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JDR

Journal of Disaster Research

ISSN : 1881-2473(Print) / 1883-8030(Online)
DOI : 10.20965/jdr.issn.1883-8030
Editors-in-Chief : Suminao Murakami (Laboratory of Urban Safety Planning)
Haruo Hayashi (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience)

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2017-10-15T08:25:30+0000

Vol.6 (2011)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Fire and Emergency Evacuation in a High-rise Building

Special Issue on Fire and Emergency Evacuation in a High-rise Building

: pp. 541-550
Concepts of Fire Safety Provisions of Means of Escape andEvacuation Safety Plan in High-Rise Building
Abstract
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Ichiro Hagiwara
: pp. 551-557
Smoke Control System for High-Rise Buildings in Japan
Abstract
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Shuji Moriyama
: pp. 558-567
Fire Resistive Design for Preventing Upward Fire Spread
Abstract
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Kenichi Ikeda
: pp. 568-580
Adequacy of Safe Egress Design Codes for Supertall Buildings
Abstract
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Edgar C. L. Pang and Wan-Ki Chow
: pp. 581-590
A Research of the Elevator Evacuation Performance and Strategies for Taipei 101 Financial Center
Abstract
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Shen-Wen Chien and Wei-Jou Wen
: pp. 591-599
Study on Transportation Efficiency of Evacuation Using Elevators in Comparison with Evacuation Using Stairsin a High-Rise Building – Is Use of Elevator in Evacuation Really Effective for General People? –
Abstract
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Ai Sekizawa and Shinji Nakahama
: pp. 600-609
Design of Evacuation Systems for Elevator Evacuation in High-Rise Buildings
Abstract
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Daniel Nilsson and Axel Jönsson
: pp. 610-619
Surveys and Analyses on Human Behavior in the New York World Trade Center Disasters in 1993 and 2001
Abstract
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Yoshiyuki Yoshida
: pp. 620-628
How did People Respond and Evacuate in WTC Twin Towers in 2001?
Abstract
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Rita F. Fahy
: pp. 629-643
Fire and Smoke Protection Measures for High-Rise Buildings
Abstract
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Suminao Murakami and Yoshiteru Murosaki

Regular Papers

: pp. 645-667
Seismic Isolation with No Strain Energy – Research on New Seismic Isolation System with No Resonance Characteristics –
Abstract
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Mitsuo Miyazaki, Yukihiro Nishimura, and Tadashi Mizue
: pp. 668-689
Development of the EDR-Spring Element Using Foamed Polymer Materials and the Design of NSE-Isolated Buildings Using EDR-Spring Elements
Abstract
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Mitsuo Miyazaki and Yukihiro Nishimura

No.5

(Oct)

Managing Catastrophic Technological Risks and Role of Technology Assessment (TA) in the Post 3/11 Society

Managing Catastrophic Technological Risks and Role of Technology Assessment (TA) in the Post 3/11 Society

: pp. 473-475
Managing Catastrophic Technological Risks and Role of Technology Assessment (TA) in the Post 3/11 Society
Tatsujiro Suzuki and Go Yoshizawa

The nuclear accident at Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCo)’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami, is probably the worst “catastrophic technological risk” ever experienced by Japan. Whether this serious accident could have been prevented or managed better is the key question that we need to pursue. Technology Assessment (TA), which is intended to help decision making by assessing possible societal impacts of particular technology, can play significant role in managing catastrophic technological risks by providing an objective assessment of technological risks before it happens, while it is happening and even after the accident. In this special issue on TA, we are fortunate to have papers and reviews from both distinguished experts as well as young scholars. The variety of the subject is also very useful to see how TA can be applied under the different situations. In particular, in the post 3.11 society, we believe it is a good occasion to consider institutionalization of TA in Japan.

: pp. 476-481
Current Situation of Synthetic Biology in Japan
Abstract
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Yusuke Mori and Go Yoshizawa
: pp. 482-485
The Macondo Oil Field Disaster
Abstract
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Michael C. Lynch
: pp. 486-497
Green Revolution: Pathways to Food Security in an Era of Climate Variability and Change?
Abstract
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Netra Chhetri and Pashupati Chaudhary
: pp. 498-505
Internal Security Issues Related to Automatic System Malfunction and a Model to Explain Foresight of Experts and Non-Experts
Abstract
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Soichiro Morishita, and Hiroshi Yokoi
: pp. 506-513
Approach to Environmental, Health and Safety Issues of Nanotechnology in Japan
Abstract
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Masahiro Takemura, Go Yoshizawa, and Tatsujiro Suzuki
: pp. 514-521
Replicating GM Viruses in Cancer Therapy; A Conflict of Emotions?
Abstract
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Ruth Mampuys and Sabine Roeser
: pp. 522-527
Technology Assessment in the EU Institutions
Abstract
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Michael D. Rogers

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
News & Communications

Special Issue on Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

: p. 371
Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
Fumiko Kasuga

Recent developments in medicine and anti-microbial treatment based on intensive research on basic microbiology have successfully been controlling many infectious diseases to be nonfatal. As stated by Dr. Nobuhiko Okabe in the first section of this issue, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases still threaten human lives and health both in developing and industrialized countries. A multiprefectural outbreak of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 due to raw beef consumption took the lives of victims, including young children, earlier this year in Japan, following which people worldwide were panicked by news from Europe of a huge outbreak of EHEC O104. Infectious diseases result from interaction between pathogens and humans including our behaviors.

The Journal of Disaster Research has already drawn readers’ attention to infectious diseases in its special issue on “Our Social Activities Are Always Related to Outbreaks of Infectious Diseases,” with Guest Editor Dr. Masayuki Saijo in JDR Vol.4, No.5, October, 2009. That issue reviewed the background behind infectious disease emergence and reemergence using examples of viral diseases that could cause serious public health concerns, and emphasized the need for preparedness and responses, including against bioterrorism.

The present issue again reminds readers of the threat of infectious diseases by demonstrating bacterial and viral infections, focusing more on basic knowledge about these pathogens. Disease history, and epidemiology and the microbiological nature of pathogens and infection pathways are summarized. Treatment, vaccination and other control measures, and law and other social systems for controlling disease are also reviewed.

We believe that a better understanding of pathogens will enable society to build better strategies for overcoming problems with emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, such as appropriate preventive measures, treatment and control for preventing outbreaks from expanding. We also hope that such considerations are also useful to disaster control experts in other areas.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the authors and reviewers for their great contributions to this issue, and to the Editorial Board and the Secretariat of the Journal of Disaster Research for their continuous encouragement and assistance.

