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JRM

Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics

ISSN : 0915-3942(Print) / 1883-8049(Online)
DOI : 10.20965/jrm.issn.1883-8049
Editors-in-Chief : Yoshihiro Takita (National Defence Academy of Japan)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief : Koichi Osuka (Osaka University),
Takayuki Tanaka (Hokkaido University)

Indexed in ESCI, Scopus, Compendex (Ei)

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2018-04-20T00:45:06+0000

Vol.5 (1993)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Legged Locomotion

Special Issue on Legged Locomotion

: p. 497
Legged Locomotion
Junji Furusho and Akihito Sano

Walking is a form of locomotion that is gentle to the environment, and by means of this action, it is possible to move through a variety of environments. In other words, the system of locomotion called walking allows a mover to go through almost any environment while choosing landing points for providing better supporting points, without hurting the environment. On the other hand, the smooth locomotion by wheel is possible only when a road is created by giving a human touch to the natural environment. Moreover, the crawler system using caterpillars creates problems such as the floors and stairs being hurt or the pipes laid on the floors being crushed, although it does have huge locomotive capacity. In addition, a robot capable of working on the bottom of the sea is now desired. However, the use of a screw as a system of locomotion for the robot would create the problem of stirring up various deposits on the bottom and thereby losing its field of vision. Against this background, a large number of walking robots have been developed in recent years for work inside nuclear power plants, the exploration of planets, work on the sea bottom, and work inside forests. In particular, a six-legged robot by Ohio State University, a 6-legged robot for the exploration of Mars by Carnegie Mellon University, and a bi-armed quadruped robot for extreme work created in Japan have all been developed under large walking robot development projects. Because of these large-scale projects, the studies on walking robots have shown remarkable progress in recent years. On the other hand, the investigation from the points of view of control engineering and robotics of how walking controls are performed by the humans and animals presents a very interesting subject, and accordingly a great many studies are being conducted. The normal walking that the humans and animals do forms stable locomotion as a whole by repeating unstable locomotion. In other words, the walking with its static stability constantly maintained is hardly done except in the case of very slow walking. Studies on such dynamic walking have been started relatively recently, and the elucidation of this type of walking has been very fragmentary. In addition, studies for realizing such walking (or running) by robots have been started only very recently, and are therefore at an initial stage as yet. The studies concerning walking by the humans and animals have been carried out, on one hand, from the point of view of dynamics and, on the other hand, from the point of view of trying to make clear how the nervous systems and control circuits which support walking are composed and what operational mechanisms they have. From the latter point of view, studies concerning the pattern generator of walking motion and studies on walk controls using neural networks have increased sharply in recent years. Thus, to have made plans for a special issue on walking robots at this point in time is considered most opportune. Deep appreciation is expressed to those researchers who have contributed their papers to this special issue, and it is hoped, moreover, that the special issue will provide contributions to future studies on walking robots.

: pp. 498-504
Toward Development of Practical Quadruped Walking Vehicles
Abstract
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Shigeo Hirose and Kan Yoneda
: pp. 505-510
Biped Walking Robot Compensating Moment by Trunk Motion
Abstract
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Atsuo Takanishi
: pp. 511-515
Basic Design and Synchronized Motion Control for Hexapod Walking Machine
Abstract
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Katsuhiko Inagaki and Hisato Kobayashi
: pp. 516-523
Study of Dynamic Walk Control of a Biped Robot on Rugged Terrain – Derivation and Application of the Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode –
Abstract
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Shuuji Kajita and Kazuo Tani
: pp. 524-530
Development of a Quadruped Dynamic Walking Machine by One Active Actuator
Abstract
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Kan Taguchi and Noriyuki Kawarazaki
: pp. 531-536
Effect of the Motion in Horizontal Plane on the Stability of Biped Walking
Abstract
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Ryoji Kodama, Toru Nogai and Katsumi Suzuki
: pp. 537-541
Micro-Walking Robot Driven by Flexible Microactuator
Abstract
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Koichi Suzumori, Fumika Kondo and Hirohisa Tanaka
: pp. 542-547
Learning Control System of Biped Locomotive Robot Using Neural Networks
Abstract
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Yasuo Kurematsu, Takashi Murai, Takuji Maeda and Shinzo Kitamura
: pp. 548-560
Development of Quadruped Walking Robots and Their Gait Study
Abstract
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Hironori Adachi, Noriho Koyachi, Tatsuya Nakamura and Eiji Nakano
: pp. 561-569
Basic Study of Quadruped Locomotion System with Ability to Adjust Compliance
Abstract
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Akihito Sano, Junji Furusho and Akihiro Hashiguchi
: pp. 570-574
Distributed Control System for Six-Legged Walking Robot
Abstract
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Ryoichi Nakayama, Hitoshi Iida, Hisashi Hozumi, Satoshi Okada, Hideharu Okano and Tatsuo Miyazawa
: pp. 575-578
8-Legged Underwater Walking Robot
Abstract
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Toshihisa Naruse and Toshiyuki Sawano
: pp. 582-584
Evaluation of a Reduced Order Model for Quadruped System and Proposition of a Walking Control Method Using Quasi-Angular-Momentum
Abstract
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Akihito Sano and Junji Furusho
: pp. 585-593
Remote Assistance Method for Advanced Teleoperation Using an Intervention Tool
Abstract
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Tsukasa Ogasawara and Kunikatsu Takase
: pp. 594-600
A Fundamental Study of an Animation Presentation System for JSL Signs
Abstract
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Mina Terauchi, Yuji Nagashima, Kazuyuki Kanda, Takateru Nishimura, Hideyo Nagashima and Genichi Ohwa
: pp. 601-605
Trajectory Generation of a Multi-Arm Robot Utilizing Kinematic Redundancy
Abstract
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Toshio Tsuji
: pp. 606-612
Trajectory Generation of a Multi-Arm Robot Using Virtual Dynamics
Abstract
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Toshio Tsuji

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Japanese-French Congress of Mechatronics

Special Issue on Japanese-French Congress of Mechatronics

: p. 415
Japanese-French Congress of Mechatronics
Makoto Kajitani

The lst Japanese-French Congress of Mechatronics was held at Besancon City in France from October 20 to 23, 1992. The congress was cosponsored by the Japan Society for Precision Engineering and 1’Institut des Microtechniques de Frenche-Comte. A total of 216 persons participated in the congress, 72 from Japan and 144 from France and other European countries. The total number of announced papers was 84, 49 from Japan and 35 from Europe. In addition, three special addresses were made each from Japan and Europe. The number of robotic addresses totalled 30, the largest number by field. Among these 30 addresses, 23 were made by Japanese participants. Studies in a wide range of mechatronics were also announced which were related to sensors and measurement system and machine vision. Besancon is the capital of Doubs and is an ancient city with a history of 2000 years. Doubs is bordered by Switzerland and has been active in the precision industry, such as watches, since old times. It is mostly industrialized and has been interested in mechatronics. Unique studies have been conducted by some research and educational institutes including Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mechanique et des Microtechniques. The congress received attention as being unique and attracted many participants for the following reasons: there was very little interaction between Japan and France in the field of precision engineering or mechatronics and the French industry, a specific existence in Europe, has recently taken a great interest in Japanese technology. The editorial committee of this periodical urged authors to contribute papers suitable for the periodical among those announced at the congress and contained their contributions in it. Technological interactions between Japan and Europe will become more important. In 1994, the 2nd Japanese-French Congress of Mechatronics (International) will be held at Takamatsu City in Japan. I hope that many researchers and engineers of mechatronics worldwide will join the congress and have discussions on mechatronics to stimulate its growth.

: pp. 416-419
Industrial Vicissitudes and Commercialization of Technology in Japan
Abstract
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Kihachiro Nishikawa
: pp. 420-423
Vision Systems for Electronics Industry in Japan (Automation of Manual Adjustment Works by Image Processing Technologies)
Abstract
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Tadanori Komatsu
: pp. 424-426
The Designing Principles and Methods of Mechatronics Device and Product System
Abstract
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Zhu Zhong-gan and Makoto Kajitani
: pp. 427-433
Drive of a Piezoelectric Cycloid Motor in a High Frequency Range
Abstract
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Iwao Hayashi, Nobuyuki Iwatsuki and Koosuke Fujimoto
: pp. 434-437
Adjustable Compliant Motion of Ultrasonic Motor
Abstract
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Atsuo Kato, Koji Ito, and Masami Ito
: pp. 438-442
Two-Level Control Structure of Magnetic Bearings
Abstract
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Nobuyoshi Taguchi, Takakazu Ishimatsu, Takashi Shimomachi
: pp. 443-447
Powered Orthosis for Lower Limbs -Its Structure and Control-
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Miyamoto
: pp. 448-452
High Accuracy Calibration System for Angular Encoders
Abstract
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Tadashi Masuda and Makoto Kajitani
: pp. 453-456
Measurement System for Multiple Degrees of Freedom Moving Robot
Abstract
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Kiyoshi Takamasu
: pp. 457-460
Repair Equipment for Large-Scale Panel by Penning Discharge Micro-Sputtering Method
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Funamoto, Osamu Koseki and Toshio Sugita
: pp. 461-465
Calculation Method of Majority Rule for Coil Position Detection Apparatus and Its Evaluation
Abstract
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Satoshi Kunimitsu, Itsuo Murata and Hiromitsu Hoshina
: pp. 466-470
Production Engineering for Small-Size and Functional Motion of Total Arm Prosthesis
Abstract
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Yukio Saito and Takanori Higashihara
: pp. 471-475
Free-Form Surface Modeler with Artificial Reality
Abstract
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Hidetomo Takahashi, Satoshi Kanai
: pp. 476-480
Mold & Assemble Integrated Machine for Plastic Parts
Abstract
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Takeshi Kawana, Toshiyuki Amimoto, Tatsuya Niinomi, Seiichi Baba, and Takashi Ohta
: pp. 481-486
Development of Autonomous Mobile Robot for Obstacle Avoidance
Abstract
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Masafumi Uchida, Syuichi Yokoyama and Hideto Ide
: pp. 487-492
Learning Model for Recursive Self-Generation of Target
Abstract
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Shizuaki Takahashi, Takahito Watanabe and Zenju Ohtsuki

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Precision Mechanism and Control

Special Issue on Precision Mechanism and Control

: p. 315
Precision Mechanism and Control
Haruhisa Kawasaki

Research institutions have been aggressively working on the following issues in the world of precision machines: micromechatronics, aiming at super downsizing of mechanisms; optomechatronics, aiming at the technological fusion among light, electrons, and machines; and control technology to implement the precise motion or task of a machine. This special issue introduces the recent research activities in these fields in Japan. Micromechatronics suddenly began to receive attention since invisible micro-machines were realized in the latter half of the 1980’s. Initially, drawbacks were cited such as the available material limited only to silicon, the limitation to the planar structure, and no applications due to its small power. In recent years, these problems have been gradually overcome, and some applications can be viewed. Some articles in this issue introduce many examples to which micromechatronics is expected to be applied. Optomechatronics is a technology that aims at the fusion among optical, electronics, and mechanical technologies. It was originated early in 1980 and has been recently linked to micromechanism, attracting attention as the technology of integrating mechanism, light, and control. In particular, this issue contains the focusing mechanism for optical disc units, the actuator for microoptical heads, and the optical servo system. Control or mechanism technology plays an important role in the precision motion of machines. Even if this technology is common to precision machines, its problems must often be solved as topics specific to the system under the restrictions of whether or not sensors are present and of actuator performance. This issue discusses the table feed mechanism that is driven by the hydraulic motor for high-speed driving and the servo motor for precision driving, the servo motor driving system by cam curve entry to suppress residual vibration, and the paper feed mechanism by ultrasonic vibration. These approaches take the restrictions of the system into account and provide an effective means for solving actual problems. This issue will provide useful information to researchers and engineers who are interested in this field.

