce a new technological paradigm that changes household products and industrial technology from the usual state of being based on the advanced technological development in property and efficiency to the state of being basd on human life side on the basis of health, safety, convenience, and confort. This special article has been organized from the point of view of such human oriented technology, specially in the field of robotics and mechatronics. I would like to express my thanks to those who have found time in their busy lives to express my thanks to this special article. There are more papers that were presented at the various symposia in Japan, so only a function of them were included in this article because of the limitation of space. And it will be my great pleasure if readers can understand the latest situation of the research in this field from this issue. Finally, my thanks are also due to Dr. Makoto Shimojo (National Institute of Bio-sciences and Human-Technology) who helped in editing this article.

: pp. 2-6
Towards a Mind Based Technology
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Mitsuo Wada
: pp. 7-13
Human Friendly Soft Pneumatic Actuator and Application to Rehabilitation Robot
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Toshiro Noritsugu
: pp. 14-23
Evaluation of a New Force Display using Metal Hydride Alloys
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Shunji Shimizu, Shuichi Ino, Takeshi Tsuruga, Tohru Ifukube Yuichi Wakisaka and Takashi Izumi
: pp. 24-32
A study on Force Feed-back Device Using 6 D.O.F Cartesian Robot (Adaptive control method for human spatial movement)
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Hiroshi Yokoi, Yukio Fukui, Juji Yamashita, Makoto Shimojo
: pp. 33-40
Safety Materials and Control of Human-Cooperative Robots
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Toshio Morita and Shigeki Sugano
: pp. 41-45
Individual Identification Using Images of Eyes
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Satoshi Tanigawa, Masafumi Uchida and Hideto Ide
: pp. 46-56
On Robotic Rescue Facilities for Disastrous Earthquakes -From the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake
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Satoshi Tadokoro, Toshi Takamori, Saburo Tsurutani, and Koichi Osuka
: pp. 57-64
Learning Control Method for Robotic Dynamical System
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Tohru Kumagai, Mitsuo Wada, Sadayoshi Mikami, Ryoichi Hashimoto
: pp. 65-70
Evaluation of Human Pain Tolerance and Its Application to Designing Safety Robot Mechanisms for Human-Robot Coexistence
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Yoji Yamada
: pp. 71-78
Project and Experimentation of a Photoacoustic Cell
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G. Belforte, T. Raparelli, V Viktorov, G. Eula, A. Ivanov
: pp. 79-82
Pantomime Effect and Sustaining Cues in the Perception of a 3-D Illusory Transparent Object with Binocular Viewing
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Qi Zhang, Masanori Idesawa and Yutaka Sakaguchi

Vol.8 (1996)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Integration of Intelligence for Robotics in VLSI Chips

Special Issue on Integration of Intelligence for Robotics in VLSI Chips

: p. 491
Integration of Intelligence for Robotics in VLSI Chips
Michitaka Kameyama

Intelligence is one of the most important subjects in information and electronics systems. In many applications such as multi media systems, home electronics systems, factory automation systems, security systems and aerospace systems, advanced intelligent processing technologies are more required to be developed as shown in Figure. There are two approaches to increase intelligence, although they are closely related each other and may not be separable. One is an algorithm-based approach to directly increase intelligence quality. The other is a computational-power-based approach to directly increase processing performance. Even if a single operation is very simple, its repeated operations often make the processing intelligent. The problem is how to increase the computational power. It is obvious that software acceleration using general-purpose microprocessors has some limitation. Therefore, special acceleration using newly developed chips is one of the most important solutions. In particular, real-world applications need to achieve very quick response for dynamically changing real-world environment. Therefore, special-purpose processors and special-purpose accelerators or engines, are essential to make the above applications realistic. Another words, “to realize high speed processing intelligence” On the other hand, solid-state circuits technology enabling single-chip systems have rapid advancement resulting in dramatic improvements in both performance and cost oer function. In fact, one-giga-bit DRAMs, ten SPECint95 microprocessors containing ten million transistors are being developed by recent VLSI technology. It is no more a dream to develop practical special processors using the recent VLSI technology. Moreover, new architecture and new concept circuits have been actively studied for the next-generation integration technology. From the above point of view, this special issue was planned to demonstrate the above important area. Especially, intelligent robot is a typical class of applications, soits intelligence technology makes also any other application promising. Finally, I would like to express my application to the authors for their efforts and contributions to this special issue and also the members of the Editorial Board for their useful comments.

: pp. 492-495
Highly-Safe Intelligent Integrated Systems
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Michitaka Kameyama
: pp. 496-499
VLSI Processor System for Robotics
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Michitaka Kameyama and Yoshichika Fujioka
: pp. 501-507
Robot Vision VLSI Processor for the Rectangular Solid Representation of 3-Dimensional Objects
Abstract
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Masanori Hariyama, Yuichi Araumi, and Michitaka Kameyama
: pp. 508-515
Implementing Intelligence in Silicon Integrated Circuits Using Neuron-Like High-Functionality Transistors
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Tadashi Shibata and Tadahiro Ohmi
: pp. 516-523
Optimal Design of a VLSI Processor with Spatially and Temporally Parallel Structure
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Michitaka Kameyama and Masayuki Sasaki
: pp. 524-530
Design of a Parallel Processor for Visual Feedback Control Based on the Reconfiguration of Word Length
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Yoshichika Fujioka and Nobuhiro Tomabechi
: pp. 531-537
Tactile Based Active Sensing for Detecting Stiffness and Contact Point Using Robotic Finger
Abstract
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Tatsuya Shirai, Nobuaki Imamura, Toshio Fukuda and Makoto Kaneko
: pp. 538-554
Intelligent Control of a Mobile Robot for Service Use in Office Buildings and Its Soft Computing Algorithms
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Takayuki Tanaka, Junji Ohwi, Ludmila V. Litvintseva, Kazuo Yamafuji and Sergei V. Ulyanov
: pp. 555-560
Forecast Method of Obstacle Region in Dynamic Environment
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Masafumi Uchida, Hideto Ide and Syuichi Yokoyama
: pp. 561-570
Extraction and Motion Estimation of 3D Objects from Stereo Image Sequence
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Hiroshi Katsulai
: pp. 571-579
Study of the Stability and Motion Control of a Unicycle (5th Report: Experimental Results by Fuzzy Gain Schedule PD Controllers)
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Zaiquan Sheng, Kazuo Yamafuji and Sergei V. Ulyanov

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Distributed Robotic Systems

Special Issue on Distributed Robotic Systems

: p. 395
Distributed Robotic Systems
Hajime Asama

Distributed Robotic Systems are focused on as a new strategy to realize flexible, robust and fault-tolerant robotic systems. In conferences and symposia held recently, the number of papers related to the Distributed Robotic Systems has increased rapidly1,2,3) which shows this area has become one of the most interesting subjects in robotics. The Distributed Robotic Systems require a broad area of interdisciplinary technologies related not only to robotics and computer engineering (especially distributed artificial intelligence and artificial life), but also to biology and psychology. Distributed Robotic Systems can be defined as robot systems which are composed of various types and levels of units, such as cells, modules, agents and robots. One category of papers included in this volume is a robot with a distributed architecture, where modular structure is adopted and/or the robot system is controlled by many CPUs in a distributed manner. Cellular robotic systems are included in this category4). Another category of the papers is cooperative motion control of multiple robots. Coordinated control of multiple manipulators and cooperative motion control by multiple mobile robots using communication are discussed in these papers. The new elemental technologies are also presented, which are required for realization of advanced cooperative motion control of multiple autonomous mobile robots in this volume. The last category of the papers is self-organization of distributed robotic systems. Though the Journal of Robotics and MecharQnics has already published the special issues on the self-organization system,5,6) the latest progress is also presented in this volume. The papers belonging to this category are directed to swarm/collective intelligence in multi-robot cooperation issues. I believe this special issue will inspire the reader’s interests in the Distributed Robotic Systems and accelerate the growth of this new arising interdisciplinary research area. References: 1)H.Asama, T.Fukuda, T.Arai and I.Endo eds., Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems, Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, (1994). 2) H.Asama, T.Fukuda, T.Arai and I.Endo eds.,Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems 2 , Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, (1996). 3) Robotics Society of Japan, Advanced Robotics 10,6, (1996). 4) T.Fukuda and T.Ueyama, Cellullar Robotics and Micro Robotic Systems,World Scientific, Singapore, (1994). 5) Fuji Technology Press Ltd., Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics,4,2,(1992). 6) Fuji Technology Press Ltd., Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics,4,3,(1992).

