Camera Calibration and 3-D Measurement with an Active Stereo Vision System for Handling Moving Objects
Atsushi Yamashita*, Toru Kaneko*, Shinya Matsushita*,**, Kenjiro T. Miura*, and Suekichi Isogai***
*Shizuoka University 3-5-1, Johoku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka, 432-8561 Japan
**Nippon Systemware Co., Ltd. 31-11, Sakuragaoka-cho, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 150-8577 Japan
***Denkosha Co., Ltd. 95, Oroshi-honmati, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka, 432-8055 Japan
In this paper, we propose a fast, easy camera calibration and 3-D measurement method with an active stereo vision system for handling moving objects whose geometric models are known. We use stereo cameras that change direction independently to follow moving objects. To gain extrinsic camera parameters in real time, a baseline stereo camera (parallel stereo camera) model and projective transformation of stereo images are used by considering epipolar constraints. To make use of 3-D measurement results for a moving object, the manipulator hand approaches the object. When the manipulator hand and object are near enough to be situated in a single image, very accurate camera calibration is executed to calculate the manipulator size in the image. Our calibration is simple and practical because it does not need to calibrate all camera parameters. The computation time for real-time calibration is not large because we need only search for one parameter in real time by deciding the relationship between all parameters in advance. Our method does not need complicated image processing or matrix calculation. Experimental results show that the accuracy of 3-D reconstruction of a cubic box whose edge is 60 mm long is within 1.8 mm when the distance between the camera and the box is 500 mm. Total computation time for object tracking, camera calibration, and manipulation control is within 0.5 seconds.
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