: pp. 316-325
Application of Micromechatronics
Abstract
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Shinji Hara, Toshihiko Sakuhara, Masao Washizu, Wataru Nakagawa, Yutaka Hirai and Hiroyuki Fujita
: pp. 326-331
Focusing Actuator for Magneto-optical Disk Drives
Abstract
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Junichi Ichihara, Koichi Tezuka and Akihiko Makita
: pp. 332-337
Design and Positioning Control of Microhead Actuator for Optical Disk Storage System (Design Guidelines for a Collocation-Type Actuator)
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Yoshito Nanjo, Ken-ichiro Shimokura and Kenji Kogure
: pp. 338-343
Study on Optical Servo System (Modelling for Photovoltaic Effect in PLZT Element)
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Takeshi Nakada, Cao Dong-Hui, Makoto Kimura and Hsien Chi-Yu
: pp. 344-348
Positioning of an X-Y Stage Using the Horizontal Acceleration Signal of the Base Plate
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Shinji Wakui, Mikio Sato, Katsumi Asada and Takeshi Sawada
: pp. 349-356
Output of Cam Motion Curve by DC Servo Motor (2nd Report) -Residual Vibrating Characteristics of Motor Load-
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Kazuo Kanzaki and Nobuaki Kobayashi
: pp. 357-362
Study on High Speed Feed Drive System for Machine Tools -Improvement of PID Control Parameter-
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Toshitake Tateno and Hiromu Nakazawa
: pp. 363-368
Study on the Sheet Escape and Feeding Mechanism Using Ultrasonic Vibration (1st Report) – Design Concept and Its Experimental Investigation –
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Sakiichi Okabe, Yoshitugu Kamiya and Takahiro Oda
: pp. 369-373
Development of Inspection System for IC Lead Frame Defects
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Hirokazu Tsuji and Kazuo Maruyama
: pp. 374-380
Motion and Control of Space Robot
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Haruhisa Kawasaki
: pp. 381-387
Questions and Answers Among Multiple Robots for Dynamically Enhancing Each Robot’s Capability
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Tooru Morita, Shigeto Aramaki, Shigeru Kurono and Kouu Kagekawa
: pp. 388-400
Method for Detecting Moving Obstacles Using Passive 3D Visual Sensor
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Jun'ichi Takeno, Naoto Mizuguchi, Sakae Nishiyama and Kanehiro Sorimachi
: pp. 401-406
Electrical Characteristics of Solid Lubricant Composites Dispersed in High-Purity Mineral Oils
Abstract
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Yoshitada Watanabe
: pp. 407-408
Frequency Analysis System of Auditory Nerves with Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) by Harmonious Tone
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Masao Ohtsuka
: pp. 409-412
Auditory Neuromagnetic Fields Evoked by Spectral Transition of Syllables
Abstract
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Minoru Hayashi

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Biological Information and the Applications for Robot Control

Special Issue on Biological Information and the Applications for Robot Control

: p. 203
Biological Information and the Applications for Robot Control
Hideto Ide

A biological body has many outstanding features that we cannot create. Current advanced technology must be used to measure and determine some of these features. For example, human hands have the feature that allows individual fingers to independently operate and the feature that combines multiple fingers to hold an object. A combination of both features enables advanced and complicated tasks to be performed. In addition, hands are multifunctional; and they feel warmth, coldness, pain, and material quality by touch. Currently, very few fingertip end-effectors for industrial robots and artificial hands for the handicapped have the above functions. Improvements in these functions are expected in various fields. To make artificial hands perform the same functions as human hands, it is necessary to analyze the human operations and functions. From this perspective, the editor planned the special issue of “Biomeasurement” and wishes to express his sincere thanks to many researchers for contributing papers.

: pp. 204-208
Development of Automatic Scoring System for Sleep EEG Using Fuzzy Logic
Abstract
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Yoichi Tsuji, Takefumi Usui, Yasuhisa Sato and Kazuyuki Nagasawa
: pp. 209-213
Topographic Structure of Alpha Wave Activity by Means of Principal Component Analysis
Abstract
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Yoichi Tsuji, Hidekazu Takase, Kazuyuki Nagasawa and Misao Itoi
: pp. 214-219
Optrode Type Oxygen Sensor
Abstract
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Eiji Toba and Masayo Ichikawa
: pp. 220-225
Development of Actuator Using Metal Hydride for Force Display to Elbow Joint
Abstract
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Shunji Shimizu, Shuichi Ino, Takashi Izumi, Makoto Takahashi and Tohru Ifukube
: pp. 226-231
Distributed Motor Control of Human Movements
Abstract
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Koji Ito
: pp. 232-235
Measurement of Visually Evoked Magnetic Fields Using the Local Stimulations in the Various Visual Fields
Abstract
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Kazumi Odaka, Takunori Mashiko, Toshiaki Imada and Minoru Hayashi
: pp. 236-243
Measurement of the Magnetoencephalogram and Source Model in the Brain
Abstract
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Shoogo Ueno and Keiji Iramina
: pp. 244-247
Effect of Exposure to RF of Fertilized Chicken Eggs and Pregnant Mice on Hatchability, Organ-Weight, and Locally Delayed Hypersensitivity
Abstract
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Kenichi Saito, Yukari Tsuchida, Kouichiro Yamada, Masahiro Sugiyamaand Nobuo Goto
: pp. 248-252
A Musculo-skeletal Mechanism Simulating Human Forearm and Its Control Method
Abstract
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Hiroshi Endo and Mitsuo Wada
: pp. 253-258
Method of Determining Water Content Ratios in Brake Fluids by Measuring Dielectric Constant and Impedance
Abstract
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Minoru Hara, Teruo Negishi and Hideo Kusano
: pp. 259-265
Control of a Robot Arm by Myoelectric Potential
Abstract
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Masafumi Uchida, Hideto Ide and Satoki P. Ninomija
: pp. 266-273
Measurement of Resistivity of Conductive Flat Plate Sample by the SRPM Method
Abstract
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Yoshihiro Nonaka, Hiroshi Nakane, Kiminori Hasuike, Takao Maeda and Hirohiko Ishikawa
: pp. 274-278
Adaptive Category Classification of Remotely Sensed Images by Iterative Processing
Abstract
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Minoru Inamura and Hiroshi Ezoe
: pp. 279-283
Category Classification of Remote Sensing Data by Neural Networks, Its Evaluation and Learning Method
Abstract
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Minoru Inamura and Hironori Jinbo
: pp. 284-291
Effect of H2O on Oxidation of Cu Contact Surface
Abstract
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Tetsushi Kawano and Terutaka Tamai
: pp. 292-298
Sliding Characteristics in the Copper Contacts
Abstract
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Yoshitada Watanabe
: pp. 299-301
Form Recognition Using Data Glove Finger Character Recognition System
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Takane Koizumi
: pp. 302-305
Robot Arm Control by Selectively Generated EMG
Abstract
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Yoshiyuki Kageyama, Kiyoyuki Yamazaki and Kiyotaka Hoshiai
: pp. 306-313
Development of a Personal Robot with the Modularized Link Units
Abstract
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Shigeru Kurono, Shigeto Aramaki, Yoshikazu Fujino

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Visual Inspection

Special Issue on Visual Inspection

: p. 87
Visual Inspection
Masanori Idesawa

We acquire more than 60 percent of information from our activity environment through our visual sense. The visual sense allows us to collect information about an object from a position away from it without exerting any effects it such as constraining its motion. Visual information acquisition plays a very important role in the industrial field including visual appearance inspection and various other monitoring. A field called machine vision or computer vision has been formed, it is related to the artificial realization and application of the visual function and is now under aggressive study. Inspection using the visual sense, so-called visual inspection, is extremely important; and its automation has been studied for a long time. However, many problems remain to be solved; and in many cases, this operation must rely on human vision. In order to realize the visual function from an engineering point of view, there are many demands for the development of an image sensor that acquires visual information as image information, a method that processes and recognizes image information, and a method that integrates the observation control system allowing processed image information to be systematically organized and the operation to be checked. In consideration of long-term vision as stated above, this special issue provides a description of sensor technology for image information acquisition in the visual inspection process as well as the neural network processing method which is expected as a flexible method for image processing and recognition. For robot sensors, an active method is used to simplify the recognition process, which projects a special light on an object for measurement. This issue includes the topics covering the development of sensors, aiming at their downsizing and high performance. The human visual sense may function by two operating modes: the monitoring mode that senses an unusual situation appearing in the view field and the attention mode that provides detailed analysis of the situation in this area. The former is permitted to have a low detecting, accuracy, but it requires a wide detectable range. The latter is permitted to have a narrow sensing range, but it requires a high sensing accuracy. In other words, multi-resolution sensing operations are performed in the human visual sense. It is desirable for robot sensors to perform the multi-resolution operations that enable coarse sensing to be realized in a wide range and high-accuracy sensing in the attentive area. This issue also includes the development of these sensors. The appearance inspection of welded boats and the recognition of vehicle numbers have been put to practical use, and these topics are also described in this issue. In some cases, techniques visual information processing can make visible to us those that can not be seen by our visual system. This can be thought as an extension of the visual function and the level of sight is very interesting.

: pp. 88-97
Neural Network Models for Image Inversion
Abstract
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Noboru Sonehara and Yukio Tokunaga
: pp. 98-105
Sensing Techniques for Visual Inspection
Abstract
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Kazuo Kurasawa
: pp. 106-111
An Automatic System for Identification of Human Faces Using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor
Abstract
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Kenji Terada, Junichi Yamaguchi and Masato Nakajima
: pp. 112-116
Visual Inspection System for Welded Beads of Automotive Panel
Abstract
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Osamu Ozeki, Kouichi Kogure, Hiroyuki Onouchi, Hideo Abe Kazunori Higuchi and Shin Yamamoto
: pp. 117-121
Application of Fiber-Optic Sensors to Robots
Abstract
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Eiji Toba
: pp. 122-129
Multi-Resolution Image Position Sensing Characteristics of R-HPSD
Abstract
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Huai-bong Ding and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 130-133
How Far Can Optical Image Information Be Seen?
Abstract
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Kazuo Kurasawa
: pp. 134-140
An Object Locating Method with Uncertainties Applied to an Ultrasonic Multi-Sensor System
Abstract
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Tapio Heikkilä, Markku Järviluoma, and Osmo Voutilainen
: pp. 141-149
Development and Motion Control of the All-Direction Steering-Type Mobile Robot (1st Report: Analyses and Experiments on Postural Stability and Ascent/Descent on a Slope)
Abstract
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Atsushi Koshiyama and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 150-157
Development and Motion Control of the All-Direction Steering-Type Mobile Robot (2nd Report: Principle, Control Methods and Experiments on Steering of the Robot)
Abstract
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Atsushi Koshiyama and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 158-163
A Simplified TDT Sensor for Wire Driven Joint
Abstract
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Satoshi Yoshinari, Nobuaki Imamura and Makoto Kaneko
: pp. 164-171
Mechatronics Drive for Intelligent Wall Climbing Robot
Abstract
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K. Yamafuji, V Gradetsky, M. Rachkov and E. Semenov
: pp. 172-177
Harmonious Control System for Multiple Mobile Investigation Robots
Abstract
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Jun’ichi Takeno, Kiichirou lijima, Kozo Kato, and Sakae Nishiyama
: pp. 178-182
Virtual Force Feedback Lessons, Challenges, Future Applications
Abstract
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Grigore C. Burdea and Noshir A. Langrana
: pp. 183-191
A Monitoring System for PAPI
Abstract
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Kiyoaki Inaba
: pp. 192-197
Vehicle License Number Recognition System for Measuring Travel Time
Abstract
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Hisashi Kurosaki, Makoto Yagi and Hisanori Yokosuka
: pp. 198-201
Fractal Analysis of Event Related Potential
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Shinjiro Yagi

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Robot Hands and Sensing

Special Issue on Robot Hands and Sensing

: p. 1
Robot Hands and Sensing
Makoto Kaneko

It is not an overstatement that the history of robot hands is equal to that of 40-year-old manipulators. Initial hands were based on the simple ON/OFF switching system, with pneumatic or hydraulic power used as a source. The hands could realize their primary purpose of firmly grasping an object, however, it was impossible to achieve the dexterous manipulating motion which was another important function. Since the latter half of 1970’s, the dexterous functions have been in demand for robot hands such as the functions of an inspection robot for the power plant. This caused research institutes in many countries to start development projects on multi-fingered hands. The Okada-Hand, Salisbury-Hand, and Utah/MIT-Hand are particularly well-known among multi-fingered hands developed through such projects. In parallel with this research and development, theoretical research activities progressed for stable grasping, fingertip force analysis, and grasping force control. Theoretical studies of hands reached a peak in both quality and quantity in the latter of 1980’s. However, the experimental studies using actual multifingered hands were far behind the theoretical studies. Based on the reconsideration of the importance of experimental validation, experimental works have been done to verify the theory of stable grasping or manipulation with actual hands. From another perspective, researches have recently been started in an attempt to use fingers not only as actuator for grasping, but also as an active sensor for recognizing the external world with tactile motion. This causes the research field of hand to spread. Based on the current status of hands researches, this special issue will compile conventional works and provide an outlook for future hands. The editor of this issue will be very pleased if this material can provide with any useful information to hand researchers. Finally, the editor wishes to express his sincere thanks to the contributors.