: pp. 396-402
A Study on Dynamically Reconfigurable Robotic System (Communication Reduction with Risk Estimate in Cellular Robotic System)
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Kousuke Sekiyama and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 403-407
Collaborative Manipulation by Independent Manipulators
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Kuniaki Kawabata and Hisato Kobayashi
: pp. 408-419
Design Disquisition on Modular Robot Systems
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Takafumi Matsumaru
: pp. 420-426
Elemental Technologies for Collective Robots
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Hajime Asama, Teruo Fujii, Hayato Kaetsu and Isao Endo
: pp. 427-434
Clock Synchronization Mechanisms for a Distributed Autonomous System
Abstract
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Shigeru Kokaji, Satoshi Murata, Haruhisa Kurokawa, Kohji Tomita
: pp. 435-441
Decentralized Motion Control of Dual Manipulators in Coordination Using Vision and Force Sensors
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Kazuhiro Kosuge, Daiji Taguchi, Koji Takeo
: pp. 442-446
Processor Performance Required for Decentralized Kinematic Control Algorithm of Module-Type Hyper-Redundant Manipulator
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Shinichi Kimura and Toshiyuki Okuyama
: pp. 447-453
An Approach to Emergence Mechanism of Affordance
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Jun Hakura and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 454-458
Acquiring Objective Functions in Distributed Rule-Based Systems from Examples
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Kenichi Matsuura and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 459-466
Collision Avoidance Using Communication between Autonomous Mobile Robots
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Koichi Ozaki, Hajime Asama, Yoshiki Ishida, Akihiro Matsumoto, and Isao Endo
: pp. 467-472
On Sign-board Based Inter-Robot Communication in Distributed Robotic Systems
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Jing Wang
: pp. 473-480
Representation of a Product Assembly Architecture for Assembly Sequence Generation
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Isao Nagasawa, Yasushi Adachi, Toru Morita, Shigeto Aramaki and Shigeru Kurono
: pp. 481-490
Construction of Robot Structure Design Support System by Constraint Logic Programming
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Akira Aiba, Shinichi Sato and Shigeto Aramaki

No.4

(Aug)

Special Article of Chaos, Self-Organized System

Special Article of Chaos, Self-Organized System

: p. 317
Special Article of Chaos, Self-Organized System
Mitsuo Wada

The actual environments under which robots are going to operate from now on are complex and sometimes unstable unlike the arranged environments in factories. It is becoming increasingly necessary for the robots to be able to cope with complexities by maintaining a symbiotic relationship with man who are behaving in mental world in various manners and life styles. This is not a task for the distant future but has already been posing daily problems in the fields of computer information communications that reach an international networked society. In this world, there is already a limitation to top-down controls based on hierarchical knowledge and guidance instructions. Rather, the situations indicate that this world should be taken as a complex adaptive system that requires recognition of the environments based on an autonomy of the system, adaptation and learning by behavior, and formation of orders according to self-organization, through a bottom-up approach. This is a considerable task to be tackled from now on if it is desired that robots are to play an active role in various parts of society in the near future. In considering this problem, it is important to learn from nature, ecological systems, and life systems. In recent years, new academic research fields have been generated that imitate the information processing functions of creatures such as recognition, evolution and adaptation, then reproduce these information processing functions in CG’s and robots, and apply them to science and technology. This has been posing large topics relating to the autonomy, adaptation, learning and evolution of complex systems and finally to the creativity of a living body system. The key concept in this case is a chaos edge system called by Langton. In a complex system like a life, there is a self-organization marginal level of a certain scale, above which information is scattered, and below which information is fixed like a crystal. An integration is progressed and emerged in these systems. This characteristic is called the chaos edge system. Along with the outbreak of research in this new field, this has given substantial influence to the research into conventional fuzzy theories, neural networks, and intelligence systems such as artificial brains. Furthermore, along with the development of calculation methods called genetic algorithms which have been learned from the adaptive evolution of creatures, chaos, fuzzy, neuro, AI and GA are all directed towards the structuring of a new intelligent system. We cannot take our attention off the research in this new field. In order for robots to maintain a symbiotic relationship with man in daily life, the new development relating to the complexities of the creatures as described above is necessary. We already open every year an intelligent system symposium which aims at the merging and new developments of fuzzy, neuro and AI. At last year’s FAN’95, we opened an organized session whose theme was chaos and self-organization systems. This special article has been organized now to high-light the papers announced at this OS.It has been possible to take up a wide range of issues including ecological systems, living systems, chaos, robots and the mind. I would like to express my thanks to those who have found time in their busy lives to contributed their papers to this special article . There are many more papers that were presented at the symposium and only a function of them were included in this article because of the limitation of space. I look forward to organizing a similar article again for this book, and it will be my great pleasure if readers can understand the latest situation of the research in this field from this issue. Finally, my thanks are also due to Dr. Tetsuro Yabuta (NTT) and Dr. Tadashi Iokibe (Meidensha) who helped in editing this article.

: pp. 318-322
An Approach to Chaos and Self-Organizing Behaviors in Symbiotic Relationships between Human and Robots
Abstract
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Mitsuo Wada and Sadayoshi Mikami
: pp. 323-328
“Mind” Left by Modern Science
Abstract
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Tetsuro Yabuta
: pp. 329-332
An Application for Diagnosis by Chaotic Approach (An Application to Discrimination of Arrhythmia)
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Tadashi Iokibe, Masaya Koyama and Toshifumi Sugiura
: pp. 333-337
Self-Organization and Basis Functions of Neural Network Controllers
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Takayuki Yamada, Norifumi Yasue and Takenori Morimitsu
: pp. 338-344
Intelligent Robot Prototyping Based on Chaotic Retrieval
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Toru Yamaguchi, Michihiro Yoshihara and Yoshiyuki Wakamatsu
: pp. 345-350
A Proposal of Multi-Module Network for Association of Patterns and Symbols
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Yoichiro Hattori, Takeshi Furuhashi, Yoshiki Uchikawa
: pp. 351-355
A Study on Self-Organization of Heuristics Using Analogy
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Kenichi Matsuura and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 356-363
Obstacle Avoidance Using Vibrating Potential Method (Self-Organization in a Narrow Path)
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Hiroshi Yokoi, Takafumi Mizuno, Masatosi Takita, and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 364-371
Self-Organization of Lower Limb Motion in Human Locomotion
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Takashi Yokoi, Akihiko Takahashi, Keigo Ohyama Byun
: pp. 372-377
Control of a Robot Arm by Electromyogram -Recognition of Arm Motion by Neural Network
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Masafumi Uchida, Hideto Ide
: pp. 378-382
Analysis of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials by Tactile Board Stimuli Skin
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Hideto Ide and Masafumi Uchida
: pp. 383-391
Robot Manipulators Control with Guaranteed Stability Using Feedback Error Learning Neural Networks
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Ju-Jang Lee, Sung-Woo Kim, and Kang-Bark Park
: pp. 392-393
Artificial Emotional Creature Project to Intelligent Systems
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Takanori Shibata

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Control Systems in Mechatronics

