Calibration of Carbon Nanotube Probes for Pico-Newton Order Force Measurement Inside a Scanning Electron Microscope
Masahiro Nakajima, Fumihito Arai, Lixin Dong,
and Toshio Fukuda
Department of Micro System Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
-  A. Kishino and T. Yanagida, “Force Measurements by Micromanipulation of a Single Actin Filament by Glass Needles,” Nature, vol. 334, pp. 74-76, 1988.
-  K. Koyano, T. Kasaya, H. Miyazaki, and T. Saito, “Measurement System for Force Acting on Micro Oject,” The 13st Annual Conference of the Robotics Society of Japan, pp.803-804, 1995-11.
-  S. Fujisawa, E. Kishi, Y. Sugawara, and S. Morita, “Atomic-scale Friction Observed with a Two-dimensional Frictional-force Microscope,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 51 pp. 7849-7857, 1995.
-  K. Visscher, M. J. Schnitzer, and S. M. Block, “Single Kinesin Molecules Studied with a Molecular Force Clamp,” Nature, vol.400, pp. 184-189, 1999.
-  F. Arai, M. Nakajima, L. X. Dong, and T. Fukuda, “Force Measurement with Pico-Newton Order Resolution Using a Carbon Nanotube Probe,” Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Micromechatronics and Human Science, pp. 105-110, 2002.
-  S. Iijima, “Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon,” Nature, vol.354, pp. 56-58, 1991.
-  J. P. Lu, “Elastic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoropes,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 1297-1300, 1997.
-  M. M. J. Treacy, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. M. Gibson, “Exceptionally High Young’s Modulus Observed for Individual Carbon Nanotubes,” Nature, vol. 381, pp. 678-680, 1996.
-  M. F. Yu, O. Lourie, M. J. Dyer, K. Moloni, T. F. Kelly, and R. S. Ruoff, “Strength and Breaking Mechanism of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Under Tensile Load,” Science, vol. 287, pp. 637-640 2000.
-  E. W. Wong, P. E. Sheehan, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science, vol. 277, pp. 1971-1975, 1997.
-  P. Poncharal, Z. L. Wang, D. Ugarte, and W. A. de Heer, “Electrostatic Deflections and Electromechanical Resonaces of Carbon Nanotubes,” Science, vol. 283, pp. 1513-1516, 1999.
-  L. X. Dong, F. Arai, and T. Fukuda, “Nanoassembly of Carbon Nanotubes through Mechanochemical Nanorobotic Manipulations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. 295-298, 2003.
-  L. X. Dong, F. Arai, and T. Fukuda, “3-D Nanorobotic Manipulation of Nanometer-scale Objects,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, vol.13, pp. 1146-1153, 2001.
-  L. X. Dong, F. Arai, and T. Fukuda, “3D Nanoassembly of Carbon Nanotubes trough Nanorobotic Manipulations,” Proc. of the 2002 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1477-1482, 2002.
-  L. X. Dong, F. Arai, and T. Fukuda, “Electron-beam-induced deposition with carbon nanotube emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1919-1921, 2002.
-  F. Arai, P. Liu, L. X. Dong, M. Nakajima, and T. Fukuda, “Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition of Conductive Nanostructures with Carbon Nanotube Emitters,” Proc. of the 2003 Third IEEE Int. Conf. on Nanotechnology, pp. 811-814, 2003.
-  Y. Saito, T. Yoshikawa, and M. Inagaki, “Growth and Structure of Graphitic Tubules and Polyhedral Particles in Arc-Discharge,” Chem. Phys. Lett., vol. 204, pp. 277-282, 1993.
-  P. M. Ajayan, O. Stephan, C. Colliex, and D. Trauth, “Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays Formed by Cutting a Polymer Resin-Nanotube Composite,” Science, vol. 265, pp. 1212-1214, 1994.
-  W. A. de Heer, W. S. Bacsa, A. Chatelain, T. Gerfin, R. Humphrey-Baker, L. Forro, and D. Ugarte, “Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films: Production and Optical and Electronic Properties,” Science, vol. 268, pp. 845-847, 1995.
-  W. Z. Li, S. S. Qian, B. H. Chang, B. S. Zou, W. Y. Zhou, R. A. Zhao, and G. Wang, “Large-Scale Synthesis of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes,” Science, vol. 274, pp. 1701-1703, 1996.
-  Z. F. Ren, Z. P. Huang, J. W. Xu, J .H. Wang, P. Bush, M. P. Siegal, and P. N. Provencio, “Synthesis of Large Arrays of Well-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on Glass,” Science, vol. 282, pp. 1105-1107 1999.
-  K. Yamamoto, S. Akita, and Y. Nakayama, “Orientation of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electrophoresis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 35, pp. 917-918, 1996.
-  H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, A. G. Rinzler, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Nanotubes as Nanoprobes in Scanning Probe Microscopy,” Nature, vol. 384, pp. 147-150, 1996.
-  G. Gao, T. Cagin, and W. A. Goddard III, “Energetics, Structure, Mechanical and Vibrational Properties of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT),” Fifth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, 1997.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.
Copyright© 2004 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.