: pp. 372-380
Understanding of Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases (EID and REID)
Abstract
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Nobuhiko Okabe
: pp. 381-389
Ebola and Marburg Viruses
Abstract
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Eri Nakayama and Ayato Takada
: pp. 390-397
Henipavirus Infections – An Expanding Zoonosis from Fruit Bats
Abstract
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Chieko Kai and Misako Yoneda
: pp. 398-403
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
Abstract
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Yasuo Suzuki
: pp. 404-412
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Abstract
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Akihiko Kawana
: pp. 413-420
West Nile Virus : Understanding its Past, Present, and Future
Abstract
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Yusuke Sayama and Tetsuya Mizutani
: pp. 421-425
Strategy for Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission
Abstract
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Saori Matsuoka and Teturo Matano
: pp. 426-434
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli – Its Control from a Viewpoint of Food Safety –
Abstract
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Hiroshi Asakura, Yoshika Momose, and Fumiko Kasuga
: pp. 435-442
Legionella Pneumonia
Abstract
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Kazuhiro Tateda
: pp. 443-450
Global Threats and the Control of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Abstract
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Kazuo Kobayashi, Manabu Ato, and Sohkichi Matsumoto

Regular Papers

: pp. 451-458
New Approaches for Tackling Foodborne Infections
Abstract
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Yuko Kumagai, Mamoru Noda, and Fumiko Kasuga

News & Communications

: pp. 459-466
Nuclear Accidents and Leakage of Radioactive Materials at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
Abstract
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Editorial Office

No.3

(Jun)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 281-298
A Study on the Response Instability of Seismically Isolated Structures Affected by Ground Inclination During Earthquakes Part 1 : Estimation of Ground Inclination During Earthquakes and the Influence of Static Ground Inclination
Abstract
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Mitsuo Miyazaki and Yukihiro Nishimura
: pp. 299-312
A Study on the Response Instability of Seismically Isolated Structures Affected by Ground Inclination During Earthquakes Part 2 : Influence of Dynamic Ground Inclination
Abstract
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Mitsuo Miyazaki and Yukihiro Nishimura
: pp. 313-320
Prospects of Debris Flow Studies from Constitutive Relations to Governing Equations
Abstract
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Shinji Egashira
: pp. 321-330
Recent Anomalous Lightning Occurrences in Alaska – the Case of June 2005 –
Abstract
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Murad Ahmed Farukh, Hiroshi Hayasaka, and Keiji Kimura
: pp. 331-342
Disasters, Diasporas and Host Communities: Insights in the Aftermath of the Haiti Earthquake
Abstract
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Ann-Margaret Esnard and Alka Sapat
: pp. 343-355
Characterization of Lightning Occurrence in Alaska Using Various Weather Indices for Lightning Forecasting
Abstract
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Murad Ahmed Farukh, Hiroshi Hayasaka, and Keiji Kimura

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Safety Science: Comprehensive Approach to Social Disasters and Natural Disasters

Special Issue on Safety Science: Comprehensive Approach to Social Disasters and Natural Disasters

: p. 175
Safety Science: Comprehensive Approach to Social Disasters and Natural Disasters
Yoshiaki Kawata

In April 2010, the new Kansai University Safety Science Faculty started with 16 professors, to be increased to 25 from April 2011. Just half are social science researchers and the others natural science researchers. With natural disasters and accidents in Japan growing increasingly complex, conventional analysis on how to reduce disaster damage and avoid accidents has become increasingly inadequate. We need an interdisciplinary approach to solve problems underlying cooperative research.

A representative disaster is the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake, which killed 6,434 people and injured 40,000. It generated economic losses of $102.5 billion, 2.5% of Japan’s GDP at the time.

A representative accident is the 2007 Amagasaki JR Fukuchiyama Line rail crash, which killed 107, including the driver, and injured 562. The direct cause of the accident was speeding – the speed limit on the curve where the train left the tracks was 70 km/h, but the train was moving at 116 km/h. The most important indirect reason was the delayed implementation of a new ATS that should have been put in place from the viewpoint of cost management. Japan Transport Safety Board (JTSB) functions will be improved as a result of this accident. In the US, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) operates independent of US government agencies – a trend expected to be followed by the JTSB.

Both provided many potentially valuable disaster lessons, some of which this journal introduces. Other risk-related topics in this volume include tsunami information systems, information law, disaster education, and mental health and psychological approaches to the behavior of young people in the face of disaster, analyzed by our faculty members based on original viewpoints. Effort on these researches has to be continued to improve “Safety Science Study” and promote following social action to improve our social structure toward a safe and secure society.

We thank the authors for their earnest contributions and the reviewers for their invaluable advice on improving the quality of this special issue of JDR.

: pp. 176-184
Downfall of Tokyo due to Devastating Compound Disaster
Abstract
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Yoshiaki Kawata
: pp. 185-192
Transport Accident Investigation Status and Issues
Abstract
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Seiji Abe
: pp. 193-203
Disaster Prevention in Industrial Society – Principal Features of Disaster
Abstract
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Mamoru Ozawa and Yoji Shibutani
: pp. 204-211
Mental Health of Managers of Small and Medium Enterprises as Seen from the Viewpoint of Risk Management
Abstract
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Shin-ya Kaneko, Hiroki Ogyu, Olivier Torres, and Katsuyuki Kamei
: pp. 212-218
Verification of Disaster Management Information on the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Using Virtual Tsunami Warning System
Abstract
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Tomoyuki Takahashi and Tomohiro Konuma
: pp. 219-229
Affect Heuristic with “Good-Bad” Criterion and Linguistic Representation in Risk Judgments
Abstract
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Shoji Tsuchida
: pp. 230-235
Comparison of International and Domestic Methods of Providing Housing After Disasters
Abstract
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Kenji Koshiyama
: pp. 236-243
Logic of and Systems for Volunteer Disaster Relief Activities in Japan: Current Situations and Challenges 15 Years After the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
Abstract
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Mashiho Suga
: pp. 244-252
Problems and Recommendations on Current Information Legislation in Japan
Abstract
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Kazuhiko Takano
: pp. 253-257
Changes in Labor Accident Risk with Aging
Abstract
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Takahiro Nakamura, Motoya Takagi, and Shinnosuke Usui
: pp. 258-270
Participatory Disaster Management Learning Built on the Theory of Legitimate Peripheral Participation
Abstract
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Hideyuki Shiroshita and Katsuya Yamori

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Protecting Cultural Heritage and Historic Cities from Disasters

Special Issue on Protecting Cultural Heritage and Historic Cities from Disasters

: p. 3
Protecting Cultural Heritage and Historic Cities from Disasters
Kazuyuki Izuno and Takeyuki Okubo

Natural disasters have damaged or destroyed many invaluable cultural heritages. How to mitigate these losses, however, is difficult question. If we cannot save human lives, of course we cannot save cultural heritages from disasters. This requires more sophisticated countermeasures than conventional disaster reduction methodologies. This special issue of JDR provides many examples of such mitigation in historical cities which have expanded with cultural heritages as nuclei.

Cultural heritage disaster mitigation lies somewhere between the fields of cultural preservation and the disaster mitigation engineering. The first two review papers focus on the importance of protecting cultural heritage from natural disasters and the history of this issue from the viewpoints of both engineering and humanities.

Twelve papers discuss engineering problems and the planning of cultural heritages preservation, cover issues such as the seismic performance of traditional wooden structures, the vulnerability of historical masonry structures, disaster reduction in slope failures around cultural heritages, disaster risk analysis at historical cities, fire prevention in historical cities, and urban planning taking cultural heritage into consideration.

This issue closes with a tutorial paper showing the techniques and basics of cultural heritage disaster mitigation. It serves as a practical handbook on mitigating disasters surrounding cultural heritages and historical cities. We expect contributors to this field to increase in the near future due to the importance and urgency of cultural heritage disaster mitigation.

We thank the authors for their earnest contributions and the reviewers for their invaluable advice on improving the quality of this special issue of JDR.