Special Issue on Control Systems in Mechatronics

: p. 217
Control Systems in Mechatronics
Kiyoshi Ohishi

The special issue on Control Systems in Mechatronics is a significant and timely issue since many robotics and mechatronics engineers now pay attention to the research field of motion control and control theory. In Japan, advanced motion control technology is a key technics to improving the performance of robot systems and/or mechanical automation equipment. The definition of motion control in this issue is the control of mechanical systems driven by electrical actuators such as a do servo motor or an ac servo motor. The means or strategy of motion control has so far been of interest only to electrical engineers and mechanical engineers; it has not been as familiar to robotics engineers. Recently, a control system has been developed with industry applications. Advanced motor control technology in Japan is based on the robust control system, such as the disturbance observer, the H00 control system, the two-degrees-of-freedom control system and so on. The disturbance observer has a simple structure, and it is quite valid for disturbance torque rejection. The robust control system based on the disturbance observer is now widely used in robot and mechanical systems in Japan. The disturbance observer is the original Japanese technology designed by two electrical engineers, Prof. Ohnishi and myself, from the viewpoint of the electrical actuator but control theory. Ho control is linear control technics popular around the world. It can make the desired loop shaping of frequency characteristics for a plant system such as the actuator of a mechanical system. The robust control system based on the mixed sensitivity problem of H00 control theory has good frequency characteristics. Moreover, the availability of large amounts of computational power has enabled us to use complex control theory, and actuators for robotics applications are now mainly electrical ones because of the remarkable progress in power electronics. This change in the control of mechanical systems is a new and attractive one. Motion control is becoming a field of interest to control, electrical, and mechanical engineers who work in robotics. In this issue, the eight papers and the two news reports have been selected to show the current topics concerned with control systems in mechatronics. The first paper is a review paper titled “robust motion control by the disturbance observer”. Prof. Ohnishi describes the physical meaning of motion control and the purpose of robust control. This review paper also shows the effectiveness of motion control based on the disturbance observer. Four papers in this issue deal with robot motion control systems using the disturbance observer. Mr. Oda explains the decoupling force control method of redundant robot manipulation by workspace disturbance observer which is not a joint space disturbance observer such as an ordinary disturbance observer. Dr. Komada explains the hybrid position/force control method based on second derivatives of position and force, which uses the force-based disturbance observer. Dr. Shimada explains the servo system considering a robot of low stiffness, which is based on the disturbance and velocity observer. This observer is mounted with each joint. Prof. Kuroe explains the decoupling control method of robot manipulation using a variable structure disturbance observer which is not an ordinary linear disturbance observer. The other three papers in this issue deal with robot motion control using the other advanced control system. Prof. Ohishi, myself explains the hybrid position/force control method without a force sensor, which is based on H00 acceleration controller and torque observer. This torque observer is the same observer as the ordinary disturbance observer. Mr. Fujimoto explains the three dimensional digital simulation of legged robots for advanced motion control. Mr. Kang explains the state estimation for mobile robots using a partially observable Markov decision process. This method can estimate the mobile robot state precisely and robustly. The two news reports in this issue deal with control and robot laboratory news from Japanese universities such as news generated by Prof. Hori of the University of Tokyo and Prof. Hori of Mie University. Both Prof. Horis are famous and active researchers in advanced motion control. This issue scans only one aspect of control systems, not the whole. Adaptive control, learning control, and other advanced control methods such as the LMI method are not mentioned. The subject of control systems in mechatronics is now expanding and developing. I greatly appreciate the efforts of the reviewers and authors in producing this issue, and I thank the Chief-Editor, Prof. Toshio Fukuda, for encouraging us to prepare it.

: pp. 218-225
Robust Motion Control by Disturbance Observer
Abstract
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Kouhei Ohnishi
: pp. 226-234
Hybrid Position and Force Control Without Force Sensor
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Kiyoshi Ohishi, Masaru Miyazaki and Masahiro Fujita
: pp. 235-242
A Robust Control Strategy of Redundant Manipulator by Workspace Observer
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Naoki Oda, Toshiyuki Murakami, Kouhei Ohnishi
: pp. 243-251
Hybrid Position/Force Control of Robot Manipulators Based on Second Derivatives of Position and Force
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Satoshi Komada, Muneaki Ishida, Kouhei Ohnishi and Takamasa Hori
: pp. 252-258
Servo System Design Considering Low-Stiffness of Robot
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Akira Shimada
: pp. 259-265
Variable-Structure Disturbance Observer for Decoupling Control of Robot Manipulators
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Yasuaki Kuroe and Hsin-Nan Lin
: pp. 266-271
Three Dimensional Digital Simulation of Legged Robots
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Yasutaka Fujimoto and Atsuo Kawamura
: pp. 272-277
State Estimation for Mobile Robot using Partially Observable Markov Decision Process
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Daehee Kang, Hideki Hashimoto and Fumio Harashima
: pp. 278-285
Flexible Manipulator Control Based on Inverse Dynamics Model and Joint Feedback
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Joško Petrić and Joško Deur
: pp. 286-291
Efficiency Assessment of Performance of Decentralized Autonomous Multi-Robot Systems
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Arvin Agah and George A. Bekey
: pp. 292-296
Force Controlled Pneumatic Manipulator
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Guido Belforte, Terenziano Raparelli, and Mauro Velardocchia
: pp. 297-301
GA in Continuous Space and Fuzzy Classifier System for Opening a Door with a Manipulator of Mobile Robot: New Benchmark of Evolutionary Intelligent Computing
Abstract
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J. Ohwi, S.V. Ulyanov and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 302-311
Modeling and Robust Control of a Flexible Solar Array Paddle as Clamped-Clamped-Free-Free Rectangular Plates
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Fumitoshi Matsuno
: pp. 312-314
The University of Tokyo – Hori Laboratory –
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Yoichi Hori
: pp. 315-316
Mie University, Faculty of Engineering, Hori Research Laboratory
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Takamasa Hori, Muneaki Ishida and Satoshi Komada

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Biological Information

Special Issue on Biological Information

: p. 129
Biological Information
Hideto Ide

The issues facing Japan at the present moment may be represented by three key phrases: population aging, information, and internationalization. Among these, the problem of population aging is not such a relaxed research issue involving the question ‘I wish we had such a machine.’, but rather a serious one which might destroy the very fabric of society unless some machines were used to solve the problem. The average age of the population in Japan is rising at an alarming rate, and the fact that the population composition is top-heavy does not need any explanation. An abrupt change causes a transitory phenomenon, and the problem becomes even more serious. Soon after the beginning of the 20th century, the aging of the population became the most serious condition, and it was thought that the situation would improve if that condition could be overcome. Population aging causes not only a lack of capacity in medical treatments, maintenance of health, and nursing for the society as a whole but also a variety of problems, in a wider sense, related to aged workers, the morale of the society, etc. The society would certainly like to see workable, healthy old people work and only slightly handicapped people do what they want to do on their own. There is every likelihood that in the future an increasing number of people will require nursing help, thereby causing a shortage of nursing people. This shortage must be filled by machines. Unless machines come to assistance, the society will not function on its own. There are people who talk of the aged as people having handicapped, dark images, but since a majority of the society will become aged, the society itself must be designed to suit the aged. Who is going to take care of the aged? Your own children or spouse? The answer is No. From now on, one should take care of his needs entirely by himself. However, those who are physically unwell cannot take care of themselves. Then who? It is a ‘robot’. For that, a robot must be developed who is understanding, warm-hearted, resembling a grandchild or a sweetheart. At present, robots are used in every industrial sector. At first, each of them had a single function. Today, robots with multi-functionality, with intelligence, and with learning capability have made their appearance. In addition, robots can now carry out tasks in such extreme environments as deep seas, the outer space, and radioactive situations.

: pp. 130-135
Analysis of Correlation Dimension of P300 by Stimulation of Auditory Sense
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Kouji Taguchi, Masafumi Uchida, and Hideto Ide
: pp. 136-143
Apparent Temperature Patterns Superposed on Thermal Infrared Images and Their Removal
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Minoru Inamura
: pp. 144-148
On Features Obtained by Insertion of White Noise into Intermittently Removed Intervals of Speech Signals
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Manabu Ishihara, and Jun Shirataki
: pp. 149-152
Estimation of Vocal Spectra Using Maximum Entropy Method – on Number of Sample Data and Estimation Order
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Jun Shirataki and Manabu Ishihara
: pp. 153-157
Analysis of Body Temperature Distributions Generated by an Ultrashortwave Apparatus
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Yoshiyuki Kageyama, Toshihiro Tsutzuki, Kazuo Matsushima, Go Kihara, Hideyuki Suzuki and Koichi Takahashi
: pp. 158-162
Method for Measurement of Body Image
Abstract
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Toshinori Kobayashi, Torn Ishikawa, Kuninao Minakawa and Michihiko Nakamura
: pp. 163-166
Frequency Analysis System for Auditory Nerves with Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) by Harmonious Tone
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Masafumi Uchida
: pp. 167-170
Recognition System for Awakening and Sleeping by Fuzzy Reasoning
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Takashi Oyabu
: pp. 171-176
A Region-Based Stereo
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Hiroshi Katsulai and Hirotaka Niwa
: pp. 177-182
Discrimination of Material Properties by Mono-Structural Touch Sensor with Capacitive-Inductive Function
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Desheng Li and Katsunori Shida
: pp. 183-189
Ultrasonic Telemetering System for the Electrocardiograms of Scuba Divers
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Etsuzo Ohdaira and Masao Ide
: pp. 190-194
Theoretical Analysis of Repetitive Firings in Muscle Membranes
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Kazuko Terada, Shuji Yoshizawa and Chiaki Nishimura
: pp. 195-199
Development of a High-Resolution Optical Heterodyne Interferometer and its Applications
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Koichiro Miyagi
: pp. 211-216
Modeling of Knee Joint in The Human Lower Extremity by Using Cam-Follower and Revolute-Translational Composite Joint
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P. Eko Purwanto, Shigeki Toyama and Atsuhiko Kamijima

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Robot Motion Planning

Special Issue on Robot Motion Planning

: p. 1
Robot Motion Planning
Hiroshi Noborio and Takashi Tsubouchi

This special issue is devoted to robot motion planning. The main scope of this issue covers research work on mobile robotics. Motion planning is necessary when the robot determines its own actions. For the last decade, the paradigm of motion planning in mobile robotics has shifted from off-line motion planning to on-line motion planning and from planning in a static environment to planning in a time-varying environment. Recent progress of computational power has enabled this paradigm shift, since on-line motion planning and planning in time-varying environments require repeated computation based on sensory information which is always renewed. The guest editors organized this special issue in order to highlight those two new paradigms. We present two survey papers: One is a survey of on-line motion planning for a sensor-based navigation of a mobile robot, and the other is a survey of motion planning for mobile robots in a time-varying environment. Along with the survey papers, distinguished technical papers are provided in this special issue. Concerning path planning, a paper describing a case study on motion planning with teaching is included (Ogata et al). Motion planning based on Fuzzy logic is one approach, and three papers from Maeda, Ishikawa et al. and Nagata et al. also belong to this category. To offer a case study on reactive motion decision making, one paper by Ando et al. is included. A recently emerging subject is related to motion planning for cooperation of multiple mobile robots or a single robot among multiple moving obstacles. Three papers from Yoshioka et al., Ota et al., and Fujimura discuss problems on motion planning for cooperation of multiple mobile robots. One paper from Tsubouchi et al. discussed the motion planning of a single robot among multiple moving obstacles. Motion planning to select an appropriate corner cube as a landmark is addressed in the paper from Hashimoto et al. The guest editors hope that this special issue will provide the readers with a lock at some current issues and new perspectives on robot motion planning.

