JRM Vol.16 No.1 pp. 23-30
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2004.p0023


Study on Ankle Mechanisms for Walking Robots -Fundamental Considerations on its Functions and Morphology-

Masaru Ogata, and Shigeo Hirose

Dept. of Mechano-Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan

December 24, 2003
January 19, 2004
February 20, 2004
legged robot, ankle, sole, foot, remote center mechanism, connected differential mechanism

Walking robots need terrain adaptive ankle and sole mechanism to move stably on rugged ground. In this paper, the designs of the ankle mechanism for walking robots are discussed. First, we consider required functions for ankle mechanism. An effective ankle mechanism requires the following characteristics: 1) lightweight and robust mechanism, 2) ability to adapt to the ground, 3) sensing function, 4) torque generating or freezing its shape function after landing. Next, we explain the validity of the remote center mechanism and connected differential mechanism. The actual designs of passive terrain adaptive ankle mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the ankle mechanism of quadruped walking robot “TITAN-IX,” which is developed for mine detection and removal tasks, is mentioned. In order to examine the validities of proposed mechanisms, basic experiments were carried out using one-leg model of TITAN-IX.

Cite this article as:
Masaru Ogata and Shigeo Hirose, “Study on Ankle Mechanisms for Walking Robots -Fundamental Considerations on its Functions and Morphology-,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.16, No.1, pp. 23-30, 2004.
Data files:
  1. [1] Marc H Raibert, “Legged Robots That Balance,” MIT Press, 1986.
  2. [2] K. Nomani, N. Shimoi, Q. J. Huang., D. Komizo, H. Uchida, “Development of Teleoperated Six-legged Walking Robot for Mine Detection and Mapping of Mine Field,” Proc. of the 2000 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp.775-779, 2000.
  3. [3] K. Yoneda, Y. Ota, K. Hirano, and S. Hirose, “Design of a lightweight wall climbing quadruped with reduced degrees of freedom,” Proc. 4th CLAWAR, pp.907-912, 2001.
  4. [4] J. Bares, D. Wettergreen, “Dante II: Technical Description, Results and Lessons Learned,” International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 621-649, July 1999.
  5. [5] Klaassen, Linnemann, Spenneberg, Kirchner, “Biomimetic Walking Robot Scorpion: Control and Modeling,” Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Intelligent Robotic Systems, pp.101-108, 2001.
  6. [6] K. Hirai, M. Hirose, Y. Haikawa, and T. Takenaka, “The Development of Honda Humanoid Robot,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1321-1326, 1998.
  7. [7] K. Kaneko, S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Yokoi, K. Fujiwara, H. Hirukawa, T. Kawai, M. Hirata and T. Isozumi, “Design of Advanced Leg Module for Humanoid Robotics Project of METI,” Proc. Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 2002.
  8. [8] T. Doi, S. Hirose, “3D Visual Information Processing and Gait Control of a Quadruped Robot,” Journal of Robotics And Mechatronics, Vol.15, No.3, pp. 349-355, 2003.
  9. [9] R. Kurazume, S. Hirose, “Development of image stabilization system for a remote operation of walking robots,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1856-1861, 2000.
  10. [10] K. Kato, S. Yokota and S. Hirose, “Development of Quadruped Walking Robot “TITAN IX” with Multiple Handling Functions,” TITech / C.O.E. Super-Mechano System Symposium 2001
  11. [11] S. Hirose M. Imazato, Y. Kudo, Y. Umetani, “Internally-balanced magnet unit” Advanced Robotics, vol. 1, No. 3, pp.225-242, 1986
  12. [12] S. Hirose, “Connected Differential Mechanism and its Applications ROBOT GRIPPERS,” IFS, pp.141-153, 1986.
  13. [13] S. Hirose, K. Yoneda, and H. Tsukagoshi, “TITAN VII: Quadruped Walking and Manipulating Robot on a Steep Slope,” Proc. of the 1997 IEEE international Conference on Robotics and Automation Albuquerque, New Mexico, pp.494-500, 1997
  14. [14] S. Hirose, S. Inoue, K. Yoneda, “The Whisker Sensor and the Transmission of Multiple Sensor Signals,” Advanced Robotics, vol.4, No.2, pp.105-117, 1990.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Mar. 05, 2021