: pp. 4-10
Protection of Cultural Heritage from Post-Earthquake Fire
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Kenzo Toki
: pp. 11-17
Cultural Heritage Disaster Management Research in the Human Sciences
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Akihisa Yoshikoshi
: pp. 18-25
Earthquake Response Analysis of Japanese Traditional Wooden Structures Considering Member Aging
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Yu Ooka, Kazuyuki Izuno, and Kenzo Toki
: pp. 26-35
Dynamic Characteristic Investigation of a Historical Masonry Building and Surrounding Ground in Kathmandu
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Hari Ram Parajuli, Junji Kiyono, Masatoshi Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Hisashi Umemura, Hitoshi Taniguchi, Kenzo Toki, Aiko Furukawa, and Prem Nath Maskey
: pp. 36-43
Finite Element Modeling of Cyclic Out-of-Plane Response of Masonry Walls Retrofitted by Inserting Inclined Stainless Steel Bars
Abstract
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Kshitij C. Shrestha, Takuya Nagae, and Yoshikazu Araki
: pp. 44-50
Nonlinear Behavior of Masonry Arch Bridge Under Ground Deformation
Abstract
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Yusuke Kishi, Katsuyoshi Nozaka, and Kazuyuki Izuno
: pp. 51-69
Proposal of a Numerical Simulation Method for Elastic, Failure and Collapse Behaviors of Structures and its Application to Seismic Response Analysis of Masonry Walls
Abstract
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Aiko Furukawa, Junji Kiyono, and Kenzo Toki
: pp. 70-79
Slope Monitoring System at a Slope Behind an Important Cultural Asset
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Kazunari Sako, Ryoichi Fukagawa, and Tomoaki Satomi
: pp. 80-87
Hydrological Environment in Subsurface Steep Slope – Groundwater Flow Passageway on Slope Behind Kiyomizudera –
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Junko Nakaya, Kazunari Sako, Shunsuke Mitsutani, and Ryoichi Fukagawa
: pp. 88-95
Cultural Heritage Sites in Shiga Prefecture in Danger of Natural Disasters
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Yuko Ishida, Ryoichi Fukagawa, Kazunari Sako, Ikuo Yasukawa, and Koji Ikeda
: pp. 96-108
The Meaning of “Fuchi” and the Scenic Landscape Role in Historic Kyoto’s Disaster Mitigation – “Fuchi” Use Until Scenic Landscape Setup Under the Old City Planning Act and Scenic Landscape Regulation Management in Kyoto –
Abstract
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Nobuo Fukushima, Naoko Itaya, Kanefusa Masuda, Takeyuki Okubo, and Masafumi Yamasaki
: pp. 109-118
Survey Analysis of Wooded Areas Around Temples and Former Samurai Residences in Urban Areas – Their Shapes and Sizes Seen from Their Potential Function as Firebreak Belts
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Masahiko Takamatsu and Takeyuki Okubo
: pp. 119-131
Study on Disaster Risk Assessment of Cultural Heritage and Road Network Improvement in Historical City
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Yoongho Ahn, Hiroshi Tsukaguchi, Keiichi Ogawa, and Kota Tanaka
: pp. 132-141
Effective Planning of Road Monitoring Systems for Cultural Heritage Disaster Mitigation
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Keiichi Ogawa, Hiroshi Tsukaguchi, Yoongho Ahn, and Makoto Kawai
: pp. 142-153
Handbook of Countermeasures to Protect Cultural Heritages Located in Foothills from Natural Disasters
Abstract
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Takeyuki Okubo and Kazuyuki Izuno

Regular Papers

: pp. 155-164
AREVA’s Fatigue Concept – An Integrated and Multidisciplinary Approach to the Fatigue Assessment of NPP Components
Abstract
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Jürgen Rudolph, Steffen Bergholz, Benedikt Heinz, and Nikolaus Wirtz

Vol.5 (2010)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on ICT Based Disaster Resilient Society

Special Issue on ICT Based Disaster Resilient Society

: pp. 619-621
ICT Based Disaster Resilient Society”
Haruo Hayashi and Mitsuhiro Higashida

This special issue on ICT Based Disaster Resilient Society features ten articles resulting from a collaborative research project on natural disaster management conducted by the Kyoto University Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) researchers and information and communication technology (ICT) experts from Nippon Telegram and Telegraph Co. Ltd (NTT). For the last two years, they have been studying on how to make society more disaster resilient through proper ICT use focusing on cloud computing, the 20th century’s greatest invention.

In part of a formal research partnership agreement signed in 2005, Kyoto University and NTT have been promoting new research in disaster management. The first two years showed with little concrete achievement beyond implementing one small research project – not exactly what the agreement envisioned.

In 2008, volunteers from Kyoto University and NTT meeting to determine the reason found a tactical mistake – starting by picking projects collaboratively assuming that DPRI and NTT’s disaster management research section shared the same vision and understanding of disaster management. Fundamental differences in research focus also raised problems in finding suitable collaborative research activities.

Briefly, at least three tiers existed for promoting ICT based disaster resilient society: 1) the ICT system infrastructure, 2) the operating system, and 3) individual applications in making society more disaster resilient. NTT was focusing on the first two tiers and DPRI on the last top tier. With this common understanding clarified, collaborative research was set in 2008 on ICT Based Disaster Resilient Society to formulate common ground between the two groups of researchers sharing a common operational picture. One result was a 2009 book from Nikkei BP Publications disseminating to the general public what disaster resilient society looks like, what can be done, and how to do it.

This special issue goes one step further by delivering these research efforts to a worldwide audience.

The first three articles, from the NTT group, describe the ICT basis for making society more disaster resilient, focusing on recent cloud computing advances as the projected venue for disaster management information systems. In article 1, Iwatsuki et al. introduce the autonomous, scattered, but coordinated network concept in a brief history of “Realization of Resilient Society with Information Technology Revolution.” Article 2 has Maeda et al. explained how the ICT system infrastructure, the next-generation network (NGN), provides better disaster management services in “Next Generation ICT Services Underlying the Resilient Society.” In article 3, Higashida et al. detail how organizational structures and information processing systems operate and are improved continuously through the NGN-based ICT infrastructure in “Risk Management and Intelligence Management During Emergency.”

Six articles, from the DPRI group, deal with how ICT based information systems help calculate different damage due to different natural hazards, help strategically in compiling disaster management planning, and help implement effective emergency response and recovery. Kamai proposes how local communities can use land-slide databases offered through cloud computing in “Neural Network-Based Risk Assessment of Artificial Fill Slope in Residential Urban Region.” Fukuoka introduces an attempt to set up worldwide landslide databases in “Application of ICT to Contribution to Resilient Society Against Landslides.” Kobayashi et al. analyze the relationship between flooding and economic loss using detailed numerical simulation in “Development of a Framework for the Flood Economic Risk Assessment Using Vector GIS Data.” Chen et al. estimate possible impact of the Tokai-Tonakai-Nankai earthquake predicted in the 2030s taking into account Japan’s dwindling population from a disaster planning perspective in “Adapting the Demographic Transition in Preparation for the Tokai-Tonankai-Nankai Earthquake.”

One objective of ICT based information infrastructures is to help society recover quickly from disaster impact through minimal damage and loss. Hatayama et al. introduce two risk-adaptive regional management information system (RARMIS) concept applications in “Implementation Technology for a Disaster Response Support System for Local Government.” Urakawa et al. introduce elaborated ICT based life recovery for disaster victims implemented in Kashiwazaki City, devastated by the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu-oki earthquake, in “Building Comprehensive Disaster Victim Support System.”

The last article, “Risk Management for Hospitals Using the Incident Report,” reports wider collaborative research covering risk areas outside of natural hazards and the formulation of a research group going beyond DPRI. Takeda et al. introduce an ICT based system to help risk managers at Kyoto University Hospital by automatically analyzing medical incident reports.