: pp. 2-14
On a Sensor-Based Navigation for a Mobile Robot
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Hiroshi Noborio
: pp. 15-24
Motion Planning for Mobile Robots in a Time-Varying Environment: A Survey
Abstract
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Takashi Tsubouchi and Markus Rude
: pp. 25-32
Path Planning Based on Task Knowledge and User’s Intention
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Hiroyuki Ogata and Tomoichi Takahashi
: pp. 33-39
A Reactive Wall Following Algorithm and Its Behavior of an Autonomous Mobile Robot with Sonar Ring
Abstract
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Yoshinobu Ando, Takashi Tsubouchi and Shin’ichi Yuta
: pp. 40-48
Sensor-Based Traffic Rules for Multiple Automata Based on a Geometric Deadlock-Free Characteristic
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Takashi Yoshioka and Hiroshi Noborio
: pp. 49-57
Fuzzy Real-time Advanced Shell for Intelligent Control with Fuzzy Algorithm Compiler
Abstract
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Yoichiro Maeda
: pp. 58-66
Planning and Navigation by a Mobile Robot in the Presence of Multiple Moving Obstacles and Their Velocities
Abstract
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Takashi Tsubouchi, Tomohide Naniwa and Suguru Arimoto
: pp. 67-74
Motion Planning of Multiple Mobile Robots Using Virtual Impedance
Abstract
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Tamio Arai and Jun Ota
: pp. 75-80
Planning Cooperative Motion for Distributed Mobile Agents
Abstract
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Kikuo Fujimura and Karansher Singh
: pp. 81-92
A Method of Piloting an Autonomous Mobile Robot in Dynamically Changing Environment Including Moving Obstacles
Abstract
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Shigeki Ishikawa and Shun’ichi Asaka
: pp. 93-103
Position Estimation Method for Wheeled Mobile Robot by Integrating Laser Navigation and Dead Reckoning Systems
Abstract
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Masafumi Hashimoto, Fuminori Oba, Yasushi Fujikawa, Kazutoshi Imamaki, and Tetsuo Nishida
: pp. 104-111
Intelligent Control Concerning Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robot
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Hideo Nagata, and Takeshi Tsuchiya
: pp. 112-121
Control Experiment of a Flexible Robot Arm Using the Floating Frame Model
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Roberto Caracciolo, Enrico Ceresole, and Marco Giovagnoni

Vol.7 (1995)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on New Actuators

Special Issue on New Actuators

: p. 421
New Actuators
Akihito Sano

The field of robotics and mechatronics can benefit greatly from the development of its peripheral elements. At the time when the author began studies on legged locomotion robots in 1984, many researchers in the fields of mechanical engineering, control engineering, and electrical engineering became interested in this subject, and it was becoming possible to carry out not only the theoretical discussions on the basis of simulations but also the experimental discussions using actual machines. This is because, at that time, computers were rapidly increasing their performance and were becoming relatively inexpensive so that they were being introduced into work even at research laboratories of universities. Needless to say, without such development of computer technology, the advances not only in the legged locomotion robots but also in a number of mechatronic devices would have been hampered. For us who have gotten hold of high-performance computers, one of the present overriding issues is an appearance of new high-performance actuators. Almost every legged locomotion robot uses either an electric motor or a hydraulic actuator. However, its energy sources are placed outside the robot, and these actuators themselves have not really been miniaturized to any remarkable extent up to now. Computer control is indispensable for mechatronic devices that are equipped with actuators. At present, various control theories are being proposed in an effort to raise control performance by compensating restrictions on hardware (such as power-weight ratio, responsiveness, nonlinearity, etc.) as many as possible. It is necessary to continue such control-theoretic discussions in the future as well. On the other hand, however, rapid progress in hardware involving actuators and sensors may have a possibility of raising such performance drastically all at once. In the future, it is hoped that researchers are not well versed in the robotics or mechatronics may participate to develop the actuators based on new principles. The fact that an electro-rheological fluid may be used as actuators is attracting attention, for example. In actually developing devices incorporating with the electro-rheological fluid, various experimental data must be fed back skillfully to the chemists as developers of the fluids. In other words, the cooperation of both sides is extremely important. The author feels through his own studies the importance of developing high-performance actuators. In addition, since the debugging (improvement) of hardware (actuators) takes a longer time than the debugging of software, a patient and steady R&D is considered necessary. In this special issue, Prof. Takamori (Kobe University) was requested to provide a general overview as an expert engaged in studies of the actuators over a long period of time; he presented an explanation on what are new, hopeful actuators and also on the latest achievements that are considered promising in the future, now that the 21st century is so close. Other researchers were kind enough to introduce their very creative and advanced studies as well.

: pp. 422-428
Development and Progress of Expected New Actuator Technology
Abstract
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Toshi Takamori
: pp. 429-435
Development of Micro Actuator Using ER Fluid
Abstract
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Akihito Sano, Junji Furusho and Hideo Fujimoto
: pp. 436-442
Hybrid-Type Position and Force Control of Robot Manipulator Using Artificial Rubber Muscle
Abstract
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Toshiro Noritsugu, Fuminori Ando, Shujiro Dohta and Takashi Yamanaka
: pp. 443-448
Dynamic Properties of the Visco-Elastic Actuator Designed as an Artificial Muscle
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Masami Saito Youjiro Tamura and Junji Furusho
: pp. 449-457
A millimeter-Sized Robot Using SMA and Its Control
Abstract
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Katsutoshi Kuribayashi and Seiji Shimizu
: pp. 458-466
Basic Consideration of Actuators with Multi DOF Having an Identical Center of Rotation
Abstract
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Tomoaki Yano and Makoto Kaneko
: pp. 467-473
Motion Control of a Piezopolymer Bimorph Flexible Microactuator
Abstract
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Minoru Sasaki and Masayuki Okugawa
: pp. 474-482
Pneumatic Bellows Actuator with Force Sensing Ability and Its Application to a Pneumatic Robot
Abstract
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Yasuhiro Hayakawa and Sadao Kawamura
: pp. 483-487
Control of Vertebrate Backbone System by Using Artificial Rubber Muscles (Control of Two-Degree-of-Freedom System by Using Three Artificial Rubber Muscles)
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Takashi Kawamura, Hisayoshi Kawahara and Masaru Nakazawa
: pp. 488-492
Miniature Robot with Micro Capillary Capturing Probe for Surface Clearing Operation
Abstract
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Hisayuki Aoyama, Futoshi Iwata, Jisuke Fukaya and Akira Sasaki

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Advanced Maintenance Robots

Special Issue on Advanced Maintenance Robots

: p. 353
Advanced Maintenance Robots
Hidemi Hosokai

At present, inspection and maintenance operations on various types of pipelines, structures, and others are carried out manually by human operators. Such operations are often performed, in general, under adverse environments such as high places and narrow areas. In addition, fire fighters in blazing high-rise buildings may be subjected to dangers involving high places and fires. Moreover, the robotization of grinding work in factories, for example, require a large number of empirical technologies. In order to mechanize tasks under such adverse environments and under special working conditions, research has been conducted, including studies of mobile mechanisms on inner walls and outer walls of piping, on wall surfaces of structures, etc. or studies of force control methods. Under these circumstances, this issue will be specialized in technical progress of various types of maintenance robots. First, a navigation system of a wind quantity inspection robot using a fuzzy neural network will be discussed by Messrs. Fukuda and Abe. Next, a report will be given by Messrs. Ishikawa and Shiire on the mechanism and functions of a pile recovery robot for large-diameter pipes, with a view to carrying out cleaning work inside cooling water pipes of electric power generation plants, as well as on its field testing. Furthermore, Messrs. Kawaguchi and Yoshida will be asked to report on the mechanism of an inspection robot for use on the inner surfaces of gas piping buried in the ground. In addition, a discussion will be carried out by Messrs. Naruse and Takada on the mechanism and fire extinguishing capability of a hybrid robot system for use in combatting fires in high-rise buildings. Moreover, Messrs. Ozaki and Jinno will be discussing the mechanism and force control system of a grinding robot. In addition, a discussion will be carried out by Messrs. Hosokai and Hara regarding the motion function of a piping inspection robot having a lazy tong mechanism and also regarding its piping test results. Finally, Messrs. Amano and Kakikura will be called upon to give a discussion concerning a robot for carrying out exfoliation of finishing materials on the outer walls of structures and its exfoliation. In closing, it is hoped that this special issue will be of some help in the future when such maintenance robots are developed.