: pp. 2-7
Parallel Mechanisms in Multi-Fingered Robot Hands
Abstract
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Makoto Kaneko and Kazuo Tanie
: pp. 8-11
State of the Art and Future Trends of R&D in Robot Hands
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 12-18
Parameter Identification of a Grasp by a Planar Two-Fingered Robot Hand
Abstract
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Nobuharu Mimura and Yasuyuki Funahashi
: pp. 19-25
Neighboring Degree-of-Approximation Equating Method for Computing Contact Points between Robot and Convex Object
Abstract
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Makoto Kaneko and Kazuo Tanie
: pp. 26-30
A Method for Determining the Positions of the Fingertips of a Three-Fingered Hand Based on Manipulability
Abstract
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Ryozo Katoh, Tetsuo Yamaguchi
: pp. 31-37
Active Sensor System Using Parallel Processing Circuits
Abstract
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Masatoshi Ishikawa
: pp. 38-45
Measurement of Object Movement in Robot Hand by Sensor Integration of Multi-Tactile Sensors
Abstract
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Ryosuke Masuda and Motoji Takahashi
: pp. 46-52
Development of Six-Axis Force Sensor Using Plate Spring
Abstract
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Yoichi Muranaka, Raifu Murai, Masakazu Takahashi, and Genichiro Kinoshita
: pp. 53-59
Study on Model-Based Control of the Cable-Conduit Drive System
Abstract
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Shigeki Sugano, Osamu Matsumoto and Shin-yo Muto
: pp. 60-65
A Multi-Fingered Hand with Newly Developed Tactile Sensors
Abstract
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Hideaki Hashimoto, Hideki Ogawa, Masao Obama, Toshiya Umeda and Kyoichi Tatsuno

Regular Papers

: pp. 66-72
Compensation for Object Motion in Remote Manipulation
Abstract
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Kazuo Tani
: pp. 73-78
A Method for Measuring Depth Using Fuzzy Reasoning and a Modified Implicit Function
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamaha, Hiroshi Tominaga, Tatsuya Nakamura and Yoichi Miyake
: pp. 79-84
Force Feedback Glove for Manipulation of Virtual Objects
Abstract
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Haruhisa Kawasaki and Takahiro Hayashi
: p. 85
Kyushu Institute of Technology the Kaneko Laboratory
Abstract
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Makoto Kaneko

Vol.4 (1992)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Current Status and Prospects of Amusement Robots

Special Issue on Current Status and Prospects of Amusement Robots

: p. 461
Current Status and Prospects of Amusement Robots
Kazuo Yamafuji

Manipulating robots that have been developed to replace the functions of human hands have successfully achieved the objectives of industrial robots; more than 400,000 of such robots are currently in operation, primarily in production lines of factories worldwide. Furthermore, robots with locomotive functions, i.e. autonomous ground vehicles and mobile robots, are being widely used in both production and non-production environments. Actually a great number of mobile robots are operating in non-production environments. Examples are robots for service applications in offices, hospitals, and homes; safety guard robots; maintenance and supervision robots; firefighting robots; emergency rescue robots; hazard prevention robots; space robots; and educational robots. These robots, whether they are intended for production or non-production use, make a significant contribution to mankind by performing some useful jobs or by accomplishing some useful duties in place of humans; thus, relieving humans of hard labor. In addition to the above robots, researchers, have developed many robots that belong to the conceptual classification of amusement robots. These robots do not perform any useful work or tasks in place of humans; however, they amuse the people who watch them play games or who manipulate them. Many automata that imitate the actions of humans have been developed both in Europe and in Japan. Such robots can be considered as prototypes of amusement robots. Included in the anthropomorphic automata developed in Europe are automatic puppets that play musical instruments, write letters, or draw pictures, dance, or something of the like. Similarly in Japan, since approximately 300 years ago, various types of automata called karakuri-puppets have been developed, and these puppets fascinate naive audiences even today by playing elegant dramas or performing some acrobatic feats at festivals held at shrines and temples. In Japan in 1796, Yorinao Hosokawa published an excellent technical book on the mechanisms and design of the karakuri-puppets. Today, thanks to the progress of microcomputers, a large number of performance robots have been developed that replace the functions of human being and animals or can perform behaviors that no animate creatures can do. Various types of robot contests have already been held including micromouse, tennis matches, ball-collection contests, and water-dipping contests. It is expected that international robot Olympiads for the contests of advanced technology and intelligence are expected to be held in the future. The progress of contest robots of the highest technical level will contribute to the progress of robot technology. People of all ages, from infants to old men and women, would be able to entertain themselves by playing with robots and could share emotion with the robots if people can develop various types of such amusement robots that can appeal to the feelings of people. Furthermore, robots can provide people with mental satisfaction as well as can be the consultants and friends of them. Amusement robots must stimulate the imaginations of young researchers, contributing to the progress of robotics. Consequently, the development of robots that are extremely similar to human being will be the next target.

: pp. 462-465
Simulation of Musical Performances
Abstract
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Makoto Kajitani
: pp. 466-471
Study on a Two-Link Horizontal Bar Gymnastics Robot with Passive Joint (Motion Control Using Feedforward Control Based on Inverse Dynamics)
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Kojima, Hiroyuki Mitomo, Yuuki Wada and Kenji Sakamoto
: pp. 472-479
A Study of the Control of the Variable Structure-Type Locomotive Robot (4th Report, Postural Change and Locomotion by Jumping of the Control Arm/Leg-Type)
Abstract
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Tomokazu Hirabayashi and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 480-489
Dynamic Walking Control of the One-Legged Robot with Controlling Rotor
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamafuji, Yoshihito Takemura and Hiroshi Fujimoto
: pp. 490-496
Motion Control of the Parallel Bicycle Type Mobile Robot which is Composed of a Triple Inverted Pendulum (lst Report, Stability Control of Standing Upright, Ascending and Descending of Stairs)
Abstract
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Tsuyoshi Yasui and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 497-504
Motion Control of a Robot Composed of Three Serial Links with Curved Contour (Ist Report; Concept and Dynamic Control of the Robot)
Abstract
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Kazuo Nakakuki, Kazuo Yamafuji and Osamu Shikata
: pp. 505-510
Microdrive for Extracellular Recording of Single Neurons Using Fine Wires
Abstract
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Hideto Ide
: pp. 511-519
Distinction of Glossy Colored Objects Using Gray Level
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamaba and Yoichi Miyake
: pp. 520-525
Vibration Suppressing Control of Flexible Rotary Crane Using Tip Position Sensor
Abstract
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Yoshio Tanaka, Yasuo Yoshida, Tetsushi Ueta and Hiroshi Kawakami
: pp. 526-528
A Consideration on a Dynamic Control Method for Quadruped Walking Robots
Abstract
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Junji Furusho, Akihito Sano and Yosuke Okajima

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Planning and Intelligent Behavior

Special Issue on Planning and Intelligent Behavior

: p. 363
Planning and Intelligent Behavior
Tsutomu Hasegawa

A required function of intelligent robots is autonomous and quick execution of tasks which are difficult for conventional machines. In addition, the intention of human operators must be transmitted precisely and easily to the robots. A variety of R&D is underway in order to realize such requirements. This R&D falls into two categories: (1) R&D on intelligent functions applied for the preparation phase of task execution and (2) that applied for the real time task execution. Motion planning based on geometrical information is a typical function for the task preparation phase which has been studied for the past ten years. Thanks to the rapid progress in computing power, the analysis of real problems has progressed and has permitted the practical application of such planning. Thus, its application to operational use is not far off. R&D on a comprehensive system including the geometric environment modeling, motion planning, and real time task execution is also underway. Intelligent functions necessary for task execution must include a task execution mechanism and a control method which guarantee reliable task execution in the presence of unpredictable errors. The solution to this problem will be realized through the implementation of skillful manipulator motions which utilize various sensors and constraints being complied in the real world, most as key technologies. This special issue has compiled reviews and articles which focus on the above mentioned issues.

: pp. 364-371
Current Situation of Path Planning of Mobile Robots
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Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 372-377
Motion Planning for Robotic Manipulators
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Tsutomu Hasegawa
: pp. 378-385
An Efficient Path-Planning Algorithm for a Robotic Manipulator by Automatic Selection Search of Indispensable Regions in Its Configuration Space
Abstract
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Hiroshi Noborio, Motohiko Watanabe and Takeshi Fujii
: pp. 386-396
Kraft: An Autonomous Robot Manipulation System Based on Geometrical Modeling and Processing
Abstract
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Hirohisa Hirukawa, Yuuki Inoue, Toshihide Yoshimura, Shinzo Kitamura, Satoshi Sakakibara, Makoto Hitomi and Kazutoshi Sumiya
: pp. 397-400
Dynamic Scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing Systems with Learning Agents
Abstract
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Sadayoshi Mikami and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 401-406
Dynamic Job-Shop Scheduling by Hopfield-Type Neural Network
Abstract
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Norihiko Takatori and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 407-415
Optimum Velocity Vector of Articulated Robot for Soft Bumping
Abstract
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Kazuyuki Nagata, Tsukasa Ogasawara and Toru Omata
: pp. 416-421
Multi-Sensor Integration System utilizing Fuzzy Inference and Neural Network
Abstract
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Koji Shimojima, Toshio Fukuda, Fumihito Arai and Hideo Matsuura
: pp. 422-429
Motion Control of the Brachiation Type of Mobile Robot Using Cerebellar Neural Model
Abstract
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Fuminori Saito, Toshio Fukuda and Fumihito Arai
: pp. 430-436
Collision Avoidance for a Multiple-DOF Manipulator Based on Empty Space Analysis of the 3-D Real World
Abstract
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Hiromu Onda, Tsutomu Hasegawa, and Toshihiro Matsui
: pp. 437-444
PEM-Modelling: A Framework for Designing Intelligent Robot Control
Abstract
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T. Heikkilä, J. Röning
: pp. 445-448
New Technique for Golf Swing Measurement Using Three Dimensional Motion Analysis
Abstract
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Masafumi Uchida, Hideto Ide, Satoki Ninomiya and Masao Ohtsuka
: pp. 449-453
Visual Evoked Potential by LED Stimulation and Its Application
Abstract
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Hideo Ide, Masafumi Uchida and Masao Ohtsuka

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Advanced Mechatronics Technology for Life Supprot and Human Welfare

Special Issue on Advanced Mechatronics Technology for Life Supprot and Human Welfare

: p. 257
Advanced Mechatronics Technology for Life Supprot and Human Welfare
Hideto Ide

In the latter part of July, 1991, I attended the cultural lecture meeting called “Welfare Robots” as the chairman and also as one of the lecturers, which was held in a certain city in the suburbs of Tokyo. Some 250 people between the ages of 20 and 80 listened to the lectures attentively and also participated in various discussions. One of the topics at this meeting was whether or not sophisticated robots could be useful for welfare. One of project leaders made a statement saying in essence “If robots could be produced which are similar to human beings, then men could be replaced by robots without modifying the current production lines which are relied on by human beings. In consequence, the development of brainy, sophisticated robots is absolutely indispensable for achieving automation.” This implies that sophisticated robots are viewed as a powerful tool for the automation of tasks. With regard to this point, I have been making somewhat negative statements in the past. In the current situations in Japan, there are only few examples of the use in production lines intelligent robots with sensors which have been studied by the so-called robot researchers. Production lines employ more simply repetitive robots which are technically mature but only have position control functions. Even visiting a highly automated factory, one does not often encounter a scene where a robot with sophisticated intelligence or sensors is actively engaged in a task. Because research results are not fully utilized in practical robots, one often hears stories about corporate managers saying to their robot researchers in a blaming tone “what are you going to produce a robot that is usable?” The idea that robot technology is part of automation technology is not something which has originated in this project. It appears that a number of people in hospitals are thinking along this line. I myself often receive inquiries concerning technical matter like “Couldn’t this task be automated by a robot?” Moreover, a variety of robot terms are now being used with the names of various applicable fields being attached to the word robot such as maintenance robot, sweeping robot, nursing robot, medical robot, welfare robot, etc. All these are names of robots as automated systems which may replace men for work in various fields. In trying to develop a certain practical system, there are developmental goals that are peculiar to the system. To construct systems which serve such goals efficiently and economically is the basis for the development of individual systems. When the goal of the development of a system is identical with that intended by the study of a robot, then this robot is expected to provide a powerful solution to the creation of the system. However, it is not necessarily true that such a condition is always satisfied, but it often happens that robot technology does not assume the optimum solution for the intended system. For example, in considering the construction of an automated system for a production line as mentioned above, what is intended is the construction of a highly productive line, and the machines required as components of the system are those which carry out tasks with reliability and at low costs. In general, the practical technology which is used for the development of machines with such requirements is not the advanced robot technology but is the technology for building highly rigid systems or the high-speed positioning servo technology. It can therefore be said that from the standpoint of constructing automated lines, it is more effective to study system designs or servo technology. When robots are viewed as automation technology, then such servo technology can be said to be part of the robot technology. But simply saying that would eliminate any characteristic inherent in robot technology. In that case, the question naturally arises as to what robot engineering or robotics is. I believe that regardless of applications, the study involves looking at the functions of living bodies, making technical interpretations, and then discovering new design concepts for engineering systems. By taking such attitude, I think that the world of learning peculiar to robot engineering is born for the first time which is independent of the traditional areas of learning such as mechanical engineering and control engineering. This magazine is a special issue on welfare robots whose articles have been kindly written by various experts engaged in studies of robots from the standpoint of placing particular emphasis on the characteristics of living bodies.