We editors would like to sincerely thank the Kyoto University and NTT collaborative researchers on ICT Based Disaster Resilient Society for their contribution and support. We would like to note with sincere appreciation that this publication is made possible in part by the support from “Special Project for Metropolitan Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011)” by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (MEXT). We also thank Wakai of Fuji Technology Press Ltd. for his dedicated compilation of this special issue.

: pp. 622-626
Realization of Resilient Society with Information Technology Revolution
Abstract
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Katsumi Iwatsuki and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 627-635
Next Generation ICT Services Underlying the Resilient Society
Abstract
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Yuji Maeda, Mitsuhiro Higashida, Katsumi Iwatsuki, Takao Handa, Yoichi Kihara, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 636-641
Risk Management and Intelligence Management During Emergency
Abstract
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Mitsuhiro Higashida, Yuji Maeda, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 642-649
Neural Network-Based Risk Assessment of Artificial Fill Slope in Residential Urban Region
Abstract
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Toshitaka Kamai
: pp. 650-656
Application of ICT to Contribution to Resilient Society Against Landslides
Abstract
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Hiroshi Fukuoka
: pp. 657-665
Development of a Framework for the Flood Economic Risk Assessment Using Vector GIS Data
Abstract
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Kenichiro Kobayashi, Kaoru Takara, Mitsugu Funada, and Yukiko Takeuchi
: pp. 666-676
Adapting the Demographic Transition in Preparation for the Tokai-Tonankai-Nankai Earthquake
Abstract
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Haili Chen, Norio Maki, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 677-686
Implementation Technology for a Disaster Response Support System for Local Government
Abstract
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Michinori Hatayama and Shigeru Kakumoto
: pp. 687-696
Building Comprehensive Disaster Victim Support System
Abstract
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Go Urakawa, Haruo Hayashi, Keiko Tamura, Munenari Inoguchi, Kei Horie, Mitsuhiro Higashida, and Ryota Hamamoto
: pp. 697-705
Risk Management for Hospitals Using the Incident Report
Abstract
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Yurie Takeda, Mitsuhiro Higashida, Yoshimasa Nagao, Manabu Yotsubashi, Shosuke Sato, and Haruo Hayashi

Regular Papers

: pp. 707-711
OECD/NEA Activities to Support Long Term Operation
Abstract
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Andrei Blahoianu and Alejandro Huerta
: pp. 712-719
Accidental Drop Load Effects on Buried Structures
Abstract
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Mehdi S. Zarghamee and Keng-Wit Lim

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience Part 2

Special Issue on Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience Part 2

: pp. 487-493
Toward an Enhanced Concept of Disaster Resilience: A Commentary on Behalf of the Editorial Committee
William Siembieda

1. Introduction
This Special Issue (Part 2) expands upon the theme “Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience” presented in Special Issue Part 1 (JDR Volume 5, Number 2, April 2010) by examining the evolving concept of disaster resilience and providing additional reflections upon various aspects of its meaning. Part 1 provided a mixed set of examples of resiliency efforts, ranging from administrative challenges of integrating resilience into recovery to the analysis of hazard mitigation plans directed toward guiding local capability for developing resiliency. Resilience was broadly defined in the opening editorial of Special Issue Part 1 as “the capacity of a community to: 1) survive a major disaster, 2) retain essential structure and functions, and 3) adapt to post-disaster opportunities for transforming community structure and functions to meet new challenges.”

In this editorial essay we first explore in Section 2 the history of resilience and then locate it within current academic and policy debates. Section 3 presents summaries of the papers in this issue.
(more…)

: pp. 494-502
How Business Flow Diagram’s Improve Continuity of Operations Planning
Abstract
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Go Urakawa and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 503-508
Building Disaster Resilient Organizations in the Non-Government (NGO) Sector
Abstract
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Richard K. Eisner
: pp. 509-516
Urban Technological Risk Characterization and Management: Towards a Better Understanding of Non-Natural Threats in Merida City, Venezuela
Abstract
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Alejandro Liñayo
: pp. 517-525
Seismic Regulations Versus Modern Architectural and Urban Configurations
Abstract
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L. Teresa Guevara-Perez
: pp. 526-534
An Assessment of Coastal Zone Hazard Mitigation Plans in Texas
Abstract
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Jung Eun Kang, Walter Gillis Peacock, and Rahmawati Husein
: pp. 535-542
California’s Natural Hazard Zonation Policies for Land-Use Planning and Development
Abstract
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Charles R. Real
: pp. 543-551
Strategic Disaster Reduction Planning with Government Stakeholder Collaboration – A Case Study in Nara and Kyoto, Japan
Abstract
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Norio Maki, Keiko Tamura, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 552-564
Post-Disaster Redevelopment Planning: Local Capacity Building Through Pre-Event Planning
Abstract
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Sandy Meyer, Eugene Henry, Roy E.Wright, and Cynthia A. Palmer
: pp. 565-576
Working Together, Building Capacity – A Case Study of Civil Defence Emergency Management in New Zealand
Abstract
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Bo-Yao Lee
: pp. 577-590
Chile’s 2010 M8.8 Earthquake and Tsunami: Initial Observations on Resilience
Abstract
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Guillermo Franco and William Siembieda

Regular Papers

: pp. 591-600
Requirements and Verification Methodology for the Design Performance of Tsunami-Hinan Buildings (Temporary Tsunami Refuge Building)
Abstract
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Shinji Yagi and Yuji Hasemi
: pp. 601-608
Evacuation Facility Selection Situations in Whole-Building Evacuation, Actually Implemented in a Super-High-Rise Building – Results of Questionnaire Survey with Evacuees –
Abstract
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Shinji Yagi

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Structural Engineering of Nuclear Related Facilities

Special Issue on Structural Engineering of Nuclear Related Facilities

: p. 339
Structural Engineering of Nuclear Related Facilities
Katsuki Takiguchi

Since it was first used, nuclear energy’s control has been an important issue. With the generation of electricity as a major nuclear energy application, the improvement of nuclear power generation technology has been required by society, including power plant design, construction, and maintenance and radioactive waste disposal.

Nuclear facilities must also take into account disaster prevention, as in the case of earthquakes and terrorist attacks, particularly because of the extensive potential and actual range of effects. This has made nuclear energy issues important considerations in JDR editorial meetings.

In the July 16, 2007, case of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, quake ground motion equaled or exceeded that presumed in the design of the Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the world’s largest nuclear power station.

Specific safety objectives for nuclear power plants include stopping the nuclear reaction, cooling the nuclear reactor, preventing radioactive material emission, and shielding surroundings from radiation – all of which were almost completely achieved in this case. Many problems were also revealed, however. JDR examined a special issue on Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station earthquake resistance at an editorial meeting but determined that such a topic remains premature.

In its stead, we have planned a number featuring the structural engineering of nuclear related facilities as a first step in a series of special issues on nuclear energy. The papers for this number were submitted mainly by the presenters of 20th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, held in Espoo, Finland, in 2009 with the catch phrase “Challenges Facing Nuclear Renaissance.”

We greatly appreciate the many contributions to this issue, and would like to thank the reviewers, without whose cooperation this number could not have been published.

Please note that, independent of special numbers such as this one, JDR looks forward to receiving papers on a wide range of fields related to disaster.