: pp. 354-366
Navigation System for Air Conditioning Equipment Inspection Robot
Abstract
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Yasunori Abe, Toshio Fukuda, Kouetsu Tanaka, Yoshio Tanaka, Fumihito Arai, Koji Shimojima and Shigenori Ito
: pp. 367-370
Development of a Maintenance Work Robot for Large Diameter Water Piping – A Vacuum-Cleaning Vehicle Robot –
Abstract
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Yoshinobu Ishikawa and Hidetake Shiire
: pp. 371-376
Development of Internal Gas Pipe Inspection Robot
Abstract
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Yoshifumi Kawaguchi, Itsuo Yoshida, Keizo Iwao and Takashi Kikuta
: pp. 377-382
Hybrid Robot System Fire-Defense in High-Rise Buildings
Abstract
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Toshihisa Naruse and Yoshinori Takada
: pp. 383-388
A Force Controlled Finishing Robot System with a Task-Directed Robot Language
Abstract
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Fumio Ozaki, Makoto Jinno, Takashi Yoshimi, and Kyoichi Tatsuno, Mikio Takahashi, Masakazu Kanda, Yasuhiko Tamada, and Shintaro Nagataki
: pp. 389-396
Maneuverability of Control in Passing Over a Reducer and Pipeline Diagnostic Results of Mark V Robot with Lazy Tongs Mechanism
Abstract
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Hidemi Hosokai, Fumio Hara, Yasuyuki Uchida, Yasunori Abe, Koetsu Tanaka, and Yoshio Tanaka
: pp. 397-403
Evaluation of Removed Quantity for Wall Coating Removing Robot Using Image Processing
Abstract
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Masayoshi Kakikura, Masaru Amano, and Osamu Okamoto
: pp. 404-409
Detection of Blobs Using Variable Windows
Abstract
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Machi Saitoh and Hiroshi Katsulai
: pp. 410-418
Force Control of Manipulators Based on H Controller (Application of Joint Torque Feedback)
Abstract
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Guoguang Zhang, Junji Furusho and Akihito Sano
: p. 419
Digital Control Parallel VLSI Processor
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Michitaka Kameyama

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Advanced Vehicle Dynamics and, Control

Special Issue on Advanced Vehicle Dynamics and, Control

: p. 273
Advanced Vehicle Dynamics and, Control
Kazuto Seto

Various attempts have been made from olden days on vehicles for better riding comfort and for improved maneuverability. Past vehicles have achieved vibration isolation performance, which relaxes impact from road surfaces, by means of link mechanisms and passive suspensions consisting of springs and dampers, as well as basic motion performance such as running, turning, and stopping. However, as far as passenger cars are concerned, a passive suspension has its own limitation, and the contradiction that if riding comfort is to be improved at low speeds, the maneuverability during high-speed operations becomes bad has not been solved. Demand of users has become stronger and stronger for vehicles which satisfy riding comfort and maneuverability at the same time. Moreover, as far as trains are concerned, the past technology has increased the vibration of trains as they are operated at higher speeds; thus a drop in riding comfort has been a cause for preventing high-speed operations. Nevertheless, in line with progress in mechatronic technology, active suspensions have been adopted aggressively in automobiles and trains in recent years, and attempts have been started for improving both riding comfort and maneuverability to satisfy demand of users. Some passenger cars have already appeared which are equipped with an active suspension. A similar trend is found in the case of trains; by the introduction of active suspensions, operations of trains on conventional lines at higher speeds are being started. Under these circumstances, this special issue has been created. Although high performance in vehicles may be achieved by means of active suspensions, the problem of increased energy consumption has become a serious issue, which has been brought to the fore with the bursting of the bubble. This problem seems to be solved by saying how effectively semi-active suspensions may be realized. In this special issue, new trends have been taken up, such as vehicle dynamics, design theory on active suspension systems, reduction of engine vibration by optimum design of hydraulic engine mounts, design of control systems for neural networks of semi-active suspension systems, control of variable structures of suspension systems, predictive control, magnetic levitation suspension, etc. It is hoped that these articles will be useful in future research.

: pp. 274-279
Automotive’s Vibration Analysis by Dynamic Impedance Method (Available Criterion in Use of Singular Value Decomposition)
Abstract
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Masanobu Nakamura, Akio Nagamatsu, Takeshi Sawanobori, Yoshinobu Kamada and Hideyuki Hata
: pp. 280-284
Theory of Active Suspension Design
Abstract
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Kunihiko Ichikawa
: pp. 285-294
Vibration Control of Engine Roll and Bounce Using Hydraulic Engine Mounts
Abstract
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Kazuto Seto, Masao Ishihama, Akio Nagamatsu and Kazuhiro Doi
: pp. 295-300
Integration of Bilinear Systems and Neural Networks for Designing Nonlinear Semi-Active Suspensions
Abstract
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Antonio Moran, Tomohiro Hasegawa and Masao Nagai
: pp. 301-306
Vehicle Dynamics Control with Variable Alignment Suspension
Abstract
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Mitsuhiko Harara, Hidekazu Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Takeo and Keiji Isoda
: pp. 307-311
Improvement of Ride Comfort with Active Suspension System Using Preview Control Law
Abstract
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Hideo Tobata, Takeshi Kimura and Yohsuke Akatsu
: pp. 312-318
The Estimation of Ambiguous Change in 4WS Control System Using Failure Detection Filter
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Masataka Osawa, Norio Iwama and Masaki Yamamoto
: pp. 319-323
H Vibration Control of Active Suspension for High-Speed Train
Abstract
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Akihiko Shimura and Kazuo Yoshida
: pp. 324-328
Enhanced Curving Performance of Unsymmetric Suspension Trucks with Semiactive Control Concept Even under Acting Traction/Brake Torque
Abstract
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Juraj Grenčík and Yoshihiro Suda
: pp. 329-335
Dynamics of the Mechanical Levitation Control System for Maglev Transport Vehicle (Effect of Guide Wheel Stiffness and Dead Zone Element)
Abstract
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Hitoshi Tsunashima, Takehiko Fujioka and Masato Abe
: pp. 336-343
Solution Space and BP Learning Behavior of Multilayer Networks Whose Units Are Different in Polarity
Abstract
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Hiromu Gotanda, Yoshihiro Ueda and Hiroshi Siratsuchi
: pp. 344-352
Modeling of Dynamics and Model-Based Control of DELTA Direct-Drive Parallel Robot
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Karol Miller and Boris S. Stevens

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on 2nd Japan-France Congress on Mechatronics

Special Issue on 2nd Japan-France Congress on Mechatronics

: p. 195
2nd Japan-France Congress on Mechatronics
Seiji Hata

Following the I st congress in Besancon in 1992, the 2nd Japan-France Congress on Mechatronics was held at Takamatsu City in Japan from November 1 to 3, 1994. The congress was co-sponsored by Kagawa University, the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, and l’Institut des Microtechniques de Franche-Comte. A total of 282 persons participated in the congress, 49 from France, 209 from Japan, and 24 from other countries including China, U.S., Turkey, Korea, and Switzerland. Researchers and engineers from a total of 15 countries participated in the congress. The congress continues to become more international and exciting. There are six sessions at the congress. The session names and the number of the papers belonging to each are as follows: (1) Mechatronics, 33 papers; (2) Robotics, 53 papers; (3) Sensors, 26 papers; (4) Vision, 33 papers; (5) Microelectro Mechanical Systems, 20 papers; and (6) CIM & Systems, 21 papers. The total number of papers 186. Additionally, three keynote speakers discussed the current status and future of the mechatronics technologies. The papers were presented at the oral sessions and the poster sessions. In this special issue, 11 papers from these fields are presented to describe the current technological status in Japan. Takamatsu is charming old city near Osaka. The congress was held at the exhibition center in Intelligent Park in Takamatsu, which was newly developed as the technological center of the area. The congress was held at such a location so that participants from abroad could gain a feel for ordinary life in Japan. In addition to the congress, there were two technical tours before and after the congress. The technical tour to the industries in Takamatsu showed the vivid medium size manufacturers in Japan. It is the another viewpoint contrary to the huge companies of Japan. During the congress, there were warm and friendly technological interactions between Japan and Europe. This should be further encouraged, and more countries should be included in the congress. The 3rd French-Japanese Congress on Mechatronics will be held at Besancon, France in 1996. It will also be the first European-Asia Congress. I hope that many researchers and engineers from all over the world, will participate in the congress and that the warm and friendly atmosphere of the past congress is provided at the next congress.