: pp. 258-261
Development of Welfare Robots Similar to Human Hands
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Masafumi Uchida
: pp. 262-267
The Control Method for the Robot Hand Based on the Fuzzy Theory
Abstract
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Masafumi Uchida and Hideto Ide
: pp. 268-272
Analysis of Axial Force and Moment on Above-Knee Prosthesis Socket -Application of Control Signal to A/K Prosthesis-
Abstract
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Hiroshi Fujimoto, Yuichiro Shimura and Ichiro Kato
: pp. 273-278
Development of Whole Arm Prothesis (Prototype II)
Abstract
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Yuji Maeda, Kazuo Tanie, Akio Fujikawa, Kazuo Tani and Kiyoshi Komoriya
: pp. 279-287
A New Approach in Robot Control Systems for Home Nursing
Abstract
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Yukio Saito, Takanori Higashihara, Hiroshi Ito, Toru Oshima, and Kan Momosaki
: pp. 288-292
Neuromagnetic Responses to ON/OFF Stimuli of Red Point Light
Abstract
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Kazumi Odaka
: pp. 293-298
Application of Robot Techniques to Research of Brain
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Ryosuke Hosaka
: pp. 299-306
Evaluation of the State of Freezing of Frozen Wet Foods by Impedance Measurement
Abstract
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Teruo Negishi, Masaaki Tsunoka
: pp. 307-313
Autonomous Generation of Potential Field in Obstacle Avoidance Problem
Abstract
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Shuichi Yokoyama, Masafumi Uchida and Kei Fukushima
: pp. 314-320
Impedance Mapping Method and System for Blood Flow Measurement in Brain
Abstract
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Ichiro Hieda, Yasuo Kuchinomachi, Sigeru Sato and Hiroyuki Kodama
: pp. 321-329
A Study on Optical Piezo-Electric Actuator (Response Experiments by U.V. Beam and Photo Response Model)
Abstract
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Shinobu Hattori, Toshio Fukuda and Shigenobu Nagamori
: pp. 330-338
About the Use of the Floating Frame in the Optimal Control of the Flexible Robot Arm
Abstract
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M. Bisiacco, R. Caracciolo and M. Giovagnoni
: pp. 339-342
A Development of Medical Data Archiving System by Use of 3.5 inch Magneto Optical Disk as a Record Medium
Abstract
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Ryosuke Hosaka, Ysushi Unno, and Naondo Takido
: pp. 343-348
Development of Anthropomorphic Robot Arm (Mark-2)
Abstract
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Yuji Maeda
: pp. 349-351
Construction for Letter Representation by Mobile Tactile Board
Abstract
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Yuji Nagashima, Mina Terauchi, Hideyo Nagashima and Hideto Ide

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Self-Organization System Part II

Special Issue on Self-Organization System Part II

: pp. 181-185
Adaptability of Neuromuscular Motor Control System
Abstract
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Kenzo Akazawa
: pp. 186-198
Postural Control of Living Organisms and Its Engineering Systems
Abstract
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Kazue Nishihara, Mitsuo Wada, and Ryouichi Hashimoto
: pp. 199-204
Distributed Autonomous Robotic System Configurated with Multiple Agents and Its Cooperative Behaviors
Abstract
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Hajime Asama
: pp. 205-209
A Distributed Mechanical Structure and Its Control System
Abstract
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Shigeru Kokaji
: pp. 210-217
A Hierarchical Distributed Path Planning for Redundant Manipulators Based on Virtual Arm
Abstract
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Toshio Tsuji and Koji Ito
: pp. 218-222
Ultrasonic Measurement and Control of Microrobotic Drug Delivery System
Abstract
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Ken Ishihara and Toshiyuki Furukawa
: pp. 223-230
Study on Group-Behavior Control of Microrobots
Abstract
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Toshio Watanabe, Isao Shimoyama and Hirofumi Miura
: pp. 231-236
Three-Dimensional Tactile Display by Multi-Stage Actuator
Abstract
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Masami Shinohara, Shinya Saida, Yutaka Shimizu, Akira Mochizuki and Kanehiro Sorimachi
: pp. 237-248
The Driving Pipeline: A Pipelined Architecture for Outdoor Mobile Robots
Abstract
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Yoshimasa Goto
: pp. 249-255
3-D Illusory Phenomena with Binocular Viewing and Computer Vision
Abstract
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Masanori Idesawa

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Self-Organization System Part I

Special Issue on Self-Organization System Part I

: p. 95
Self-Organization System
Prof. Toshio Fukuda and Dr. Mitsuo Wada

This special issue was planned a year ago by Prof. T. Fukuda and Dr. M. Wada to promote the research works in new robotics and mechatronics fields from the perspective of systems theory and engineering. There have been several leading works in Japan, most of which were published in Japanese. Thus this special issue is aimed at making these works available to the world. Self-organizing systems were once studied in late 1960s and early 1970s by many scientists, who were inspired by the research work, “Cybernetics” and “Perceptron” (later Neural Networks). However, because of the lack of computational capabilities, those works provided less useful theories and results, and they left obstacles for actual implementation. Today’s computational power realizes a new dimension to solve those problems through the advanced technologies and to provide new system concept and architecture based on the “distributed autonomy”. The “massive parallel and massive distributed system” concept, which is made possible by today’s technologies, is one of the good examples from the perspective of the computer information, advanced communication, and software technologies. These concepts are creating great incentives to the “New Self-Organizing System” in the modern robotic and mechatronics technologies. In this issue, the authors first discuss the relationship between the multiple robot system and the human society from the perspective of the selfevolving system of robotics in the light of information science and sociology. Then, many applications will be described in which the self-organizing system is applied to the system coordination and cooperation of the multiple robot system from the perspectives of sensing, neuro-fuzzy control, system architecture, mobile robots, intelligent communication, multiple manipulator control, and microtechnologies. Because there are many potential application fields for these concepts, including the power supply network and plant control system, we expect that through this special issue there will be more active discussions concerning these topics around the world and that there will be more growing contributions to this field.

: pp. 96-103
Self-Evolutionary Robotic System -Sociobiology and Social Robotics-
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda and Tsuyoshi Ueyama
: pp. 104-107
Self-Organization of a Module Structured Machine
Abstract
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Shigeru Kokaji, Satoshi Murata, Haruhisa Kurokawa and Akio Suzuki
: pp. 108-114
Genetic System and Evolution
Abstract
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Yoshio Kawauchi, Makoto Inaba and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 115-121
Evaluation of Communication Structure for Cellular Robotic System
Abstract
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Tsuyoshi Ueyama, Toshio Fukuda, and Fumihito Arai
: pp. 122-127
Development of Task Assignment System Using Communication for Multiple Autonomous Robots
Abstract
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H. Asama, K. Ozaki, A. Matsumoto, Y. Ishida and I. Endo
: pp. 128-134
Analysis and Improvement of the Feature Detection Ability of Neocognitron for Adaptive Image Processing
Abstract
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Yasuhiro Hatakeyama and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 135-141
Task Management for Multi-Client Robot Groups
Abstract
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Keiji Suzuki and Yukinori Kakazu
: pp. 142-147
Generation of Locomotive Patterns and Self-Organization
Abstract
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Hideo Yuasa and Masami Ito
: pp. 148-151
A Self-Organized Motion Control of Multi-Joined Arm with Tactile Sensors
Abstract
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Mitsuo Wada
: pp. 152-158
A Layered, Multi-Agent System for Intelligent Control
Abstract
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Takuya Ishioka and Morikazu Takegaki
: pp. 159-166
Development of Game-Robot
Abstract
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Mitsumasa Yoda and Yasuhito Shiota
: pp. 167-178
Human-Friendly Operating System for Hyper-Environments
Abstract
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Mamoru Mitsuishi, Shin’ichi Warisawa, Yotaro Hatamura, Takaaki Nagao and Bruce Kramer

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Human Interface

Special Issue on Human Interface

: p. 1
Human Interface
Masanori Idesawa, Editor

In recent years, the expression “human interface” is often heard. Now that information systems have been ingrained deeply in the society, it is no longer possible to ignore the existence of information systems even though in man-to-man communications. The expression “human interface” may be considered to encompass not only the conventional man-machine interfaces related to communication between man and machine but also the promotion and harmonization of communication between people, between societies and people, and even between different cultures and between different languages. It also gives the impression that it is trying to come closer to the human side. On the other hand, “human” can be read in the Japanese Romanize language as “human” which phonetically means “dissatisfaction.” Thus the human interface may ironically be called the “dissatisfied” interface. The conventional “man-machine interface,” namely the interface between “man” and “machine,” tended to favor the efficiency of the machine and often attempted to push men closer to the side of the machine, that is, to force the burden on the men. This is precisely the “dissatisfied” interface itself. It is no exaggeration to say that whether the human interface is considered truly to be human or not will depend upon the effort to eliminate this dissatisfaction and make the interface pleasant to the human beings. Fortunately, study and research efforts have been made, in recent years, more on interfaces emphasizing the human side than on the conventional man-machine interfaces. In particular, the importance of welfare systems for conquering the physical trouble of men have been recognized and their developmental work is attempted at various research centers. Moreover, research efforts are also being directed towards not only the passive attempt to conquer men’s physical trouble but also the active attempt to draw out hidden capabilities of men. In addition, the recent years have seen a great deal of developmental work on information presenting systems which make full use of information perceiving capabilities by human senses such as artificial reality system or virtual reality system. The application of such systems as a new means of communication is awaited in expec tation. To be more precise, these systems are utilized for facilitating such tasks as, for example, the tele-existence in which work at a remote place is carried out at a near place after the environment at the remote place has been transferred to the near place, operations involing the joining of capillary vessels under microscopes, operations at the molecular levels in micro-environments under electron microscopes, and tasks in gigantic environments like assembly of cosmic structures, after achieving the imaginary creation of working conditions similar to normal conditions in the normal environment to which abnormal envirnments have been transferred. In order to succeed in these attempts, it is important to have environment transforming technology, environment transferring technology, and environment presenting technology. To realize these technologies, the maximal consideration of the characteristics of men is indispensable. In such human interface, it is desirable to develop means of transmitting the intentions of men accurately and presenting these intentions effectively so that men can easily recognize, understand, and judge them. Moreover, in view of the fact that it is important in facilitating tasks to react to actions of men, that is, to have the existence of reactions, it is desirable to develop means of presentation including reactions, operation, instruction, and inputting. In addition, it is important to have still deeper understandings of the characteristics of men and develop instructive techniques and presentation techniques appropriate to the characteristics of men, if more effective presentation to the men is to be achieved and the instructions from men to systems facilitated. Research on the functions and characteristics of men themselves such as human sensory functions, brain functions, and psychological characteristics has now become important. Although the trends of the human interface are not yet clear, this special issue has taken up various topics related to this subject cross-sectionally, although it may be judged somewhat biased. It is our hope that this issue will provide some help in seeking the developmental direction of the human interface in the future.

