JRM Vol.18 No.4 pp. 442-449
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2006.p0442


Multiaxis Capacitive Force Sensor and its Measurement Principle Using Neural Networks

Seiji Aoyagi, Masaru Kawanishi, and Daiichiro Yoshikawa

Department of Systems Management Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan

December 31, 2005
March 15, 2006
August 20, 2006
multiaxis sensor, FEM simulation of capacitance, neural network, micromachining

We propose a multiaxis capacitive force sensor consisting of one movable upper electrode on a plate and fixed lower electrodes on a substrate. The plate moves both vertically and horizontally when force is applied, and capacitance between upper and lower electrodes changes. This sensor uses the main electrical field between two directly facing electrodes and the fringe electrical field between diagonally opposed electrodes, making capacitance difficult to analyze. We simulated changes in nonlinear capacitance based on the upper electrode’s movement using the finite element method (FEM) and proved that capacitance is a function of the upper electrode’s displacement. We used a neural network to calculate the upper electrode’s displacement from capacitance. The neural network operates appropriately and calculated displacement error is within 0.5% of the full range. We proposed fabricating a practical force sensor consisting of planar capacitors making it compatible with surface micromachining and not requiring 3-D bulk micromachining, which simplifies fabrication, making it economical.

Cite this article as:
Seiji Aoyagi, Masaru Kawanishi, and Daiichiro Yoshikawa, “Multiaxis Capacitive Force Sensor and its Measurement Principle Using Neural Networks,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.18, No.4, pp. 442-449, 2006.
Data files:
  1. [1] T. Maeno, “Structure and Function of Finger Pad and Tactile Receptors,” J. The Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.18, No.6, pp. 767-771, 2000.
  2. [2] G. Kinoshita, “Overview of the Basic Research needed to advance the Robotic Tactile Sensors,” J. The Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.2, No.5, pp. 430-437, 1981.
  3. [3] M. H. Lee, and H. R. Nicholls, “Tactile Sensing for Mechatronics –A State of the Art Survey–,” Mechatronics, No.9, pp. 1-31, 1999.
  4. [4] H. Shinoda, “Tactile Sensing for Dexterous Hand,” J. The Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.18, No.6, pp. 772-775, 2000.
  5. [5] M. Ishikawa, and M. Shimojo, “An Imaging Tactile Sensor with Video Output and Tactile Image Processing,” J. Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.24, No.7, pp. 662-669, 1988.
  6. [6] K. Kamiyama, H. Kajimoto, M. Inami, N. Kawakami, and S. Tachi, “Development of A Vision-based Tactile Sensor,” Trans. Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Vol.123, No.1, pp. 16-22, 2003.
  7. [7] H. Hiraishi, N. Suzuki, M. Kaneko, and K. Tanie, “Profile Detection of Objects by a High-Resolution Tactile Sensor Using a Light Conductive Plate,” J. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.55, No.516, pp. 2091-2099, 1989.
  8. [8] H. Maekawa, K. Tanie, M. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, C. Horiguchi, and T. Sugawara, “Development of a Finger-Shaped Tactile Sensor Using a Hemispherical Optical Waveguide,” J. Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.30, No.5, pp. 499-508, 1994.
  9. [9] G. T. A. Kovacs, “Micromachined Transducers Sourcebook,” McGraw-Hill, pp. 268-275, 1998.
  10. [10] M. Kobayashi, and S. Sagisawa, “Three Direction Sensing Silicon Tactile Sensors,” Trans. Institute Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Vol.J74-C-II, No.5, pp. 427-433, 1991.
  11. [11] M. Ohka, M. Kobayashi, T. Shinokura, and S. Sagisawa, “Data Processing of Tactile Information for Three-Axis Tactile Sensor,” J. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.56, No.531, pp. 2919- 2925, 1990.
  12. [12] M. Horie, H. Funabashi, and T. Ozawa, “Development of Three- Axial Force Sensors for Microrobots,” J. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.61, No.591, pp. 4563-4568, 1995.
  13. [13] A. T. Nguyen, D. V. Dao, T. Toriyama, J. C. Wells, and S. Sugiyama, “Measurement of Loads Acting on a Near-Wall Particle in Turbulent Water Flow by Using a 6-DOF MEMS-Based Sensor,” Proc. Asia-Pacific Conf. Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology, pp. 508-512, 2004.
  14. [14] H. Takao, K. Sawada, and M. Ishida, “Multifunctional Smart Tactile-Image Sensor with Integrated Arrays of Strain and Temperature Sensors on Single Air-Pressurized Silicon Diaphragm,” Proc. Transducers ’05, pp. 45-48, 2005.
  15. [15] M. Esashi, S. Shoji, A. Yamamoto, and K. Nakamura, “Fabrication of Semiconductor Tactile Imager,” Trans. Institute Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Vol.J73-C-II, No.1, pp. 31-37, 1990.
  16. [16] B. J. Kane, M. R. Cutkosky, and G. A. Kovacs, “A Tactile Stress Sensor Array for Use in High-Resolution Robotic Tactile Imaging,” J. Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol.9, No.4, 2000.
  17. [17] K. Suzuki, K. Najafi, and K. D. Wise, “A 1024-Element High-Performance Silicon Tactile Imager,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, Vol.37, No.8, pp. 1852-1860.
  18. [18] Y. Maeda, S. Aoyagi, M. Takano, and G. Hashiguchi, “Development of a Micro Tactile Sensor for Robot Application and Its Evaluation,” Proc. Spring Meeting of Japan Society for Precision Engineering, pp. 1121-1122, 2004.
  19. [19] J. Izutani, Y. Maeda, and S. Aoyagi, “Development of a Micro Tactile Sensor utilizing Piezoresistors and Characterization of its Performance,” Proc. International Conference on Machine Automation (ICMA2004), pp. 193-196, 2004.
  20. [20] S. Aoyagi, T. Tanaka, and K. Makihira, “Recognition of Contact State by using Neural Network for Micromachined Array Type Tactile Sensor,” Int. J. Information Acquisition, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 1-10, 2005.
  21. [21] H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, “Damping Characteristics of Beam-shaped Micro-oscillators,” Sensors and Actuators, Vol.A49, pp. 87-95, 1995.
  22. [22] S. Aoyagi, D. Yoshikawa, K. Makihira, and Y. C. Tai, “Parylene Accelerometer utilizing Spiral Beams,” Tech. Digest the 19th IEEE International Conf. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2006), pp. 630-633, 2006.
  23. [23] S. Ino, T. Izumi, and T. Ifukube, “Design of Haptic Interface System based on Sensory Characteristics of Human Hand,” J. Human Interface Society, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 9-17, 1999.
  24. [24] E. H. Weber, “The Sense of Touch,” Academic Press, pp. 50-135, 1978.
  25. [25] M. Riedmiller, and H. Braun, “A Direct Adaptive Method for Faster Backpropagation Learning: The RPROP Algorithm,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Networks, pp. 586-591, 1993.
  26. [26] I. Igarashi, M. Esashi, and H. Fujita, “MicroOptoMechatoronics Handbook,” Asakura Syoten, pp. 210-211, 1997.
  27. [27] N. Yazdi, F. Ayazi, and K. Najafi, “Micromachined Inertial Sensors,” Proc. of the IEEE, Vol.86, No.8, pp. 1640-1659, 1998.
  28. [28] For example,

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 25, 2021