: pp. 196-199
CIM, Its Application, Technology and Future
Abstract
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Yuji Furukawa
: pp. 200-203
Packaged Sensors, Microactuators and Three-Dimensional Microfabrication
Abstract
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Masayoshi Esashi
: pp. 204-208
Human Reader: A Paradigm for a Multimedia-Based Human Interface
Abstract
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Yasuhito Suenaga
: pp. 209-212
Robotic Intelligence for Man-Robot Cohabitation – Model-Based Approach –
Abstract
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Tsutomu Hasegawa
: pp. 213-217
A Robotic Truck Crane with Vibration Sensors
Abstract
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Yoshio Tanaka, Tetsushi Ueta, Hiroshi Kawakami and Takashi Sumitomo
: pp. 218-220
Rotation Measurement and Control of Optically Trapped Particles
Abstract
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Akihiro Yamamoto and Ichirou Yamaguchi
: pp. 221-224
3-D Shape Measurement Sensor for Specular Objects
Abstract
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Harunobu Kawai, Toshihiro Hamada, Hiroki Nakanishi and Seiji Hata
: pp. 225-229
Inspection System of Soldering Joint on Printed Circuit Board by Using Neural Network
Abstract
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Shunichiro Oe, Kennichi Kaida, Daisuke Nagai, Mituo Nakamura, Tomohiro Kimura and Koichi Kameyama
: pp. 230-233
Automatic Combination of Modular Machine Elements Forming Complex Manufacturing Cell
Abstract
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Yoshimi Takeuchi, Naoki Asakawa and Yoshihiro Totani
: pp. 234-237
High-Speed Machine Vision System Based on Human Sensibility Analysis for Automotive Cluster Dial Inspection
Abstract
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Yoshio Yokoyama and Eiji Ichihashi
: pp. 238-241
Measurement of Color CRT Beam Profile and Its Application to Focus Evaluation
Abstract
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Toshio Asano, Jun Mochizuki, Kinuyo Hagimae, Takashi Ohta and Nobuo Fukuhara
: pp. 242-249
Simplified Adaptive Nonlinear Robust Controller for Linearized Pantagraph-Type Manipulator
Abstract
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Kiyotaka Izumi, Keigo Watanabe and Masatoshi Nakamura
: pp. 250-262
Adaptive Reinforcement Learning and Its Application to Robot Compliance Learning
Abstract
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Boo-Ho Yang and Haruhiko Asada
: pp. 263-269
Autonomous Mobile Robot for Hospitals
Abstract
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Gerald Seet, R.S. Senanayake and Eicher Low
: pp. 270-272
Miniaturized Light Source Direction Sensitive Device: DSD
Abstract
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Masanori Idesawa

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Biological Information Sensors

Special Issue on Biological Information Sensors

: p. 91
Biological Information Sensors
Hideto Ide

Robot researchers are always aiming at expanding robot functions, but no doubt the foremost aim in the expansion of functions is learning ability. Without learning ability, it is impossible to cope with the environment which changes in million different ways. Speaking from the present level of knowledge, it will be impossible for a robot to approach anything close to a human being even in the year 2000. This time, let us lower our aim one step below the ideal level and look our eyes at reality, which encompasses biological information and sensors. A human hand is an excellent actuator as well as an excellent sensor. The functions as an actuator have a close interaction with the functions as a sensor, and through this interaction, many functions are recognized and actions are realized. Generally speaking, it is common knowledge that the operation of an actuator is assisted by sensor information in the form of feedback, but in thecase of a hand, there exist not only this form but also a reverse form, namely a form in which an actuator is used in order to realize the sensing function; in addition, a form in which these two forms are mixed also exists. Thus, the motion of a mere hand contains very complex elements. This special issue, as was the case with the issue of last year published in a similar fashion, is considered interesting in order to learn what topics have been created in the past year. Thanks are expressed to those authors who have contributed their papers to this issue.

: pp. 92-99
A Diagram Acquisition and Generation System for Blind Persons Using Tactile and Auditory Senses
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Hiroki Minagawa, Noboru Ohnishi and Noboru Sugie
: pp. 100-107
Identification of Fuzzy Rule on Manual Control of an Unstable System
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Shigehiro Masui, Toshiro Terano and Yoshimasa Sugaya
: pp. 108-111
Low Dose Radio Frequency Irradiation at 906MHz did not Cause Any Adverse Effects on Growth of Several Organs in Mice but Caused Elongation of the Gestation Period
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Kenichi Saito, Nobuo Goto, Kenkichi Imamura and Katsushi Suzuki
: pp. 112-118
Evaluation of the Arousal Level in Motorcar Driving Using Skin Potential Level II: Its Effectiveness Compared with Other Electrophysiological Quantities
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Chiaki Nishimura, Akio Kosaka, Kazuko Terada, Shuji Yoshizawa and Jun’ichi Nagumo
: pp. 119-124
Recognition of Shaded Patterns with Noise by Using a Layered MVL Neural Network
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Masayuki Matsumoto and Tatsuki Watanabe
: pp. 125-130
Extraction of Feature Elements of Faces by Sequential Search
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Tatsuko Sakai, Kayoko Nakajima, Guo Su Mei and Hiroshi Katsulai
: pp. 131-134
Shock on Head and Bone Conduction Speech
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Manabu Ishihara and Jun Shirataki
: pp. 135-140
Estimation of the Under-Surface Temperature Pattern by Dynamic Remote Sensing
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Minoru Inamura and Hiromichi Toyota
: pp. 141-146
Analysis on Mishearing of Speech Signals Whose Constant Intervals are Periodically Eliminated, and Its Characteristics
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Jun Shirataki, and Manabu Ishihara
: pp. 147-150
New Model of the Ultrasonic Walking Aid for the Blind
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Etsuzo Ohdaira and Masao Ide
: pp. 151-155
Relationship between Circadian Rhythm in Body Temperature and Ultradian Variations of Psychological and Physiological States in Arousal
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Yoichi Tsuji and Kazuyuki Nagasawa
: pp. 156-160
Determination of Water Content in Brake Fluids by Using Capacitance Sensors and Measurement of Fluid Quantity by Dielectric Constant
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Ryou Minagawa, Sadao Yamazaki, Teruo Negishi and Minoru Hara
: pp. 161-168
Hand Manipulation and Impedance Adjustment
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Koji Ito
: pp. 169-171
Stress Analysis of Dental Implant Bodies by Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method
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Yoshiyuki Kageyama, Mari Shimura, Eiichi Nagai, Yoshinori Sato and Hideyuki Majima
: pp. 172-178
On the Relationship between Contact Resistance and Friction Coefficient
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Terutaka Tamai
: pp. 179-185
Basics of Magnetic Stimulation of Living Bodies and Its Applications
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Shoogo Ueno
: pp. 186-187
Application of Fluency Theory to Analysis of Event-Related Potentials
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Hideto Ide, Satoki P. Ninomija, Satoshi Suzuki and Mariko F. Funada
: pp. 188-189
Analysis of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials by Air-Puff Stimulated Skin
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Hideto Ide, Satoki P. Ninomija, Satoshi Suzuki and Mariko F. Funada
: pp. 190-193
Development of Feeble Grasping Power Sensor Based on Rubber Optical Fiber
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Eiji Toba, Ichiro Furihata, Mitsuo Naito and Tokuji Yokozeki

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Fuzzy Control

Special Issue on Fuzzy Control

: p. 1
Fuzzy Control
Keigo Watanabe

This special issue is devoted to the study of Fuzzy Control applied to robotics and mechatronics. In particular, it contains a collection of fuzzy-neural network approaches, together with the conventional fuzzy reasoning or new approaches. Since the first pioneering work on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic reported in 1965 by Zadeh, many control application papers have been published with the fundamental fuzzy controllers based on the so-called Mamdani’s min-max centroidal method, the TakagiSugeno’s functional reasoning, and the simplified reasoning. However, it is recognized that much trial and error is necessary in the design of the conventional fuzzy controller, because the fuzzy reasoning methods mentioned above are not fundamentally related to any control or system theory. In addition, it should be noted that the total number of control rules grows exponentially as the number of input variables to the conventional fuzzy reasoning increases. Thus, in order to improve the conventional approach and develop the new approach for large-scale systems, most current work on fuzzy control is concerned with an effective design, construction, or analysis of the fuzzy controller by invoking the neural network theory, genetic algorithm, and other control or system theories. Although the literature, both in Japanese and in English, on fuzzy control and applications is now very rich, I believe that this special issue provides an important impact on the advanced fuzzy control. This issue would not have been possible without the enthusiastic support of the contributors. I am indebted to all of them for their up-to-date contributions and to the editorial staff for care throughout the editorial and printing process.