: pp. 2-6
Advances in Virtual Reality Technology
Abstract
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Michitaka Hirose
: pp. 7-12
Tele-Existence
Abstract
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Susumu Tachi
: pp. 13-19
Psychological and Physiological Analysis of Stereoscopic Vision
Abstract
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Toyohiko Hatada
: pp. 20-24
Design and Analysis of Control Software in Virtual Reality Environment
Abstract
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Haruo Amari, Takeshi Myoi, Hideki Koike, Michitaka Hirose and Takemochi Ishii
: pp. 25-30
Virtual Reality System Using Psychological and Physiological Data An Application to Sports Image Training System
Abstract
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Ken’ichi Kamijo, Shin’ichi Fukuzumi and Toshimasa Yamazaki
: pp. 31-38
Rotating Shape Modeling with SPIDAR
Abstract
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Makoto Sato, Shun-ichi Numazaki, Yukihiro Hirata and Hiroshi Kawarada
: pp. 39-42
Force Display for Presentation of Rigidity of Virtual Objects
Abstract
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Hiroo Iwata, Takashi Nakagawa and Takahiro Nakashima
: pp. 43-48
Design of an Actuator for Tele-existence Display of Position and Force to Human Hand and Elbow
Abstract
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Shuichi Ino, Takashi Izumi, Makoto Takahashi and Tohru Ifukube
: pp. 49-57
Can a Robot and a Man Communicate Heart to Heart? -A New Perspective of Human Interface Technologies-
Abstract
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Takaya Endo
: pp. 58-62
Difference in Recognition of Optical Illusion Using Visual and Tactual Sense
Abstract
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Yukio Fukui and Makoto Shimojo
: pp. 63-69
Analysis of Recognition Processes by Measurement of Brain Waves and Temperature Distributions
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Masafumi Uchida
: pp. 70-75
3-D Computer Graphics System for Vision Research by Binocular Viewing
Abstract
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Masanori Idesawa and Yasuhiro Mizukoshi
: pp. 76-79
Virtual Space Decision Support System and its Application to an Integrated Sales/Manufacturing System
Abstract
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Junji Nomura, Hikaru Ohta and Kayo Imamura
: pp. 80-86
Ideas of Shoulder Computer
Abstract
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Hiroaki Kubota and Suzuko Kubota

Vol.3 (1991)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Force and Compliance Control

Special Issue on Force and Compliance Control

: p. 445
Force and Compliance Control
Kazuo Tanie

When robots perform tasks in which constraint forces are applied to the end effector from the environment, the interactive forces must be controlled. Considering this problem, in robotics, force control has been recognized as one of the most important research topics since the beginning of robotics research. In order to control forces dexterously, several studies have been conducted concerning sensors, actuators, and control algorithms. Currently, compliance and impedance control is a newly identified topic in force control. In the biological analysis of human behavior, it is well known that man adjusts the impedance of skeletal muscles according to the kind of task and can perform them dexterously. A compliance/impedance control technique has been proposed in order to realize such a function in robot motion. The feature of compliance/impedance control is control of the interacting forces not directly but through adjustment of compliance/impedance parameters of the system. This control structure provides several benefits to enable robots perform to complex tasks dexterously; however, there are still a lot of problems to be solved before it can be put to practical use. This Special Issue provides an overview of recent research activities concerning force control technology in robotics with an emphasis on compliance and impedance control. The papers compiled in this issue include various topics of force control, such as compliant motion control, biological aspects of compliance control and this force control using different kinds of actuators. I believe that the contents of this issue contains useful information for researchers and engineers with interests in this area. Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to the authors for their efforts and contributions to this issue and also to the members of the editorial staff for their skillful assistance.

: pp. 446-450
Handling of Soft Object/Explanation Compliance Control and Soft Contact Problems
Abstract
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Kazuo Tanie and Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 451-454
Tendon-Sheath Mechanism and Its Influence on Force Control
Abstract
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Makoto Kaneko
: pp. 455-462
Impedance Regulation in Human Movements During a Rotation Task
Abstract
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Koji Ito, Toshio Tsuji, and Minoru Sugino
: pp. 463-469
Impedance Control of a Pneumatic Servo System with Adaptive Control Method
Abstract
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Toshiro Noritsugu, Tsutomu Wada, and Toshiaki Asanoma
: pp. 470-474
Robust Impedance Control for Robot Manipulator
Abstract
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Yoshiharu Nishida, Takashi Harada, Nobuaki Imamura and Nobuo Kimura
: pp. 475-481
Cooperative Compliant Motion Control of Writ and Arm
Abstract
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Kei Kawase, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Chihiro Sawada, and Masayuki Takata
: pp. 482-490
Stable Control of Multi-link Manipulator Using Collision Phenomena
Abstract
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Yasumasa Shoji, Makoto Inaba, Toshio Fukuda and Hidemi Hosokai
: pp. 491-496
Collison Control of the Robot Manipulator by a Learning Control Using the Weighted Least-Squares Method
Abstract
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Hiroshi Wada, Toshio Fukuda, Hideo Matsuura, Fumihito Arai, Keigo Watanabe and Yasumasa Shoji
: pp. 497-505
Analysis of Hand-Arm Coordinate Motion on Constraint Tasks
Abstract
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Shigeki Sugano, Hideyo Namimoto and Ichiro Kato
: pp. 506-509
Transient Characteristics of Model-Following Servo System
Abstract
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Yasuo Yoshida and Masato Tanaka
: pp. 510-514
Self-Locating Measurement System for Mobile Robot Working in the Building Site
Abstract
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Makoto Kajitani, Tadashi Masuda, Chisato Kanamori, Masashi Goto, Tadashi Kotani and Yasunori Abe

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Mobile Robot

Special Issue on Mobile Robot

: pp. 365-372
Postural and Driving Control of a Variable-Configuration-Type Parallel Bicycle
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamafuji and Atsushi Koshiyama
: pp. 373-378
Development of a Laser Range Sensor for a Mobile Robot
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Kiyoshi Komoriya and Kazuo Tani
: pp. 379-386
Structured Sign for Guidance of Mobile Robot
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Hesin Sai and Yoshikuni Okawa
: pp. 387-393
Navigation/Locating Control of Mobile Robots for Construction
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Takashi Shiokawa
: pp. 394-400
Visual Control of Robotic Manipulator Based on Artificial Neural Network
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Hideki Hashimoto, Takashi Kubota, Motoo Sato and Fumio Harashima
: pp. 401-408
Fast Pattern Processing for Robot Vision
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Hideto Ide, Masao Ohtsuka and Koichiro Miyagi
: pp. 409-415
Multi-Fingered Robot Hand with Very Simple Actuation and Control
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Ario Romiti, Terenziano Raparelli and Franco Bellosta
: pp. 416-427
Calculation Model-Based Machine Design System and Application to Robot Programming
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Isao Nagasawa, Shigeto Aramaki, and Yumiko Furukawa
: pp. 428-434
Knowledge Based Robot Programming
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Shigeto Aramaki
: pp. 435-436
Fuzzy Control of Robot Hand Based on EMG
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Hideto Ide, Ryosuke Hosaka and Masao Ohtsuka
: pp. 437-442
Physical Explication and Realization of the Turning Motion of a Cat by Analysis and Experiment Using a Robot Cat
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Takashi Kawamura, Kazuo Yamafuji and Tsuyoshi Kobayashi

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Mechatronics

Special Issue on Mechatronics

: p. 301
Mechatronics
Haruhisa Kawasaki

Mechatronics is a term created to represent the total technology of mechanisms and electronics. Mechanical engineering dealing with mechanisms has a very long history. Its recent organic combination with electronics has certainly brought about a striking advance in the functions and performance of machines. This striking advance lay in the background of the creation of the new term “mechatronics”. The initiation of mechatronics was no doubt due to the advent of NC machine tools. NC machine tools were accomplished by fusing mechanisms with servo unit drives and computer techniques. The technique using them was somewhat innovative in that servo units were driven by digital computer signals. Mechatronics is considered as essential to develop peripheral machines for computers such as plotters, printers and magnetic memories, and as an application to wire bonding machines and X-ray exposing machines in semiconductor manufacturing processes. For such machines, increasingly higher speed and accuracy are likely to be required, and engineering developments are actively underway accordingly. This special issue was planned to present the current status and recent trends of mechatronic research arid development in Japan. The contents can be classified into three categories. First, bearings and actuators as basic mechatronic elements are featured. For bearings, trends of research and development on magnetic types which permit ultrahigh-speed rotation and operation in vacuum in particular were chosen. For actuators, recent examples of research and development on ultrasonic motors, linear motors and piezoelectric actuators were selected. Second, this issue presents examples of development in the area of X-ray steppers, memory medium handling systems, and polygonal scanners. These are frontier mechatronic systems and the descriptions will be of some help in recognizing future problems in development. Finally, some studies from the point of view of force-torque control were selected. While conventional mechatronic control studies are primarily concerned with position and speed control, force-torque control is expected to become an important trend. I hope that this special issue will be helpful in recognizing the current situation and future trends of mechatronics, and contribute to future developments in this area.

: pp. 302-305
Practical Use of Magnetic Bearing Has Started – Non-contact Bearing of New Concept –
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Fumio Matsumura
: pp. 306-313
Harmonic Drive with a Built-in Torque Sensor and Its Application to Torque Control
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Minoru Hashimoto, Hideki Hirabayashi, and Toshihide Kiyosawa
: pp. 314-319
Optimum Design Method for Sub-Reed of an Ultrasonic Motor
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Seiji Aoyagi, Yoshitugu Kamiya and Sakiichi Okabe
: pp. 320-327
Compensation of Transfer Deviation on Symmetry Type Bilateral Servo Mechanism
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Kazuo Kanzaki, Nobuaki Kobayashi and Tadashi Yamada
: pp. 328-333
Ultra-Precision Linear Motor Positioning Technique
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Masanori Suematsu, Takao Fujii, Atsushi Kawahara, Tomoaki Tanimoto, Toshio Matsumoto and Hideaki Watanabe
: pp. 334-339
Disturbance Compensation Control in Media-Handling System
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Ichiro Yamada, Kazumasa Kaneko and Makoto Takayanagi
: pp. 340-345
Analysis of Jitter used for Polygonal Scanner
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Hiroshi Horikawa
: pp. 346-353
A Vertical X-ray Stepper for SOR Lithography
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Sunao Ishihara, Atsunobu Une, Munenori Kanai, Masanori Suzuki, Makoto Fukuda and Fujio Omata
: pp. 354-355
Positioning Mechanism with Three Degrees of Freedom Using Piezoelectric Actuators
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Hidehiko Kuroda, Fumio Yamamoto, Yuji Nagano, Tatsuya Suzuki, Yoshihiko Katsuyama and Akinori Satoh
: pp. 356-359
A Review of Experiments on Adaptive Control and Computed Torque Control by a Robot with the Non-Linear Reduction Ratio Feature
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Haruhisa Kawasaki and Noboru Kato
: pp. 360-364
Active Control for Whirling Motion of Flexible Rotor
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Takakazu Ishimatsu, Takashi Shimomachi, and Nobuyoshi Taguchi

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Spatial Information Sensing

Special Issue on Spatial Information Sensing

: p. 135
Spatial Information Sensing
Masanori Idesawa, Editor

Humans are able to respond flexibly to changes in the environment — grasping information of objects, environmental conditions and personal state — via senses. As such, it is indispensable for an automatic machine such as a robot to be equipped with a sensing system corresponding to the human senses which permits flexible work in a 3-D environment. Acquisition of 3-dimensional environmental information is important in particular, and spatial information measures are regarded as indispensable for acquiring 3-D environmental information. The visual sense plays an important role for humans to acquire spatial information. Reflecting on this, R&D on visual sensors is underway vigorously in the field of robotics, and many expectations are focusing on an optical sensing system which permits the detection of spatial information from remote positions without any influences on the object. Meanwhile, humans do not plan behavior based fully on sensor information, but have papered fixed form behavior programs which are launched with information obtained from sensors or implemented with some modification in many cases. There are several modes of sensing in human: a monitoring mode which detects generation of extraordinal state, and which does not always concentrate attention on all sensors to acquire information; an attentive sensing mode in which men concentrate attention on related sensors when an extraordinary phenomena is detected; intentional mode in which men detect intentionally information necessary for work or behavior to be implemented, or detect, intentionally and as planned, information being short in behavior programs; and so on. It is effective for robots when possible to acquire information in the same mode as humans and to control it the same as human behavior. Sensor data integration and sensor fusion are also required for more accurate judgement, in which much information is integrated, in addition to knowledge already accumulated; when each piece of information in itself is not enough for accurate judgement, integrated information may permit better judgement. Further, model base sensing which refers to an environmental model and knowledge based sensing, and which refers to accumulated knowledge will be important research subjects. These will be followed by intentional sensing which intentionally acquires information necessary for achievement of objectives. Finally, introduction of the hierarchical behavior mode, which corresponds to the human monitoring and attentive modes, is indispensable for a robot. In this mode, a sensor system detects the object and extraordinary state in monitoring mode, then analyses and processes details of phenomena of particularly interest in attentive mode, and then detects and acquires information necessary for achievement of objectives with optimal resolution in intentional sensing mode. The special issue on spatial information sensing is a compilation of articles on some spatial information acquisition methods, visual sensors and positioning sensors for robots. Also, some proposals are presented for realizing multiple resolution sensing, sensor fusion and active sensing, centering on an optical spatial information acquisition method.