: pp. 340-350
Combined Asymptotic Method for Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis
Abstract
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Alexander G. Tyapin
: pp. 351-360
Experimental Study on Gamma Ray Shielding with Cracked Concrete Panels
Abstract
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Katsuki Takiguchi, Koshiro Nishimura, Isao Yoda, Dai Nagahara, and Kazuteru Kojima
: pp. 361-368
Study on Radiation Shielding Performance of Reinforced Concrete Wall After the Earthquake
Abstract
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Keiji Sekine , Yoshinari Munakata, Osamu Kontani, and Koji Oishi
: pp. 369-377
Seismic Capacity Test of Overhead Crane Under Horizontal and Vertical Excitation -Element Model Test Results on Nonlinear Response Behavior-
Abstract
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Kenichi Suzuki, Masakatsu Inagaki, and Tadashi Iijima
: pp. 378-384
Application of “Leak Before Break” Assessment for Pressure Tube in Delayed Hydride Cracking
Abstract
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Gintautas Dundulis, Albertas Grybėnas, Vidas Makarevicius, and Remigijus Janulionis
: pp. 385-394
Out-of-Plane Shear Strength of Steel-Plate-Reinforced Concrete Walls Dependent on Bond Behavior
Abstract
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Sung-Gul Hong, Wonki Kim, Kyung-Jin Lee, Namhee Kim Hong, and Dong-Hun Lee
: pp. 395-406
Adjusting Fragility Analysis to Seismic Hazard Input
Abstract
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Jens-Uwe Klügel, Richard Attinger, and Shobha Rao
: pp. 407-416
Vector-Valued Fragility Analysis Using PGA and PGV Simultaneously as Ground-Motion Intensity Measures
Abstract
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Sei’ichiro Fukushima
: pp. 417-425
Parametric Study on the Floor Response Spectra and the Damage Potential of Aircraft Impact Induced Vibratory Loading
Abstract
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Anton Andonov, Kiril Apostolov, Dimitar Stefanov, and Marin Kostov
: pp. 426-436
Soft Missile Impact on Shear Reinforced Concrete Wall
Abstract
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Arja Saarenheimo, Kim Calonius, Markku Tuomala, and Ilkka Hakola
: pp. 437-451
Hard Missile Impact on Prestressed Shear Reinforced Slab
Abstract
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Markku Tuomala, Kim Calonius, Arja Saarenheimo, and Pekka Välikangas
: pp. 452-462
An Approach for Performance-Based Capacity Assessment of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels for Internal Accidents Application to VVER 1000 Containment Vessel
Abstract
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Anton Andonov, Dimitar Stefanov, and Marin Kostov
: pp. 463-468
Study on the Containment Performance of MOX Fuel Processing Glovebox in Earthquake -Loading and Leakage Tests for Window Panels-
Abstract
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Akihiro Matsuda, Yuichi Uchiyama, Masakatsu Inagaki, Susumu Tsuchino, Hiroyuki Umetsu, and Koji Shirai
: pp. 469-478
Generation IV Material Issues – Case SCWR
Abstract
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Sami Penttilä, Aki Toivonen, Laura Rissanen, and Liisa Heikinheimo

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Sediment Induced Disasters

Special Issue on Sediment Induced Disasters

: pp. 227-228
Sediment Induced Disasters
Syunsuke Ikeda, Shinji Egashira, and Takahisa Mizuyama

Sediment induced disasters have been studied in a wide variety of research fields ranging from social to natural science, with many interesting results. This special issue provides engineers and scientists with an opportunity to share knowledge and experience in engineering research concerning mass sediment movement and related disasters. To clarify this issue’s objectives and encourage submissions, topics have been discussed based on the needs, activities, and possible contributors classified into four categories:

1) Results based on field and literature surveys and data analysis for catastrophic, recent and historical mass movement, and corresponding disaster events.

2) Results based on field surveys and data analysis for recent usual mass movement events and corresponding disasters resulting from rainfall, earthquakes, volcanic activity, and glacier lakes and natural landslide dam events.

3) Mechanics and numerical modeling for mass movement.

4) Measures against sediment-induced and similar disasters.

Last August, we began inviting submissions on these themes just as Typhoon Morakot slowly crossed Taiwan, causing historically significant rainfall events in southern Taiwan involving numerous landslides and debris flows and precipitated casualties, landscape changes, channel bed variations, etc., similar to the catastrophic sediment events occurring in Venezuela in 1999. Two papers describe what happened in Taiwan and Venezuela, providing advice on possible measures against such abnormal catastrophes. Three contributions describe historical catastrophes involving mountain collapse based on analysis of the literature, topography and field surveys, and numerical models. A total of 11 papers have been submitted, 4 of which concern applicability of constitutive equations for debris flow, numerical models for landslide occurrence due to rain fall and flood processes due to rapid landslide dam erosion, and sediment issues resulting from glacier lake outburst flooding. Two submissions focus on corrective measures.

All papers have been reviewed, revised, and accepted for publications, and we believe this special issue will stimulate future studies and prove useful in practical and scientific fields. We heartily thank all of the authors undergoing the review process, and express our sincere appreciation to the distinguished reviewers, without whose invaluable aid this issue would not have been possible.

: pp. 229-235
Sediment Induced Disasters in the World and 1999-Debris Flow Disasters in Venezuela
Abstract
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Takahisa Mizuyama and Shinji Egashira
: pp. 236-244
An Overview of Disasters Resulted from Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan
Abstract
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Chjeng-Lun Shieh, Chun-Ming Wang, Yu-Shiu Chen, Yuan-Jung Tsai, and Wen-Hsiao Tseng
: pp. 245-256
The Catastrophic Tombi Landslide and Accompanying Landslide Dams Induced by the 1858 Hietsu Earthquake
Abstract
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Kimio Inoue, Takahisa Mizuyama, and Yukihiko Sakatani
: pp. 257-263
Large Sediment Movement Caused by the Catastrophic Ohya-Kuzure Landslide
Abstract
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Satoshi Tsuchiya and Fumitoshi Imaizumi
: pp. 264-273
Field Assessment of Tam Pokhari Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Khumbu Region, Nepal
Abstract
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Rabindra Osti, Shinji Egashira, Katsuhito Miyake, and Tara Nidhi Bhattarai
: pp. 274-279
Mechanics of Debris Flow Over a Rigid Bed
Abstract
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Kuniaki Miyamoto and Yuki Tsurumi
: pp. 280-287
Numerical Simulation of Landslide Movement and Unzen-Mayuyama Disaster in 1792, Japan
Abstract
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Kuniaki Miyamoto
: pp. 288-295
Prediction of Floods Caused by Landslide Dam Collapse
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Yoshifumi Satofuka, Toshio Mori, Takahisa Mizuyama, Kiichiro Ogawa, and Kousuke Yoshino
: pp. 296-306
A Prediction Method for Slope Failure by Means of Monitoring of Water Content in Slope-Soil Layer
Abstract
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Masaharu Fujita, Seitaro Ohshio, and Daizo Tsutsumi
: pp. 307-314
Design Standard of Control Structures Against Debris Flow in Japan
Abstract
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Nobutomo Osanai, Hideaki Mizuno, and Takahisa Mizuyama
: pp. 315-323
Emergency Response to Sediment-Related Disasters Caused by Large Earthquakes in Japan – the Case of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake in 2008 –
Abstract
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Shin’ya Katsura, Yoko Tomita, Nobutomo Osanai, Chiaki Inaba, Masashi Arai, and Osamu Saguchi

Regular Papers

: pp. 325-329
Flood Prevention Strategy in Taiwan: Lessons Learned from Typhoon Morakot
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Lung-Sheng Hsieh, Jiun-Huei Jang, Hsuan-Ju Lin, and Pao-Shan Yu

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience

Special Issue on Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience

: pp. 127-129
“Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience” Toward Disaster Resilient Communities
Kenneth C. Topping, Haruo Hayashi, William Siembieda and Michael Boswell

This special issue of JDR is centered on the theme of “Building Local Capacity for Long-term Disaster Resilience.” Eight papers and one commentary describe challenges in various countries of promoting disaster resilience at local, sub-national, and national levels. Resilience is broadly defined here as the capacity of a community to: 1) survive amajor disaster; 2) retain essential structure and functions; and 3) adapt to post-disaster opportunities for transforming community structure and functions to meet new challenges. This working definition is similar to others put forward in the growing literature on resilience.

