An Eye-To-Hand Panoramic Vision System for 3D Positioning of a Robotic Arm
Chaiyapol Kulpate*, Mehran Mehrandezh**, and Raman Paranjape*
*Electronic Systems Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
**Industrial Systems Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
A novel visual servoing structure is presented for robot positioning under an eye-to-hand camera configuration using panoramic vision. The proposed algorithm is based upon Image-Based Visual Servoing (IBVS) and uses only one fixed camera in conjunction with a stationary flat mirror. A single landmark mounted on the robot’s end-effector along with its mirror reflection provide enough information for 3D reasoning based on a 2D image when viewed by a camera. The equations describing the relationship between the velocity of the coordinate frame attached to the robot’s end-effector and rate of change in image features called the image Jacobian are presented. A novel set of image features that yield a full-rank image Jacobian is introduced. The Visual servoing based on an online estimation of the image Jacobian using a Kalman Filter (KF) is also presented. Simulated and experimental results illustrate the robustness of the proposed visual servoing structure. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed visual servoing structure is evaluated with an error analysis and sensitivity tests.
-  S. Hutchinson, G. D. Hager, and P. I. Corke, “A tutorial on visual servo control,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.12, No.5, pp. 651-670, October 1996.
-  K. Hashimoto, “Visual servoing: Real time control of robot manipulators based on visual sensory feedback,” World Scientific Series in Robotics and Automated Systems, Vol.7, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 1993.
-  E. Malis, F. Chaumette, and S. Boudet, “2-1/2-D Visual Servoing,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.15, No.5, pp. 238-250, April 1999.
-  Y. Shen, Y. H. Liu, and N. Xi, “Adaptive motion control of manipulators with uncalibrated visual feedback,” IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol.1, pp. 317-322, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 2002.
-  J. Stavnitzky and D. Capson, “Multiple Camera Model-Based 3-D Visual Servoing,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.16, No.6, pp. 732-739, December 2000.
-  R. Kelly, “Robust asymptotically stable visual servoing of planar robots,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.12, No.5, pp. 759-766, October 1996.
-  G. D. Hager, “A modular system for robust positioning using feedback from stereo vision,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.13, No.4, pp. 582-595, August 1997.
-  F. Reyes and R. Kellyl, “Experimental evaluation of fixed-camera direct visual controllers on a direct-drive robot,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Leuven, Belgium, May 1998.
-  R. Kelly, R. Carelli, O. Nasisi, B. Kuchen, and F. Reyes, “Stable Visual Servoing of Camera-in-hand Robotic Systems,” IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 39-48, March 2000.
-  R. Horaud, F. Dornaika, and B. Espiau, “Visually guided object grasping,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.14, No.4, pp. 525-532, August 1998.
-  J. Qian and J. Su, “Online estimation of image jacobian matrix by kalman-bucy filter for uncalibrated stereo vision feedback,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Washington, D.C., May 2002.
-  H. Lipkin, “Uncalibrated eye-in-hand visual servoing,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol.22, No.10-11, pp. 805-819, October-November 2003.
-  G. Flandin, F. Chaumette, and E. Marchand, “Eye-in-hand/eyeto-hand cooperation for visual servoing,” In Proc. 2000 IEEE Int, Conf. Robotics and Automation, Vol.3, pp. 2741-2746, April 2000.
-  S. W. Wijesoma, D. F. H. Wolfe, and R. J. Richards, “Eye-to-hand coordination for vision-guided robot control applications,” Int. Journal of Robotics Research, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 65-78, February 1993.
-  M. Mikawa, K. Yoshida, M. Kubota, and T. Morimitsu, “Visual servoing for micro mass axis alignment device,” In Proc. 1996 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol.3, pp. 1091-1096, 1996.
-  H. H. Abdelkader, Y. Mezoura, N. Andreff, and P. Martinet, “2 1/2 visual servoing with central catadioptric cameras,” Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. On Intelligent Robots and Systems, (IROS), pp. 3572-3577, Edmonton, AB, Canada, August 2005.
-  C. Kulpate, M. Mehrandezh, and R. Paranjape, “An Eye-to-hand Visual Servoing Structure for 3D Positioning of a Robotic Arm Using One Camera and a Flat Mirror,” Proc. of the IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Robotic System (IROS), pp. 2476-2482, Edmonton, AB, 2005.
-  C. K. Chui and G. Chen, “Kalman Filtering with Real-time Applications,” Berlin Heidellberg, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
-  S. J. Julier and J. K. Uhlmann, “New extension of the Kalman Filter to nonlinear systems,” Proc. of the SPIE –The Int. Society for Optical Engineering, Vol.3068, pp.182-193, 1997.
-  E. A. Wan and R. van der Merwe, “The unscented Kalman Filter for nonlinear estimation,” Proc. of the IEEE Adaptive Systems for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control Symposium, pp. 153-158, 2000.
-  http://www.rhinorobotics.com ,
last accessed in August 2006.
-  http://www.jrkerr.com ,
last accessed in August 2006.
Copyright© 2008 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.