: pp. 2-8
Applications of Neuro Fuzzy Technology in Consumer Electronics Products
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Ryu Katayama
: pp. 9-11
Applications of Fuzzy Control to Automobiles
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Hiroshi Takahashi
: pp. 12-20
Block Hierarchical Fuzzy-Neural Networks and Their Application to a Mobile Robot Control
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Jun Tang, Keigo Watanabe, and Masatoshi Nakamura
: pp. 21-28
Robot Manipulator Control Using Fuzzy Gaussian Potential Neural Networks
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Mohammad Teshnehlab and Keigo Watanabe
: pp. 29-35
Structure Organization of Hierarchical Fuzzy Model Using Genetic Algorithm
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Toshio Fukuda, Yasuhisa Hasegawa and Koji Shimojima
: pp. 36-44
Fuzzy Control for Inverted Pendulum Using Fuzzy Neural Networks
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Shin-ichi Horikawa, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Takeshi Furuhashi and Yoshiki Uchikawa
: pp. 45-51
A Systematic Design of Fuzzy Control System for Inverted Pendulum
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Shigeyasu Kawaji, Nobutomo Matsunaga, and Teruyuki Maeda
: pp. 52-56
Parking Motion Planning and Control of a Car-Like Robot Using a Fuzzy Neural Network
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Motoji Yamamoto, Masaaki Kobayashi, and Akira Mohri
: pp. 57-62
Back-Upper Control of a Car-Like Robot Having a Trailer via Model-Based Fuzzy Control
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Kazuo Tanaka
: pp. 63-68
Positioning System with Progressive Wave-Type Ultrasonic Motor under Self-Tuning Fuzzy Control
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Junji Fukumi, Takuya Kamano, Takayuki Suzuki and Yu Kataoka
: pp. 69-74
Cooperative Control of Human-Robot System Using Fuzzy Reasoning
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Toshiro Noritsugu and Hiroyuki Inoue
: pp. 75-85
Expert Fuzzy-Neuro Controller Design for Wall Climbing Robot for Decontamination of Nuclear-Power Station
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Sergei V. Ulyanov, Kazuo Yamafuji, Valery G. Gradetsky and Andrea Pagni
: pp. 86-90
A Study of Line-Fitting Method by Using Genetic Algorithm
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Takatoshi Yamagishi and Takehiko Tomikawa

Vol.6 (1994)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems

Special Issue on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems

: p. 441
Intelligent Manufacturing Systems
Yoshio Mizugaki

Production engineering and manufacturing industries face difficulties in developing a new paradigm to cope with the post mass-production era. Consumers’ preferences change very quickly and vary over a wide range of taste. A product’s life cycle becomes shorter than shorter. Thus, rapid prototyping techniques have been requested, and some new concepts on manufacturing have been presented including Flexible Manufacturing System, Factory (or Flexible) Automation, Computer Integrated Manufacturing System, and Concurrent Engineering. After the termination of the cold war, many regional economies combined through international trade and dynamically evolved into global economies. Such change had significant effects on manufacturing industries and consequently on production engineering. As a new paradigm in the post mass-production era, the creation of manufacturing culture has been advocated by Prof. Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, President of University of Tokyo. It contains not only the movement towards standardization of conventional manufacturing knowledge but also the development of a global manufacturing system with use of computerization. At his advocation, the international research project of Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) was initiated. This bimonthly journal is a special issue on the IMS project and similar topics widely covering intelligent manufacturing systems. The former part of the contents is the description of the IMS project. It consists of the commentary articles quoted from the IMS news and the latest reports of IMS international test cases. The Japan IMS center publishes the IMS news and strongly supports the IMS project itself with collaboration of Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan (MITI). The authors of these reports are primarily enrolled in the actual responsibility to promote their projects and newly write the articles for this journal. I would like to thank the IMS center and each author for their contributions to this special issue on the IMS project. The latter part of the contents consists of the articles on the STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP) and some technical papers on manufacturing. A conference report on the 2nd Japan-France Congress on Mechatronics is also provided in this issue. I would like to thank all contributors for their cooperation in creating this special issue. As can be easily seen, this issue focused on the forthcoming advancement on production engineering and manufacturing through the movement of Intelligent Manufacturing Systems. As the editor of this special issue on Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, I hope that the readers pay attention to this new movement and become involved in the near future.

: pp. 449-452
Clean Manufacturing in the Process Industries
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Tetsuya Oishi and Tetsu Shimatani
: pp. 453-458
Globeman2l
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Tetsuya Oishi and Kouji Ueki
: pp. 459-463
Holonic Manufacturing Systems
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Shunji Mohri and Kenji Tokunaga
: pp. 464-469
GNOSIS Knowledge Systematization: Configuration Systems for Design and Manufacturing
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Moriki Toyama and Niall Murtagh
: pp. 470-473
Product Model Structures in STEP
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Hiromasa Suzuki
: pp. 474-478
STEP Draughting Model for the Exchange of Technical CAD Drawings
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Hiroyuki Hiraoka
: pp. 479-484
The Use of Self-Organizing Cells in Robot Motion Planning
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Toshifumi Satake, Akihiro Hayashi and Hiroshi Suzuki
: pp. 485-490
A Study of On-Machine Measurement with the Compensation of Probe Sensitivity in a Machine Tool
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Yoshio Mizugaki, Teruyuki Asao, Masafumi Sakamoto, Sadao Arai
: pp. 491-498
Trajectory Planning of Manipulator Using Optimization of Uniform B-Spline
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Hiroaki Ozaki and Hua Chiu

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Space Robotics

Special Issue on Space Robotics

: p. 345
Space Robotics
Yoshiaki Ohkami

Since the beginning of space exploration, “space robots” have attracted the imagination of many researchers and engineers, and a number of fascinating plans for their use have been proposed.’ However, only a few of these ideas have been realized in spite of the early realization that robots would be more appropriate than extra-vehicular activities by a human crew in the hostile space environment. One application is the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, called the “Canadian Robot Arm”, which has been functioning as expected for more than 10 years. In addition, ROTEX experiments on Space Lab a few years ago demonstrated that advanced robotic technology could perform more complicated tasks on board. It is also reminded that many other robotic experiments were canceled at some stage of their development: In particular, it was hoped that NASA’s Flight Telerobotic Servicer would be able to operate with the help of an Orbital Maneuvering Unit. There are complicated reasons for the project cancellations, but one reason seems to be that the maturity level of robotics technology is not high enough; that advanced teleoperation and dexterous manipulation have not reached a sufficient level for practical use. In Japan, most of the space research and development thus far has concentrated on the launching and in-flight operations of conventional spacecraft, so that there has been no real demand for space robots. Recently, however, the Space Activities Committee issued a report on the long term vision for space activities in Japan. In this report, the importance of the use of space robotics technologies for diversified space activities such as space platform servicing, unmanned exploration of Mars and the moon crew support inside the space station, telescience operations, and even for the reusable reentry vehicle HOPE was emphasized. This can be at least partially attributed to the very active research on robotics in Japan, and in turn has encouraged researchers working in these fields. This special issue on space robotics introduces the research activities as several representative organizations, although it does not imply an exhaustive list. Firstly, the activities of two space development organizations are introduced. The National Space Development Agency (NASDA) is responsible for launching and operation this as well as general technology verification. Included in this is the ETS-VII satellite, which as part of its overall mission, will conduct several robotic experiments. The robotic activities of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) are also outlined. This institution is primarily concerned with scientific missions to the Moon and Mars as well as planets further beyond. Second, the research activities at the national institutes are introduced. These institutes are responsible for supporting national projects at an early stage of development by providing fundamental data and key technologies. This is followed by an introduction to the very extensive research activities at universities across the country. At these universities, space robotics research is pursued not only in aerospace engineering departments but also in other disciplines such as mechanical engineering, control systems, electronics, and information processing. As mentioned before, there are some organizations which do not appear in this special issue. Nonetheless, the coordinator hopes that in Japan, the information given will prove to be useful as in introduction to space robotics research activities in Japan, and further wishes to express his deepest appreciation to all of the contributors.