: pp. 136-150
Intelligent Robot Sensor System
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Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 151-156
3-Dimensional Shape Measurement
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Yasuo Yamashita
: pp. 157-162
The Recent Trend of Moire Metrology
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Toru Yoshizawa
: pp. 163-169
Recent Holographic Interferometry
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Kiyofumi Matsuda
: pp. 170-176
3-Dimensional Shape Recognition by Active Vision
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Koichiro Deguchi
: pp. 177-183
Automatic 3D Measurement System by the Grid Illumination Type Moire Method
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Yasuhiko Arai, Shunsuke Yokozeki and Tomoharu Yamada
: pp. 184-189
Automatic Fringe Analysis of Moiré Interferometry
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Yasuhiko Arai, Tadao Kurata and Shunsuke Yokozeki
: pp. 190-195
Three-Dimensional Curved Shape Measuring System Using Image Encoder
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Mitsuaki Uesugi
: pp. 196-200
Setup Planning of Active Visual Sensing for Autonomous Robots
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Shigeyuki Sakane, Tomomasa Sato, and Masayoshi Kakikura
: pp. 201-206
A Study on a 3-Dimensional Expert Vision System Using the Fiber Grating Method (The Neural Network Applications for Recognition of Plant Pipeline Direction)
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Toshio Fukuda, Hidemi Hosokai, Fumihito Arai and Shusuke Mogi
: pp. 207-210
Non-Contact, Real-Time, 3-Dimensional-Motion Analyzing System by Color Vision
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Shigeo Sasazawa
: pp. 211-214
Development of Long Span, High Precision Absolute Linear Scale by Moire Fringes
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Yasuhiko Arai, Shunsuke Yokozeki and Tomoharu Yamada
: pp. 215-217
A Direction Sensing Technique of a Reference Point by Using Cross-Hair Diffraction Beam
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Masafumi Ito, Kazuhiro Hane, Fumio Matsuda, Yoshiki Uchikawa and Shuzou Hattori
: pp. 218-219
The Measurement of 2-Dimensional Micro-Pattern Using Laserbeam Scanning
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Hiroo Fujita

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Bioelectronics

Special Issue on Bioelectronics

: p. 73
Bioelectronics
Hideto Ide

Recent biological approaches in robotic research and development have been advancing in two ways: 1) steady advances toward intelligent bio-systems by making sensors more integrated and functional, and 2) studies on the coordination of bio-information from various sources. For the coordination of bio-information dealt with in this special issue, its necessity was originally discussed in the area of mobile robots. For a mobile robot performing tasks autonomously, recognition of its relation with the external environment is essential. The concept perhaps came up as robotics aimed to improve robots’ toughness to changing and unknown environments, by coordinating information from several sense organs (visual, tactile etc.) to obtain more accurate information. Man constructs a recognition system more reliably as a whole by coordinating various sets of sensory information. Attempts are also being made to con struct a new bio-information coordinating architecture aimed at achieving functions equivalent to those of human recognition. This special’issue was planned to present recent research and development as well as problems and trends in bio-information. This area of study is still in its infancy, with no study frameworks and methodology having been established in its short history. In contrast to other past special issues, this one stresses biological approaches, and I hope it will be helpful in developing the specific area of study mentioned here while helping robotists recognize current studies and problems. Finally, I express my sincere thanks to those who spared time to contribute to this issue, and to the editorial staff of the journal.

: pp. 74-78
Measurement of Microscopic Displacement and Vibration of Tympanic membranes by Means of Fiber Optics
Abstract
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Eiji Toba, Kenchiu Riku, Kazuya Ito and Kiichiro Taguchi
: pp. 79-83
Nerve Response Depending on Temperature Changes in Carp
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Hideto Ide and Masao Ohtsuka
: pp. 84-87
Magnetic Stimulation of Spinal Roots
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Shoogo Ueno and Osamu Hiwaki
: pp. 88-92
Proving the Carry-over Effect of Slow-Wave Sleep by Mathematical Models
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Toshinori Kobayashi, Yoichi Tsuji, Yoshinobu Iguchi
: pp. 93-95
Comparison of Alpha Wave Frequency in Listening to Two Kinds of Music
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Yoichi Tsuji, Kazuyuki Nagasawa, and Misao Itoi
: pp. 96-100
Analysis of Temperature Distribution in the Human Body by Electromagnetic Heating
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Yoshiyuki Kageyama, Hideto Ide and Masao Saito
: pp. 101-104
An Analysis of Relation between Blinking Patterns and Arousal Level
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Ryosuke Hosaka
: pp. 105-111
Fundamental Study for Developing Posture-Changes in Beds to Prevent Bedsores
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M. Nakane, A. Takahashi and S. Saito
: pp. 112-115
Equivalent Circuit of Nerve Axon by Duality Theory and its Analysis
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Shuichi Yokoyama and Toshio Kakinuma
: pp. 116-120
Processing of Three-Dimensional Image Information and Its Application to Industry
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Kazuhiro Homma
: pp. 121-123
Sensor Actuator for Automation of Carrying Line
Abstract
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Akinori Nakamura
: pp. 124-127
Symbol Encoding Method of Time Series Data and Markov Model
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Takafumi Katayama, Eiji Suzuki and Masao Saito
: pp. 128-130
Scented Envelopment and ERP Basis Waves
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Yasuhiko Saito, Takuji Yamamoto, S Kanamura
: pp. 131-133
Magnetoencephalography (3)
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Masaru Yarita

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Micro-Machine

Special Issue on Micro-Machine

: p. 1
Micro-Machine
Toshio Fukuda and Hidemi Hosokai

Much attention has been paid to the micronization of machine systems founded on the silicon-based semiconductor technology which are greatly different imagewise from the conventional machines. As a result, studies are being actively carried out on micro-machines. In addition, studies on extremely micro actuators and sensors based on the conventional precision processing techniques are also being conducted. These techniques have begun to support studies and developments of micro-robots which are based on new concepts of machine systems. The following techniques may be contained in the basic technology of micro-robots: 1) Micro-mechanical device techniques; 2) Micro-sensor and control circuit techniques; 3) Systems techniques; 4) Measurement and evaluation techniques A micro-robot as the totally integrated system of these techniques is considered for use in various fields including medical treatments and industrial areas. For applications in the medical field, micro-robots may be used in microsurgery, micro-operation, and micro-capsuling, while for industrial applications, micro-robots may be employed in the areas of maintenance, manufacturing, public well-being, and construction, among others. Nevertheless, in order to develop components in the truly micro-mechanical realm, to further refine these techniques and then to complete a micro-robot, system components such as sensors, actuators, processors, energy sources, functional parts, and communications devices are essential. Recently, the techniques for precision processing of silicon have made remarkable progress; in consequence, close attentions are being paid to micro-machining whereby silicon substrates are processed cubically by means of these processing techniques to form cubically structured function al elements. Micro-machining enables surfaces to be processed without producing scratches, thereby making it possible to create mechanical elements having wide dynamic ranges. Micro-processors and micro-actuators enjoying these advantages are beginning to be created on silicon substrates. Against this background, the present special issue on micro-machine systems has been planned to provide a glance at how the micro-related technology in micromachines and micro-mechanisms has advanced thus far and also at what course the future development of this technology will follow or how it will affect the surrounding areas of the technology. In the beginning, discussions on micro-mechanisms, micro-sensors, and micro-actuators were provided by Dr. Teru Hayashi (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Osamu Tabata and Susumu Sugiyama (Toyoda Central Research Center, Inc.), Kohji Kajimura (Electrotechnical Laboratory), and Toshi Takamori (Kobe University). In the subsequent sections, Dr. Masayoshi Ezashi (Tohoku University), Toshio Fukuda, Motohiro Fujiyoshi, Fumihiro Arai, Hideo Matsuura (all of Nagoya University), Toshiro Higuchi (University of Tokyo), Minoru Sakata, Katsumi Hosoya, Masatoshi Oba, Masao Hirano (all of OMRON Corp.), Katsuyoshi Kuribayashi (Yamaguchi University), Yoshitaka Tatsue and Tokio Kitahara (both of Mechanical Engineering Laboratory) gave explanatory introductions of their research activities. At the same time, Dr. Kohji Ikuta (Kyushu Institute of Technology), Kinji Harada and Hideki Kuwayama (both of Yokogawa Electric Corp.) provided the news concerning the developments of their micro-machines. Moreover, the latest information on micro-machines was presented by Dr. Tadashi Kitamura and Mochimitsu Komori (both of Kyushu Institute of Technology). 1 hope you will find some useful articles for understanding the state of art and the direction of the future developments.

: pp. 2-7
Micro Mechanisms
Abstract
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Teru Hayashi
: pp. 8-11
Evaluation of Thin Film Material for Micromechanisms
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Osamu Tabata and Susumu Sugiyama
: pp. 12-17
STM as a Micromachine
Abstract
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Koji Kajimura
: pp. 18-27
Recent Trends in the Development of New Actuators
Abstract
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Toshi Takamori
: pp. 28-33
Silicon Microvalves and Their Applications
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Masayoshi Esashi
: pp. 34-40
Position and Force Control of Micromanipulatorwith Six Degrees of Freedom Using Piezoelectric Actuators
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Toshio Fukuda, Motohiro Fujiyoshi, Fumihito Arai and Hideo Matsuura
: pp. 41-46
Clean Room Actuators
Abstract
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Toshiro Higuchi
: pp. 47-51
Investigation for Practical Use of Wobble Motor
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Minoru Sakata, Katsumi Hosoya, and Masatoshi Ohba
: pp. 52-56
Micro-robot Using Reversible SMA Actuator
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Katsutoshi Kuribayashi
: pp. 57-59
Micro-Grip System
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Yoshitaka Tatsue and Tokio Kitahara
: pp. 60-64
Micromachine – Its Current State and Future
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Koji Ikuta
: pp. 65-69
Vibrating Sensor
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Kinji Harada and Hideki Kuwayama

Vol.2 (1990)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Computer Architecture for Robotics

Special Issue on Computer Architecture for Robotics

: p. 417
Computer Architecture for Robotics
Michitaka Kameyama

In the realization of intelligent robots, highly intelligent manipulation and movement techniques are required such as intelligent man-machine interfaces, intelligent information processing for path planning and problem solutions, practical robot vision, and high-speed sensor signal processing. Thus, very high-speed processing to cope with vast amounts of data as well as the development of various algorithms has become important subjects. To fulfill such requirements, the development of high-performance computer architecture using advanced microelectronics technology is required. For these purposes, the development of implementing computer systems’ for robots will be classified as follows: (a) Use of general-purpose computers As the performance of workstations and personal computers is increased year by year, software development is the major task without requiring hardware development except the interfaces with peripheral equipment. Since current high-level languages and software can be applied, the approach is excellent in case of system development, but the processing performance is limited. (b) Use of commercially available (V) LSI chips This is an approach to design a computer system by the combination of commercially available LSIs. Since the development of both hardware and software is involved in this system development, the development period tends to be longer than in (a). These chips include general-purpose microprocessors, memory chips, digital signal processors (DSPs) and multiply-adder LSIs. Though the kinds of available chips are limited to some degree, the approach can cope with a considerably high-performance specifications because a number of chips can be flexibly used. (c) Design, development and system configuration of VLSI chips This is an approach to develop new special-purpose VLSI chips using ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) technology, that is, semicustom or full-custom technology. If these attain practical use and are marketed, they will be widely used as high-performance VLSI chips of the level (b). Since a very high-performance specification must be satisfied, the study of very high performance VLSI computer architecture becomes very important. But this approach involving chip development requires a very long period in the design-development from the determination of processor specifications to the system configuration using the fabricated chips. For the above three approaches, the order from the viewpoint of ease of development will be (a), (b) and (c), while that from the viewpoint of performance will be (c), (b) and (a). Each approach is not exclusive but is complementary each other. For example, the development of new chips by (c) can also give new impact as the components of (a) and (b). Further, the common point of these approaches is that performance improvement by highly parallel architecture becomes important. This special edition introduces, from the above standpoint, the latest information on the present state and’ future prospects of the computer techniques in Japan. We hope that this edition will contribute to the development of this field.