Resilience can also be seen as an element of sustainability. Initially referring only to environmental conditions, the concept of sustainable development was defined as that which meets the needs of present generations while not compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Bruntland Commission, Our Common Future, 1987). Now, the term sustainability has come to mean the need to preserve all resources for future use, including social, physical, economic, cultural and historical, as well as environmental resources. Disasters destroy resources, making communities less sustainable or even unsustainable.

Resilience helps to protect resources, among other things, through coordination of all four disaster management functions: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Mitigation commonly involves reduction of risks and prevention of disaster losses through long-term sustained actions modifying the environment. Preparedness involves specific preparations for what to do and how to respond during a disaster at the personal, household, and community level. Response means actions taken immediately after a disaster to rescue survivors, conduct evacuation, feed and shelter victims, and restore communications. Recovery involves restoring lives, infrastructure, services, and economic activity, while seeking long-term community improvement.

When possible, emphasis should be placed on building local resilience before a disaster when opportunities are greater for fostering sustainable physical, social, economic, and environmental structures and functions. Waiting until after a disaster to pursue sustainability invites preventable losses and reduces post-disaster resilience and opportunities for improvement. Community resilience involves both “soft” strategies which optimize disaster preparedness and response, and “hard” strategies which mitigate natural and human-caused hazards, thereby reducing disaster losses. Both “soft” and “hard” strategies are undertaken during disaster recovery. In many countries “soft” and “hard” resilience approaches coexist as uncoordinated activities. However, experience suggests that disaster outcomes are better when “soft” and “hard” strategies are purposely coordinated.

Thus, “smart” resilience involves coordination of both “soft” and “hard” resilience strategies, i.e., “smart ” resilience = “soft ” resilience + “hard ” resilience. This concept is reflected in papers in Part 1 of this special issue, based on case studies from India, Japan, Mexico, Taiwan, and the US. Additional resilience studies from Japan, the US, and Venezuela will be featured in Part 2 of this special issue.

The first group of papers in Part 1 review resilience issues in regional and community recovery. Chandrasekahr (1) uses a case study to illustrate varying effects of formal stakeholder participatory framework on capacity building following the 2004 Southeast Asia Tsunami from post-disaster recovery in southern India. Chen and Wang (2) examine multiple resiliency factors reflected in community recovery case studies from the Taiwan 1999 Chi Chi Earthquake and debris flow evacuation after Typhoon Markot of 2009. Kamel (3) compares factors affecting housing recovery following the US Northridge Earthquake and Hurricane Katrina.

The second group of papers examines challenges of addressing resiliency at national and sub-national scales. Velazquez (4) examines national factors affecting disaster resilience in Mexico. Topping (5) provides an overview of the U.S. Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, a nationwide experiment in local resilience capacity building through federal financial incentives encouraging local hazard mitigation planning. Boswell, Siembieda, and Topping (6) describe a new method to evaluate effectiveness of federally funded hazard mitigation projects in the US through California’s State Mitigation Assessment Review Team (SMART) loss reduction tracking system.

The final group of papers explores methods of analysis, information dissemination, and pre-event planning. Siembieda (7) presents a model which can be deployed at any geographic level involving timely access to assets in order to reduce pre- and post-disaster vulnerability, as illustrated by community disaster recovery experiences in Central America. Hayashi (8) outlines a new information dissemination system useable at all levels called “micromedia” which provides individuals with real time disaster information regardless of their location. Finally, Poland (9) concludes with an invited special commentary addressing the challenges of creating more complete earthquake disaster resilience through pre-event evaluation of post-event needs at the community level, using San Francisco as the laboratory.

The Editorial Committee extends its sincere appreciation to both the contributors and the JDR staff for their patience and determination in making this special issue possible. Thanks also to the reviewers for their insightful analytic comments and suggestions.

Finally, the Committee wishes to thank Bayete Henderson for his keen and thorough editorial assistance and copy editing support.

: pp. 130-137
‘Setting the Stage’: How Policy Institutions Frame Participationin Post-Disaster Recovery
Abstract
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Divya Chandrasekhar
: pp. 138-146
Building Community Capacity for Disaster Resilience in Taiwan
Abstract
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Liang-Chun Chen and Yi-Wen Wang
: pp. 147-154
Lessons for Long-Term Residential Recovery: Factors of Community Resilience and Marginalization
Abstract
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Nabil Kamel
: pp. 155-163
Social Resilience, Disaster Prevention, and Climate Change: Challenges from Mexico
Abstract
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Daniel Rodríguez Velázquez
: pp. 164-171
Using National Financial Incentives to Build Local Resiliency: The U.S. Disaster Mitigation Act
Abstract
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Kenneth C. Topping
: pp. 172-179
Post-Disaster Assessment of the Performance of Hazard Mitigation Projects: The California SMART Approach
Abstract
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Michael R. Boswell, William J. Siembieda, and Kenneth C. Topping
: pp. 180-186
Lowering Vulnerability Using the Asset-Access-Time Method
Abstract
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William J. Siembieda
: pp. 187-193
Smart Disaster Reduction Against Torrential Downpours: Micromedia Creation
Abstract
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Haruo Hayashi, Keiko Tamura, Satoshi Kitada, and Satomi Sudo
: pp. 194-196
Commentary on Building Disaster Resilient Communities
Abstract
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Chris D. Poland

Regular Papers

: pp. 197-207
A Proposal for Effective Emergency Training and Exercise Program to Improve Competence for Disaster Response of Disaster Responders
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Kayoko Takemoto, Yutaka Motoya, and Reo Kimura
: pp. 208-215
Logit Analysis of Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Famine in Uganda
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Washington Okori, Joseph Obua, and Venansius Baryamureeba

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Effective Emergency Management: A Geographic Approach

Special Issue on Effective Emergency Management: A Geographic Approach

: pp. 3-4
Effective Emergency Management: A Geographic Approach
Haruo Hayashi and Go Urakawa

This special issue introduces 12 papers on a variety of best practices for effective emergency management using geospatial database and geographic information system (GIS).

The first seven papers are grouped under GIS in action, show how GIS is used for different disaster reduction services. In response to the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake, GIS maps have been a part of Niigata PrefectureGovernment Emergency Operation Center work to aid in decisionmaking by providing Common Operational Picture (COP) as detailed by Tamura et al. A victim database was used as the key for integrated victim support in Kashiwazaki City in long-term recovery as detailed by Inoguchi et al. The success of GIS-based postdisaster operations vastly impacts on local governments in Wajima City, hit by the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake, where the use of GIS continued and expanded as an effective tool for building local government agency response capacity as detailed by Ura et al. In Kashiwazaki, the failure to apply municipal integrated GIS in postdisaster operations changed GIS policy to a less expensive service-oriented GIS readily available for local government agency use as detailed by Honma et al. A nationwide GIS map archive for researchers contains maps created at different disaster response stages as detailed by Nawa et al. Visualization of disaster impact using GIS is a powerful tool for disaster mitigation and preparedness, with impact by a worst-case-scenario magnitude 7.3 Tokyo Metropolitan earthquake as detailed by Suzuki et al. Design principles for visualization are reviewed by Urabe et al.