: pp. 346-350
Space Robotics Research at Space Machines Laboratory, Department of Aeronautics and Space Engineering, Tohoku University – Research on Space Machines Aiming at the 21st Century –
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Masaru Uchiyama
: pp. 351-355
Dynamically Reconfigurable Robotic System
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Toshio Fukuda and Seiya Nakagawa
: pp. 356-359
Path Planning of Space Robots by Using Nonlinear Optimization Technique
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Yoshiyuki Sakawa and Takao Akiyama
: pp. 360-369
Disturbance Compensation Control of a Free-Flying Robot
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Hirohiko Arai and Kazuo Tanie
: pp. 370-374
In-Orbit Experiment of Space Robot Technologies on ETS-7
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Mitsushige Oda
: pp. 375-383
Space Robotics Research at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science
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Ichiro Nakatani and Takashi Kubota
: pp. 384-389
Performance Evaluation of Experimental Device for Space Robot
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Hironori A. Fujii, Kenji Uchiyama and Tsugito Maruyama
: pp. 390-393
Space Robotics Research at the Tokyo Institute of Technology
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Yoshiaki Ohkami, Saburo Matunaga and Kazuya Yoshida
: pp. 394-396
Research Activities for Space Robot at Osaka University
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Kazuo Tsuchiya
: pp. 397-401
Space Robotics Research at the University of Osaka Prefecture – Control of Free-Flying Robots with Structurally Flexible Manipulators –
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Yoshisada Murotsu and Kei Senda
: pp. 402-407
Space Robotics Researches at Electrotechnical Laboratory: Dexterous EV Robot Technology
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Kazuo Machida, Yoshitsugu Toda and Toshiaki Iwata
: pp. 408-411
Space Robotics Research in Hitachi MERL
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Taro Iwamoto and Hiroshi Yamamoto
: pp. 412-416
Space Robotics Research in NEC Corporation – Toward Space Robots: Integration of Robotics & Space Technology –
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Kenji Hiraishi and Nobuaki Takanashi
: pp. 417-421
Space Robot Study at Mitsubishi Electric Corp.
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Masao Inoue, Katsuhiko Yamada and Norimasa Yoshida
: pp. 422-424
Space Robotics Research at the National Aerospace Laboratory – Orbital Servicing Technology –
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Osamu Okamoto
: pp. 425-433
Representation and Matching of Two-dimensional Curvilinear Figures Considering Curvatures and Spatial Positions
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Hiroshi Katsulai
: pp. 434-439
Posture Detection and Landing Control of Robot Thrown in Midair
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Kazuo Yamafuji, Koutaro Honda and Tsuyoshi Kobayashi

No.4

(Aug)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 269-277
Modeling of Flexible Structures and Control Theory
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Kazuo Yoshida
: pp. 278-284
Simultaneous Optimization of Positioning and Vibration Controls Using Time-Varying Criterion Function
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Susumu Hara and Kazuo Yoshida
: pp. 285-291
A Study on Active Vibration Control of Plate Structures for Isolating Noise
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Kazuto Seto and Katsumi Sawatari
: pp. 292-297
Experimental Study on Arrangements of Setting Points of an Actuator and Sensor for the Vibration Control of Flexible Structures
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Kazuto Seto and Katsuhiko Ezure
: pp. 298-303
Vibration Control of A Time-Varying Flexible Beam Using a Piezoelectric Servo-Damper
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Chong-Won Lee, Sung-Dae Kim, Won-Ho Jee and Sang-Ho Lee
: pp. 304-311
Computer-Aided Control System Design and Control Performance for Active Vibration Control Systems Based on μ Synthesis Theory
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Kenzo Nonami and Qi-fu Fan
: pp. 312-317
Dynamic Modeling of Robot Force Control System and Its Application to a Parts Handling Task
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Akira Umeno, Ken-ichiro Shimokura, Takao Kakizaki and Kenji Kogure
: pp. 318-321
Distribution of Natural Compliance in Force Control of Space Manipulator
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Yoshiaki Ohkami and Osamu Okamoto
: pp. 322-326
Microgravity Production for the Test Capsule Falling Through the Drop Shaft
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Hideyo Sakurai, Shinobu Saito, Takao Azuma and Mitsuru Muto
: pp. 327-331
Active Vibration Control System for Tall Structures
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Tetsuo Suzuki, Mitsuru Kageyama, Arihide Nobata
: pp. 332-339
Failure-Detecting Method Using Fusion of Sensor Information and Visual Knowledge
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Kazuo Yamaba and Yoichi Miyake
: pp. 340-344
Modeling Fuel Injection Control Maps Using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks
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Andreas Bastian

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Active Vibration Control

Special Issue on Active Vibration Control

: p. 183
Active Vibration Control
Kazuto Seto

Mechanical devices easily cause vibration because they are constructed with structural materials that have little internal damping. For this reason, vibration control has long been a big problem for the development of excellent machines. Now, sophisticated vibration control technology is becoming indispensable for satisfying various demands, related to the higher performance, reduced weight, energy savings, etc. of machines, which have become increasingly stronger in recent years. In particular, a large number of problems in which active vibration control holds the key are occurring in the most advanced fields of engineering. As can be seen in various examples of super-tall buildings such as the Yokohama Landmark Tower and Tokyo Gas Building, which have recently been completed at various locations, the construction of new structures like super-tall buildings has become possible by the support of this technology. On the other hand, with the further progress in mechatronics, it is now common sense that a control system is incorporated in any of today’s machines. However, this has caused a new problem related to vibration. The problem is that energy injected for controlling position or motion excites vibration characteristics neglected from the control object and induces violent vibration in the machine. To be more specific, a flexible rotor controlled by a magnetic bearing is; capable of rotating at ultra-high speeds, but its flexible vibration must be controlled in order to solve a multiple ‘number of critical speed passage problems. At such a time, higher-order vibration modes neglected from the object of control may cause unstable vibration. This is a new problem called spillover instability. It is expected in the future that an increasing number of such problems related to the simultaneous control of motion and vibration will arise in mechatronics equipment. Up to now, for the control of vibration, passive vibration controlling devices which do not require the injection of energy from outside have often been used. However, with the recent demand for sophisticated vibration control technology as described above, active vibration control methods using sensors, actuators, and controllers have suddenly attracted attention. In the background of the realization of such vibration control methods is the fact that modern control theory, which was considered at the outset to be difficult to handle and hard to put immediately into practical use, and the subsequently developed robust control theory have become easily usable as supported by the following developments: * Development of control system design supporting software as represented by MATLAB and SIMULINK. * Progress in hardware with improvements in computers’ computational speeds and with the appearance of DSPs. * Progress in electromagnetic force utilization technology made possible by the development of new materials such as high-performance magnets. * Advancement of vibration visualization technology for control objects based on the development of theoretical and experimental vibration analysis methods. * Advances in accurate control modelling methods. In particular, although these control theories are difficult to make use of unless accurate models of control objects are created, this difficulty has been solved due to the advances in the methods for the optimum placement of sensors and actuators based on experimental modal analysis and also because of the progress in the modeling methods. In this way, these theories are now about to contribute substantially to the development of vibration control technology, and there is even a view that vibration control is being act ively utilized as a splendid place for the testing of new control theories. Thus, in vibration control, vibration analysis and control theory are beginning to develop in a balanced operation like two wheels of a vehicle. Against this background, it has been decided to feature active vibration control in this issue and the next. This issue consists of two explanatory articles on examples of active vibration control and magnetic bearing control problems, eight articles mainly dealing with the active vibration control problems related to flexible structures, two technical reports on the vibration control of super-tall buildings and main towers of large bridges, and an introduction to the research laboratory in Japan where the concept of the vibration control of super-tall buildings was first proposed and realized. At the time when weight reduction is being sought from every field, the slimming and flexibility of structures as well as their resulting vibration control problems cannot be avoided. From this point of view, this special issue has been compiled centering on articles dealing with vibration control problems for flexible structures and their concrete structures. This issue was edited by Seto of Nihon University. Kazuo Yoshida of Keio University will be in charge of the next issue. The editor is most pleased if this special issue draws attention of its readers.

: pp. 184-190
Active Control: Control Theory as Viewed from Applications
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Kazuto Seto
: pp. 191-199
Current Situation on Magnetic Levitation and Magnetic Bearing Control, and Control Theory
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Kenzo Nonami
: pp. 200-207
Attitude Control Algorithm for Free-Flying Space Robot (Cooperative Control of Feedforward and Feedback)
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Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Osamu Saito, Kenzo Nonami and Susumu Tohsya
: pp. 208-213
Vibration Control of Truss Structure by Piezoelectric Actuator
Abstract