: pp. 418-423
Design of a Parallel Collision Detection Check VLSI Processor for Robot Manipulator
Abstract
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Tadao Amada, Michitaka Kameyama and Tatsuo Higuchi
: pp. 424-430
Design of a Matrix Multiply-Addition VLSI Processor for Robot control
Abstract
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Somchai Kittichaikoonkit, Michitaka Kameyama and Tatsuo Higuchi
: pp. 431-435
Image Processing and Recognition System Using Transputer
Abstract
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Hidenobu Arita
: pp. 436-444
Dynamically Reconfigurable Robotic Systems – Optimal Knowledge Allocation for Cellular Robotic System (CEBOT) –
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Kawauchi and Hajime Asama
: pp. 445-451
An Advanced Robot Control System Using a DSP-Based Vector Computation Engine
Abstract
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Nobuaki Takanashi
: pp. 452-456
A Distributed Control System Using Transputers
Abstract
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Yasuyoshi Kuba, Ryoichi Hashimoto and Mitsuo Wada
: pp. 457-462
Head Positioning Control Using DSPs
Abstract
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Makoto Mizukami
: pp. 463-470
The Development of a Direct Drive Master Arm
Abstract
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Tetsuo Kotoku, Erhard J. Hüsler, Kazuo Tanie and Akio Fujikawa
: pp. 471-473
Robot Electronics System
Abstract
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Tatsuo Higuchi and Michitaka Kameyama
: pp. 474-478
Real-Time Processing LSIs for Robot Vision
Abstract
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Masayuki Inaba
: pp. 479-484
Parallel Processing Systems for Robot Control
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Shigeru Kokaji
: pp. 485-487
The Development of a Transputer Board
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Hiroshi Suzuki

No.5

(Oct)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 325-334
Fundamental Study on Hand Waving Sensors
Abstract
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Kazue Nishihara
: pp. 335-343
An Automated Control System-Designing System Assisted by Hypothetical Reasoning
Abstract
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Seiichi Kawata, Atsushi Watanabe and Yasumaru Kubo
: pp. 344-350
A Method of Recognition-Process Classification by Thermo Distribution and EEG Frequency (P300) Analysis
Abstract
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Hideto Ide, Shizuaki Takahashi and Masao Ohtsuka
: pp. 351-357
Fluid Drag Force Production and Motion Control of an Aquarobot Manipulator by Ejecting Air Bubbles
Abstract
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Masakazu Ogasawara and Fumio Hara
: pp. 358-363
Control of Master-Slave Manipulator Based on Virtual Internal Model
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Kazuhiro Kosuge, Katsuhisa Furuta, Yoshinori Shiote and Hiroshi Hatano
: pp. 364-372
Quasi-Optimum Control of a Robotic Rotary Crane
Abstract
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Shuichi Yokoyama, Toshio Kakinuma
: pp. 373-383
Development of an Inspection Robot for Penstocks
Abstract
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Masayuki Hori, Takayuki Nimura, Masamichi Miura, Tomoji Fujisawa, Tomoaki Satou, Tadashi Morimoto and Satoru Moriya
: pp. 384-389
Riding Simulator
Abstract
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Masaaki Yamaguchi and Nobuhiro Iguchi
: pp. 390-394
A High-Speed Filtering Processor for Image Processing
Abstract
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Masato Fujii and Kiyotaka Inada
: pp. 395-397
Application of Ultrasonic Light Modulator to Estimation of Blood Characteristics
Abstract
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Masao Ohtsuka and Hideto Ide
: pp. 398-400
Ensemble Robot
Abstract
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Masao Kobayashi
: pp. 401-403
Hobby Robots and Micromouse
Abstract
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Shinichi Yuta
: pp. 404-410
Robot Control System ARS/A for Research
Abstract
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Kosei Kitagaki and Marasu Uchiyama
: pp. 411-413
Robot Studies at Industrial Products Research Institute
Abstract
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Mitsuo Wada and Makoto Shimojo

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Neural Networks and the Applications for Robot Control

Special Issue on Neural Networks and the Applications for Robot Control

: p. 219
Neural Networks and the Applications for Robot Control
Mitsuo Wada

It is well known that robots are being skillfully applied and with favorable performance in a variety of fields, for use in the Japanese manufacturing industry in particular, thanks to progress in robot technology. Today, robots are expected to accommodate men and in the near future be utilized in the field of home life in compliance with human beings. Pessimistically speaking, however, it is impossible to deny that conventional robots, such as teaching playback robots (which men must operate directly), are not able to play roles in the future as expected, so that the development of a new control system which is able to overcome conventional systems in performance ability is indispensable. In other words, flexible control systems by which robots are able to behave autonomously, with minimum human interference is urgently required. We believe that the following three concepts are indispensable for a robot to be equipped with flexibility. a) Manipulators/hands and lggs / wheek with human flexibility. b) Control of flexible and intelligent motions for control in manipulation/handling and locomotion; c) Flexible intelligence and a sense of judgement which permits the robot to execute motions autonomously, adapting itself to the requirements of the human environment. Solving these problems will require investigation into information processing, a study into the function of the brain and central nervous system of human and other living bodies. Thus the information processing theory about neural networks which simulate the functions of the brain has progressed rapidly to activate R & D on the application of motion control and speech processing which have made use of the conventional Neumann computer difficult to handle. Neural networks have the capacity of parallel distributed processing and self-organization as well as learning capacity. Its theory has provided an effective basis for materialization of flexible robots. In the field of level b. and c. mentioned earlier, the neural network theory comprises a large potential to be applied to robots, so that attention is being focused on it. Nevertheless, information processing by neural network is not omnipotent for solving such problems. Presently, it is difficult for a neural network to solve problems which require complex calculations in robot control; for instance, such controls that take force and acceleration into account. Control of flexible robots which mobilize whole arms will require parallel processing of data obtained from many sensors and to control numerous degrees of motion. Therefore, it has become increasingly important for problem solving to combine such problems inherent to robots with parallel processing, self-organization and learning ability of neural networks. From this point of view, therefore, further promotion of R & D on the application technology of neural network for robots is important. These efforts will produce a new neural network-theory for robots and eventually permit autonomous motion. This special issue compilied articles related to applications of neural network to robots, which were produced in the above mentioned environment, from a review on neuromorfhic control, through dynamic system control, optimal trajectory, planning of motion for handling, manipulator locomotion and travelling, to problems in application systems. We hope these articles help our readers understand the present state of Japanese R & D and the application of neural network for robots, as well as new subjects possible for progress in the future. Finally, we gratefully acknowledge Prof. Toshio Fukuda (who contributed a review) and other contributors on their latest achievements.

: pp. 220-234
Research Trends in Neuromorphic Control
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda and Takanori Shibata
: pp. 235-244
Sensor Fusion : The State of the Art
Abstract
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Masatoshi Ishikawa
: pp. 245-257
Adaptive Neural Network Controllers for Dynamics Systems
Abstract
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Takayuki Yamada and Tetsuro Yabuta
: pp. 258-265
Motor Schema Model Learned by Structural Neural Networks
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Toshio Tsuji, Yusuke Ishida, Koji Ito, Mitsuo Nagamachi and Tatsuo Nishino
: pp. 266-272
Optimal Trajectory Control of Arms Using a Neural Network Model
Abstract
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Yoji Uno
: pp. 273-281
Force Control of Robot Manipulator by Neural Network Model – Experiment and Evaluation of One-Degree-of-Freedom Manipulator –
Abstract
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Masatoshi Tokita, Toyokazu Mitsuoka, Toshio Fukuda and Takashi Kurihara
: pp. 282-287
Gravity Compensation for Manipulator Control by Neural Networks with Partially Preorganized Structure
Abstract
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Toshio Tsuji, Masataka Nishida, Toshiaki Takahashi and Koji Ito
: pp. 288-293
Neural Network Type Grasping Control for Robot Hand
Abstract
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Mitsuo Wada and Hiroshi Endo
: pp. 294-302
Trajectory Generation of a Biped Locomotive Robot
Abstract
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Yasuo Kurematsu and Shinzo Kitamura
: pp. 303-307
Automatic Operation of a Mobile Robot Using an RCE Network
Abstract
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Hisato Kobayashi and Katsuhiko Inagaki
: pp. 308-315
A New Design of a 6-DOF Parallel Robot
Abstract
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François Pierrot, Masaru Uchiyama, Pierre Dauchez, and Alain Fournier
: pp. 316-318
Development of a Tactile Board for Image Input
Abstract
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Hideto Ide
: pp. 319-321
An Auxiliary Instrument for Automobiles Using Tactile Sense
Abstract
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Hideto Ide and Masaru Yarita
: pp. 322-323
Optical Neuron Computers – Associative Memory and Learning by Optical Parallel Processing –
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Masatoshi Ishikawa

No.3

(Jun)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 139-144
Aspects of Multi-Sensor Fusion Problems for Robots
Abstract
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Genichiro Kinoshita and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 145-156
Intelligent Motor Control — A Servo System Design Based on the Two Degrees of Freedom Controller and Its Application to Robot Control
Abstract
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Yoichi Hori, Takaji Umeno and Tomoaki Kaneko
: pp. 157-161
Neural Network Applications for Robotic Motion Control
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda and Takanori Shibata
: pp. 162-168
Impedance Control of a Multi-D.O.F. Direct-Drive Manipulator
Abstract
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Yasuyuki Inoue, Taisuke Sakaki, Toshio Matsumoto and Takanobu Iwakane
: pp. 169-171
Development of Uniaxial Tactile Sensor
Abstract
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Shinobu Sagisawa, Tsuneki Shinokura, Mitsuo Kobayashi and Yuzo Matsushita
: pp. 172-179
A Proximity-Tactile Sensor to Detect Obstacles for a Cylindrical Arm
Abstract
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Yoji Yamada, Nuio Tsuchida and Minoru Ueda
: pp. 180-183
Three-Component Detection Type Tactile Sensor
Abstract
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Mitsuo Kobayashi, Tsuneki Shinokura and Shinobu Sagisawa
: pp. 184-188
Gray Scale Judgement System
Abstract
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Yuji Watanabe
: pp. 189-193
Composition of Multiple D.O.F. Robot Control System Using a Parallel Processing Microcomputer
Abstract
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Shigeki Sugano
: pp. 194-201
Colored Character and Number Recognition by Using Cutaneous Sensation
Abstract
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Hideto Ide, Masaharu Yarita, Shizuaki Takahashi and Yoshiyuki Kageyama
: pp. 202-206
Sensor Fusion in Intelligent Maintenance Robot
Abstract
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Ryoichi Nakayama, Hideharu Okano and Tatsuo Miyazawa
: pp. 207-211
Horizontal Manipulator for Use in Concrete Depositing
Abstract
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Hayao Aoyagi
: pp. 212-213
A Spherical DC Servomotor with Three Degrees of Freedom
Abstract
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Kazumasa Kaneko
: pp. 214-216
Microgrippers
Abstract
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Yasuhisa Ando
: pp. 217-218
Harmonic Drive Built-in Torque Sensor
Abstract
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Minoru Hashimoto and Masakatsu Sasahara

No.2

(Apr)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 71-82
Research Investigations of Advanced Intelligent Next-generation Robots – 1988 Japan Industrial Robot Association Report
Abstract
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Japan Industrial Robot Association
: pp. 83-90
Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of the Position Control System of a Two-Link Horizontal Flexible Robot
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Kojima
: pp. 91-96
Tip Position Control of a Flexible Robot Arm Considering the Reduction Gear’s Friction
Abstract
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Yasuo Yoshida and Masato Tanaka
: pp. 97-106
Compensating Control of a Flexible Robot Arm
Abstract
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Masaru Uchiyama, Zhao Hui Jiang and Kyojiro Hakomori
: pp. 107-113
Load Estimation and Compensation Control of a Vertical Two-Link Robot
Abstract
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Yoshitake Kobayashi and Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 114-117
Basic Study of Cooperative Motion of Mobile Robots
Abstract
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Makoto Kajitani, Koji Fukuo and Tadashi Masuda
: pp. 118-122
Influence of the Unit Number of Intermediate Layers and Networks on Learning Ability
Abstract
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Hideto Ide, Hiroyuki Endo, Sizuaki Takahashi
: pp. 123-128
Trial Fabrication of Analysis System of Eye Movement and Position of Line-of-Sight Recognition System
Abstract
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Hideto Ide, Makoto Sakata and Shizuaki Takahashi
: pp. 129-134
Piezo Driven 3 D.O.F. Actuator for Robot Hands
Abstract
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Haruhisa Kawasaki and Masahito Yashima
: pp. 135-137
Development of a Capacitance Type Inclination Sensor
Abstract
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Kazue Nishihara
: p. 138
High-Performance LSI for Kinematics Computation
Abstract
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Tatsuo Higuchi