In Japan, damage certification is used as the basis for deciding public and private support eligibility for quake victims, making it imperative for local governments to issue certification based on housing damage assessment results as soon and as fairly as possible. Based on practices in Kashiwazaki City following the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake, damage to 64,000 household footprints was assessed within one month as detailed in the last five papers.

Two papers cover GIS-based data acquisition in housing damage assessment – PDA-assisted real-time input as detailed by Tonosaki et al., and OCRassisted paper result conversion as detailed by Higashida et al. In addition to housing damage assessment data, preexisting residential and housing databases should be integrated. Basic principles for creating this new database using GeoWrap are detailed by Yoshitomi et al. and implemented for Kashiwazaki as detailed by Matsuoka et al. In anticipating future disasters, a proposal to integrate local government operations both daily routine and emergency management was made by Urakawa et al.

We appreciate the support of the Special Project for Governance in Ubiquitous Society (2007-2009) by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the Special Project for Metropolitan Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

Lastly, we would like to appreciate all the authors for their wonderful contribution as well as all the blind reviewers for their dedication to make this issue more valuable.

: pp. 5-11
2007 Emergency Mapping Center Constructing Common Operational Pictures with GIS
Abstract
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Keiko Tamura, Go Urakawa, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 12-21
Realization of Effective Disaster Victim Support Through Development of Victim Master Database with Geo-Reference -A Case Study of 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake-
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Munenari Inoguchi, Keiko Tamura, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 22-30
Realization of Local Capacity Building for Managing Instructional-System-Design-Based GIS -A Case Study of Wajima City at 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake-
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Yoshihiro Ura, Munenari Inoguchi, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 31-44
Design Principles for Visualization of Public Information for Effective Disaster Reduction
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Kenshin Urabe, Haruo Hayashi, Satoshi Inoue, Haruhide Yoshida, and Toshihiro Shimosakai
: pp. 45-53
Spatial Exposure Analysis on Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Disaster
Abstract
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Shingo Suzuki and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 54-65
Mobile GIS Application Development for Emergency Damage Assessment in a Disaster
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Norihiro Tonosaki, Go Urakawa, Kei Omura, Yuji Nawa, Ryota Hamamoto, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 66-73
QR Coded Field Data Acquisition
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Mitsuhiro Higashida, Yasushi Matsushita, Haruo Hayashi, Kouichi Miyake, Masayuki Morikawa, and Nozomu Yoshitomi
: pp. 74-81
Disaster-Victim Database Development Using GeoWrap Method -From the 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake to the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake-
Abstract
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Nozomu Yoshitomi, Haruo Hayashi, Katsuyuki Matsuoka, Hidenori Terano, Munenari Inoguchi, and Go Urakawa
: pp. 82-89
GIS-Based Damage Certification Support System Based on Recent Earthquake Experience
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Katsuyuki Matsuoka, Haruo Hayashi, Nozomu Yoshitomi, Go Urakawa, Ryota Hamamoto, Yuji Nawa, Hidenori Terano, and Norihiro Tonosaki
: pp. 90-97
Inexpensive Integrated GIS for Local Government to Implement Emergency Response and Management Effectively
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Go Urakawa and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 98-107
Building Local-Government Service-Oriented GIS Through 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake Experience
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Tsutomu Honma, Go Urakawa, Munenari Inoguchi, Norihiro Tonosaki, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 108-116
Geography Network for Sharing Geospatial Information in Disaster Management
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Yuji Nawa, Go Urakawa, Hiro Ikemi, Ryota Hamamoto, and Haruo Hayashi

Vol.4 (2009)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Tsunami Forces and Effects on Structures

Special Issue on Tsunami Forces and Effects on Structures

: pp. 375-376
Tsunami Forces and Effects on Structures
Harry Yeh and Nobuo Shuto

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami claimed more than 220,000 lives. It was a low-probability high-consequence event. A similar disaster could strike elsewhere, particularly in the Pacific but also in Caribbean, Atlantic, and Mediterranean regions. Unlike in seismic ground shaking, there is usually a short lead-time precedes tsunami attack: from a few minutes for a local source to several hours for a distant source. Because mega-tsunamis are rare and because forewarning of these events is possible, the primary mitigation tactic to date has been evacuation. Hence, most efforts have focused on the development of effective warning systems, inundation maps, and tsunami awareness. This strategy makes sense from the standpoint of saving human lives. However, it does not address the devastating damage to buildings and critical coastal infrastructure, such as major coastal bridges, oil and LNG storage facilities, power plants, and ports and harbors. Failure in critical infrastructure creates enormous economic setbacks and collateral damage. The accelerating construction of critical infrastructure in the coastal zone demands a better understanding of design methodology in building tsunamiresistant structures. In some coastal areas such as low-elevation coastal spits or plains, evacuating people to higher ground may be impractical because they have no time to reach safety. In these situations, the only feasible way to minimize human casualties is to evacuate people to the upper floors of tsunami-resistant buildings. Such buildings must be designed and constructed to survive strong seismic ground shaking and subsequent tsunami impacts.

The primary causes of structural failure subject to tsunami attack can be categorized into three groups: 1) hydrodynamic force, 2) impact force by water-born objects, and 3) scour and foundation failure. Tsunami behaviors are quite distinct, however, from other coastal hazards such as storm waves; hence the effects cannot be inferred from common knowledge or intuition. Recent research has addressed tsunami forces acting on coastal structures to develop appropriate design guidelines, and mechanisms leading to tsunamigenerated scour and foundation failures.

This special issue is a compilation of 14 papers addressing tsunami effects on buildings and infrastructure. The four main groupings begin with two papers on tsunami force acting on vertical walls. Arikawa experimentally investigates the structural performance of wooden and concrete walls using a large-scale laboratory tank in Japan. Also using a similar large-scale tsunami flume but in the US, Oshnack et al. study force reduction by small onshore seawalls in front of a vertical wall. The second grouping focuses on tsunami force on 3-D structures. Arnason et al. present a basic laboratory study on the hydrodynamics of bore impingement on a vertical column. Fujima et al. examine the two types of formulae for tsunami force evaluation: the one calculated from flow depth alone and the other based on the Euler number. Lukkunaprasit et al. demonstrate the validity of force computation recommended in a recently published design guideline (FEMA P646) by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency. The other two papers look into the specific types of structures: one is for light-frame wood buildings by van de Lindt et al, and the other is for oil storage tanks by Sakakiyama et al.

The topic of debris impact force is the focus of the third grouping. Matsutomi summarizes his previous research on impact force by driftwoods, followed by the collision force of shipping containers by Yeom et al. Yim and Zhang numerically simulate tsunami impact on a vertical cylinder; this paper is included in this grouping because their numerical approach is similar to that of Yeom et al. As for the fourth grouping, Shuto presents field observations on foundation failures and scours, and Fujii et al. discuss the erosion processes of soil embankments. There are two more papers: those are the application of fragility analysis to tsunami damage assessment by Koshimura et al. and evaluation of an offshore cabled observatory by Matsumoto and Kaneda.

