Basic Circuit Design of a Neural Processor: Analog CMOS Implementation of Spiking Neurons and Dynamic Synapses
Yusuke Kanazawa, Tetsuya Asai, and Yoshihito Amemiya
Department of Electrical Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Sapporo, 060-8628 Japan
We discuss the integration architecture of spiking neurons, predicted to be next-generation basic circuits of neural processor and dynamic synapse circuits. A key to development of a brain-like processor is to learn from the brain. Learning from the brain, we try to develop circuits implementing neuron and synapse functions while enabling large-scale integration, so large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs) realize functional behavior of neural networks. With such VLSI, we try to construct a large-scale neural network on a single semiconductor chip. With circuit integration now reaching micron levels, however, problems have arisen in dispersion of device performance in analog IC and in the influence of electromagnetic noise. A genuine brain computer should solve such problems on the network level rather than the element level. To achieve such a target, we must develop an architecture that learns brain functions sufficiently and works correctly even in a noisy environment. As the first step, we propose an analog circuit architecture of spiking neurons and dynamic synapses representing the model of artificial neurons and synapses in a form closer to that of the brain. With the proposed circuit, the model of neurons and synapses can be integrated on a silicon chip with metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. In the sections that follow, we discuss the dynamic performance of the proposed circuit by using a circuit simulator, HSPICE. As examples of networks using these circuits, we introduce a competitive neural network and an active pattern recognition network by extracting firing frequency information from input information. We also show simulation results of the operation of networks constructed with the proposed circuits.
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