Analysis and Synthesis of Facial Color for Facial Image Synthesis in a Virtual Arm Wrestling System
Takashi Yamada* and Tomio Watanabe**
*Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, 1-1 Saiwai-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-8522, Japan
**Department of Systems Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197, Japan
An arm wrestling system using a 4-DOF force display with a virtual human opponent is developed, incorporating affect display of facial color and expression, targeting training and rehabilitation support applications. First, a 4-air cylinder 4-DOF force display system is developed for arm wrestling with human operators. Using this system, changes in facial skin temperature as an index of emotion and facial color associated with circulation dynamics in response to the force display, are simultaneously measured and analyzed. Second, based on this analysis, a synthetic method for affect display of the virtual face using facial color and expression for use with the force is proposed, demonstrating its effectiveness through sensory evaluation. Finally, the results are combined to develop an arm wrestling prototype with a virtual human opponent. This paper is the full translation from the transactions of JSME Series C, Vol.70, No.693, 2004.
-  O. Hasegawa, S. Morishima, and M. Kaneko, “Processing of Facial Information by Computer,” The Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers. A, Vol.J80-A, No.8, pp. 1231-1249, 1997.
-  T. Kuroda, and T. Watanabe, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers C, Vol.61, No.592, pp. 4724-4729, 1995.
-  M. Okubo, and T. Watanabe, “Lip Motion Capture Based on Hue of Color by using Optical-Snakes,” Proc. of World Multiconference on Systems, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI2000), V, pp. 247-251, 2000.
-  S. Morishima, “Non-Verbal Communication System in Cyberspace,” Usability Evaluation and Interface Design Cognitive Engineering, Intelligent Agents and Virtual Reality, Vol.1, pp. 243-247, 2001.
-  T. Yamada, and T. Watanabe, “Analysis and Synthesis of Facial Color for Virtual Face Image in Force Display,” The Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-Existence, pp. 78-84, 2002.
-  T. Kuroda, and T. Watanabe, “Analysis and Synthesis of Facial Color Using Color Image Processing,” JSME International Journal, Vol.41, No.2 (C), pp. 302-307, 1998.
-  T. Watanabe, M. Okubo, and T. Kuroda, “Evaluation of Emotion by Using Peripheral Skin Temperature – the Effectiveness of Measurement on the Back of Finger,” Proc. of the 7th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design and Evaluation of Man-Machine Systems, pp. 401-405, 1998.
-  H. Tanaka, H. Ide, and Y. Nagashima, “Attempt of Felling Estimation by Analysis of Nasal Skin Temperature and Arousal Level,” Transactions of Human Interface Society, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 51-56, 1999.
-  T. Kuroda, and T. Watanabe, “Facial Color Image Analysis and Synthesis for Emotional Change,” Proc. 7th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, pp. 456-461, 1998.
-  T. Kuroda, and T. Watanabe, “Affect Display for Virtual Face Image Using Facial Color,” Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics, pp. 352-356, 1998.
-  T. Yamada, and T. Watanabe, “Analysis of Facial Color under Laughing Emotion Based on Measurement of Facial Image and Facial Skin Temperature,” The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol.X, pp. 190-195, 2004.
-  T. Yamada, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of Facial Color on Virtual Facial Image Synthesis for Dynamic Facial Color and Expression under Laughing Emotion,” Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 341-346, 2004.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.
Copyright© 2006 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.