No.1

(Feb)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 1-9
Active Control of Vibration of Flexible Arms
Abstract
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Kazutoyo Seto
: pp. 10-14
Mechanics of Grasping and Manipulation by MultiFingered Robot Hands
Abstract
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Kiyoshi Nagai and Tsuneo Yoshikawa
: pp. 15-21
Force/Torque Sensor Based Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles
Abstract
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Susantha Dedduwa Pathirana and Kenichi Yoshimoto
: pp. 22-27
High-Speed Adaptive Control of a Robot Manipulator
Abstract
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Yohji Okada, Eiichi Suzuki and Kenichi Matsuda
: pp. 28-37
Hybrid Control of a Manipulator and its Application
Abstract
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Tatsuo Arai, Eiji Nakano, Tomoaki Yano and Ryoichi Hashimoto
: pp. 38-41
Thin and Flexible Position Sensor
Abstract
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Makoto Shimojo and Masatoshi Ishikawa
: pp. 42-45
Development of a Robot Hand Adjusted to Motions of the Human Hand
Abstract
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Hideto Ide, Hiroshi Yokozuka, Hiroshi Urushido, Masaru Yarita, and Syuichi Yokoyama
: pp. 46-52
Motion Control of a Vertically Articulated DirectDrive Robot Manipulator
Abstract
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Akira Shimada, Tsuyoshi Umeda, Norio Yokoshima, Naoki Kawawada, Hiroshi Watanabe, Toshimi Shioda and Masahide Nagai
: pp. 53-55
Optical Displacement Sensor Utilizing Contrast Variation of Projected Patterns
Abstract
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Toru Yoshizawa, Akiyoshi Tochigi
: pp. 56-58
Off-Line Teaching System Using an Image Scanner
Abstract
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Yasuhisa Maikawa and Mitsuaki Amano
: pp. 59-65
Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Boundary Lines
Abstract
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Sadahiko Nagae and Chiaki Ohta
: pp. 66-67
Terrain-Adaptive Quadru-Track Vehicle HELIOS II Multi-Media Display
Abstract
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Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 68-69
Multi-Media Display
Abstract
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Toshihiro Matsui

Vol.1 (1989)

No.4

(Dec)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: p. 255
Acquisition of 3-D Optical Information
Masanori Idesawa

In order for a machine to have the capacity to operate flexibly in a 3-D environment, it is indispensable for it to be equipped with space information acquisition capability, and tools for distance measurement are in turn indispensable for obtaining space information. Indeed distance measurement is basic and important not only for a robot, but also for science and technology in general. Many methods have been proposed for obtaining distance information, ranging from the mechanical contact type through optical and acoustic to electric and magnetic methods, and many are in practical use. Among them the optical method permits measurement of distance without contact and from a remote position, advantages which have led to it being widely applied. One of the most important principles for measuring distance is the triangulation principle. This permits determination of the position of an object from the distance between two observation points together with the angles in the triangle formed by these two points and a target point on the object. Based on this principle, the detection of one specific point in each of the two images obtained from two sets of image input equipment installed at two observation points permits determination of coordinate values in 3-D space. However, this extraction of the point in the second image corresponding to a specified point in the first image is a very difficult subject of study, and no universal method has been developed. To cope with this, active methods, which evade the problem by applying projection of laser light on the surface of an object to identify a bright point or bright line, are widely used. The special feature articles on obtaining 3-D optical information in this issue present some principles and new trial applications of distance acquisition methods for 3-D information, the optical method in particular. There are three reports on active method optical systems developed for robots. These include (1) a high speed measurement method applying space encoding which employs a liquid crystal lattice to project light in changing lattice patterns onto an object dynamically; (2) realization of high speed measurement through projecting and processing multiple light spots; (3) development of a visual sensor for disaster prevention use which can detect objects in flames and smoke utilizing projection of a CO2 gas laser. These are nearly at the level of operational use and are expected to become visual sensors for robots.

: pp. 256-263
Optical 3-D Information Acquisition Methods
Abstract
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Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 264-268
Noncontact Three-Dimensional Contour Instrumentation – Development of High-Speed Active Range Finder –
Abstract
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Noriyuki Fukaya, Mitsuo Hirashima, Makoto Matsumoto and Shin Enami
: pp. 269-273
Active Range Pattern Sensor
Abstract
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Kanehiro Sorimachi
: pp. 274-277
Laser Vision Sensor for Disaster-Prevention Robot
Abstract
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Minoru Kimura, Osamu Yamada, Hidemi Takahashi and Hiroshi Naitoh
: pp. 278-283
Research Tends in the Off-Line Programming of Robots
Abstract
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Tadashi Nagata
: pp. 284-288
Practical Application of Expert Systems – Current Status and Future Prospects
Abstract
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Chiyoji Tanaka, Chikao Imamichi and Kenzo Kobayashi
: pp. 289-297
Coordination Control in Artificial Fingers
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda, H. Hosokai, and Ken Shimonaka
: pp. 298-304
Numerical Simulation of Horizontal Articulated Robots in Consideration of Flexibility of Mechanical Systems
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Kojima, Hiroshi Takahashi and Hideharu Kuwana
: pp. 305-310
Driving-Torque Reduction for Aqua-Robot-Manipulator by Ejecting Air Bubbles
Abstract
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Masakazu Ogasawara and Fumio Hara
: pp. 311-316
Development of Ladder Climbing Robot LCR-1
Abstract
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H. lida, H. Hozumi and R. Nakayama
: pp. 317-321
Change of Types of Automatic Assembly System for Photo Products
Abstract
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Kazuhiko Kondo
: pp. 322-327
Advanced Motion Control of Direct Drive Actuators
Abstract
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Takeshi Ohde
: pp. 328-332
DD-type Linear Motor Systems and Their Applications
Abstract
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Tamotsu Suzuki
: pp. 333-337
XY Stage Capable of Positioning in Submicron Order
Abstract
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Hiroshi Goto
: pp. 338-342
Sensing Techniques for Mechatronics Systems
Abstract
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Yasuhito Shiota
: p. 343
Restoration of the Walking Motion of Bipedal Dinosaurs
Abstract
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Nobutoshi Yamazaki
: pp. 344-345
Multi-Layered Electrostatic Actuator
Abstract
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T. Higuchi and S. Egawa
: p. 346
Micro Robot Arm Utilizing Rapid Deformations of Piezoelectric Elements
Abstract
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T. Higuchi and Y. Yamagata
: pp. 347-348
Mobile Robot Which Can Shift from One Horizontal Bar to Another by Using Excitation of Vibration
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamafuji

No.3

(Oct)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 161-167
Sensing System of Robot
Abstract
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Ryosuke Masuda
: pp. 168-173
Damping Control of Direct-Driven Servo Valve Using an Observer
Abstract
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Hiroaki Kuwano
: pp. 173-178
Vibration Control of a Slider Pendulum-Type Loader Arm Driven by a Software-Cam Curve
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamafuji and Tetsuya Komine
: pp. 179-184
Shape Control of Flexible Structure With Gravitational Compensation
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda and Hidemi Hosokai
: pp. 185-191
Development of Mastication Robot WJ-1
Abstract
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Atsuo Takanishi
: pp. 192-201
Application of the Three Dimensional Coordinate Measuring Machine (CAD/CAM for the New Cosmetic Hand)
Abstract
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Yukio Saito, Takanori Higashihara, Torn Oshima, and Takamitu Tajima
: pp. 202-219
Laser Encoders
Abstract
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Tetsuharu Nishimura, Masaaki Tsukgi and Koh Ishizuka
: pp. 220-226
High Precision Automatic Alignment and its Computer Vision Technology
Abstract
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Tohru Tanigawa, Toshitsugu Sawai and Tadashi Nakao
: pp. 227-232
Fuzzy Control System and Its Application
Abstract
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Akihiro Sakaguchi
: pp. 233-239
Microrotary Actuator and Examples of its Applications
Abstract
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Syuzo Kachi
: pp. 240-244
Robotics Applications of Shape Memory Actuator
Abstract
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Yuichi Suzuki
: pp. 245-250
Recent Servo Motor Driver
Abstract
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Hiroaki Hosogaya
: pp. 251-252
Development of the Spherical SCARA Robot
Abstract
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Hiroshi Makino
: p. 253
3-Finger Hand Using Rubber Tube Type Artificial Muscle
Abstract
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Hiroshi Yoshinada
: pp. 254-255
Development of Musician Robots
Abstract
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Makoto Kajitani

No.2

(Aug)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 83-91
Machine Design in the Mechatronics Age
Abstract
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Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 92-97
On-Line Recognition of Robot Operation by Using a Vibration Analysis
Abstract
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Yoshitsugu Kamiya, Sakiichi Okabe, Yasuo Yokoyama and Touru Kobayashi
: pp. 98-105
Coordination Control of Artificial Five Fingers With Multiple Degrees of Freedom and a Concept of Three Dimensional Stable Grasping
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda, Ken Shimonaka and Hidemi Hosokai
: pp. 106-111
Synchronous Steering Control of a Parallel Bicycle
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamafuji, Yasushi Miyakawa and Takashi Kawamura
: pp. 112-115
Obstacle Detector by Using Both the Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors
Abstract
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Hideto Ide, Kazuo Ogawa and Masahisa Takahashi
: pp. 116-123
Development of Power-Assisted Head-Coupled Display System for Tele-Existence
Abstract
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Hirohiko Arai and Susumu Tachi
: pp. 124-127
Micro Walking Machines Using Piezoelectric Actuators
Abstract
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Kenji Uchino
: pp. 128-135
3-D Sewing Technology Using Manipulators
Abstract
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Tatsuya Nakamura, Tatsuo Arai and Torao Ohchi
: pp. 136-148
Design and Control for Faster Robots
Abstract
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Yoshitsugu Kamiya, Sakiichi Okabe and Yasuo Yokoyama
: pp. 149-155
Micro/Miniature Actuator Using Shape Memory Alloy
Abstract
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Koji Ikuta
: pp. 156-157
Snake-Type Robot
Abstract
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Shigeo Hirose
: pp. 158-159
An Approach to Human-Like Grasping Control
Abstract
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Hiroshi Endo and Mitsuo Wada

No.1

(Jun)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: p. 1
Congratulatory Messages, Motives for the Publication of the “Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics” and Fundamental Coverage
Kunio Fujie, Ichiro Kato, Makoto Kajitani, Russell H. Taylor, Susan Hackwood, Kazuo Yamafuji
: pp. 2-7
Trends in Research on Flexible Robot Arms
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda
: pp. 8-13
A Concept of Mechatronics
Abstract
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Makoto Kajitani
: pp. 14-20
Control of Micro-Manipulator (Basic Characteristics of Micro-Gripper and a Method of Bilateral Control)
Abstract
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Toshio Fukuda, Kazuo Tanie and Toyokazu Mitsuoka
: pp. 21-28
Study on Walking Machines With Decoupled Freedoms
Abstract
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Makoto Kaneko, Minoru Abe and Kazuo Tanie
: pp. 29-33
A Position Sensor Based Torque Control Method for a DC Motor With Reduction Gears
Abstract
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Kazuo Tanie, Kazuhito Yokoi and Makoto Kaneko
: pp. 34-41
Feature Extraction of 3-D Object by Circular Range Sensing – Circular Range Acquisition and It’s Application to Polyhedra –
Abstract
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Gen-ichiro Kinoshita, Takashi Yamaguchi and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 42-46
Development of a Human-Type Manipulator Using a High-Performance Control Cable for Robots
Abstract
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Mitsuo Wada, Yasuyoshi Kuba, Takeo Tuchiko, Hideaki Hari and Sei Mitsuoka
: pp. 47-56
Prototypes of New Type Image Position Detection Element
Abstract
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Chiyoharu Horiguchi, Akira Kurahashi and Masanori Idesawa
: pp. 57-61
Application of Linear DC Motors to Industrial Robots
Abstract
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Masayuki Naruse
: pp. 62-67
Special Issue-Clean Room Robots
Abstract
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Kazuyoshi Yasukawa
: pp. 68-73
VLSI Computer for Robotics
Abstract
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Michitaka Kameyama and Tatsuo Higuchi
: pp. 74-80
Recent Trends in Deburring Engineering
Abstract
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Toshihiro Ioi
: p. 81
Inverted Pendulum Type Locomotive Robot Which Ascends a Slope of Maximum Inclination Angle of 30 Degrees
Abstract
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Kazuo Yamafuji
: p. 82
Development of Robot Hands
Abstract
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Makoto Kaneko

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