The topics presented here are undoubtedly in progress, and many revisions and improvements are still needed in order to achieve better predictability for tsunami effects on buildings and infrastructure. We hope you find the papers in this issue intriguing and the information useful, and become further interested in this important natural hazard. Lastly, we wish to express our appreciation to the authors for their timely contributions, and to the reviewers for their diligent and time-consuming efforts.

: pp. 377-381
Structural Behavior Under Impulsive Tsunami Loading
Abstract
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Taro Arikawa
: pp. 382-390
Effectiveness of Small Onshore Seawall in Reducing Forces Induced by Tsunami Bore: Large Scale Experimental Study
Abstract
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Mary Elizabeth Oshnack, Francisco Aguíñiga, Daniel Cox, Rakesh Gupta, and John van de Lindt
: pp. 391-403
Tsunami Bore Impingement onto a Vertical Column
Abstract
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Halldor Arnason, Catherine Petroff, and Harry Yeh
: pp. 404-409
Estimation of Tsunami Force Acting on Rectangular Structures
Abstract
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Koji Fujima, Fauzie Achmad, Yoshinori Shigihara, and Norimi Mizutani
: pp. 410-418
Experimental Verification of FEMA P646 Tsunami Loading
Abstract
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Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Nuttawut Thanasisathit, and Harry Yeh
: pp. 419-426
Wave Impact Study on a Residential Building
Abstract
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John W. van de Lindt, Rakesh Gupta, Daniel T. Cox, and Jebediah S. Wilson
: pp. 427-434
Tsunami Force Acting on Oil Tanks and Buckling Analysis for Tsunami Pressure
Abstract
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Tsutomu Sakakiyama, Shinichi Matsuura, and Masafumi Matsuyama
: pp. 435-440
Method for Estimating Collision Force of Driftwood Accompanying Tsunami Inundation Flow
Abstract
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Hideo Matsutomi
: pp. 441-449
Collision Analysis of Container Drifted by Runup Tsunami Using Drift Collision Coupled Model
Abstract
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Gyeong-Seon Yeom, Tomoaki Nakamura, and Norimi Mizutani
: pp. 450-461
A Multiphysics Multiscale 3-D Computational Wave Basin Model for Wave Impact Load on a Cylindrical Structure
Abstract
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Solomon C. Yim and Wenbin Zhang
: pp. 462-468
Damage to Coastal Structures by Tsunami-Induced Currents in the Past
Abstract
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Nobuo Shuto
: pp. 469-478
Numerical Simulation of Damage to a Soil Embankment from Tsunami Overflow
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Hiroyuki Fujii, Shintaro Hotta, and Nobuo Shuto
: pp. 479-488
Tsunami Fragility — A New Measure to Identify Tsunami Damage —
Abstract
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Shunichi Koshimura, Yuichi Namegaya, and Hideaki Yanagisawa
: pp. 489-497
Review of Recent Tsunami Observation by Offshore Cabled Observatory
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Hiroyuki Matsumoto and Yoshiyuki Kaneda

Regular Papers

: pp. 499-505
Does the Type of News Coverage Influence Donations to Disaster Relief? Evidence from the 2008 Cyclone in Myanmar
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Philip H. Brown and Po Yin Wong

No.5

(Oct)

Our Social Activities Are Always Related to Outbreaks of Infectious Diseases

Our Social Activities Are Always Related to Outbreaks of Infectious Diseases

: pp. 289-290
Our Social Activities Are Always Related to Outbreaks of Infectious Diseases
Masayuki Saijo

Thanks to the improvement of living standard and hygiene as well as to the development of the therapeutics, such as antimicrobial agents, diagnostics, vaccines, the mortality and morbidity rates due to infectious diseases have been dramatically improved in developed countries. However, the mortality and morbidity of infectious diseases, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections are still very high and the leading causes of fatalities in developing countries. Furthermore, emerging and reemerging infections frequently occur locally and internationally. For instance, the 2009 influenza virus A/H1N1-associated pandemic has emerged and raised public anxiety levels. It is evident that we live in an environment in which infectious diseases are commonly transmitted. Human activities are closely related to the emergence of newly identified infectious diseases.

In this issue, the background of the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases is reviewed. The infectious diseases that might raise public anxiety, such as Nipah encephalitis, rabies, and influenza are focused on and reviewed. The influenza pandemic and imported infectious diseases, which may cross borders, are also reviewed. Infectious diseases associated with natural disasters are reviewed for the sake of future preparedness. The hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, cause severe infections and have very high mortality rates. The diagnostic systems developed for viral hemorrhagic fevers developed in Japan are introduced. The international situation regarding the development of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories is introduced. In the review, it is emphasized that BSL-4 laboratories should be operated in Japan, although viral hemorrhagic fevers are not prevalent in Japan. Furthermore, preparedness strategies for large-scale outbreaks of infectious diseases are presented.

I believe these papers will help preparations against the infectious diseases associated with disastrous events. I would be very glad if the readers understood the background of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and noticed that efficacious preparedness for such infections diseases, preparedness based on the scientific studies and empirical evidence, is urgently required.

Finally, I sincerely appreciate the contributions by the authors of and the reviewers for the papers, which appear in this issue of the journal, Journal of Disaster Research.

: pp. 291-297
Emerging and Reemerging Infection Threats to Society
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Masayuki Saijo
: pp. 298-308
Strategies for Communicable Diseases Response After Disasters in Developing Countries
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Koffi Isidore Kouadio, Taro Kamigaki, and Hitoshi Oshitani
: pp. 309-314
Nipah Virus Infection – Zoonosis Among Wild Animals, Domestic Animals and Humans
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Yoshihiro Kaku
: pp. 315-321
Diagnostic Systems for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Emerging Viral Infections Prepared in the National Institute of Infectious Diseases
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Masayuki Saijo, Shigeru Morikawa, and Ichiro Kurane
: pp. 322-328
Arbovirus Infections: the Challenges of Controlling an Ever-Present Enemy
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Tomohiko Takasaki, Akira Kotaki, Chang-Kweng Lim, Shigeru Tajima, Tsutomu Omatsu, Meng Ling Moi, and Ichiro Kurane
: pp. 329-336
Research on Preparedness for Bioterrorism – Associated Events in Japan: Smallpox Vaccine Preparedness
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Tomoya Saito
: pp. 337-345
Preparedness for Natural Disaster-Associated Infections
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Koki Kaku
: pp. 346-351
Imported Rabies Cases and Preparedness for Rabies in Japan
Abstract
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Kinjiro Morimoto and Masayuki Saijo
: pp. 352-355
BSL4 Facilities in Anti-Infectious Disease Measures
Abstract
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Ichiro Kurane
: pp. 356-364
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Viewed from an Epidemiological Triangle Model
Abstract
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Emmanuel A. Mpolya, Yuki Furuse, Nao Nukiwa, Akira Suzuki, Taro Kamigaki, and Hitoshi Oshitani

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Early Warning for Natural Disaster Mitigation

Special Issue on Early Warning for Natural Disaster Mitigation

: p. 529
Early Warning for Natural Disaster Mitigation
Masato Motosaka

Japan and many other counties face the risk of the natural disaster such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods. Natural disaster mitigation research and development are providing important, practical applications based on the development of the scientific technology.

One major contribution is early warning system, being backed by observation and communication technology progress. Early warning research and development have been extensively studied domestically and internationally. Specifically, recent developments in earthquake engineering research and construction of seismic dense network have made it possible to issue earthquake warnings before the arrival of severe shaking. Such warnings enable emergency measures to be taken to protect lives, buildings, infrastructure, and transport from earthquake depredations. One such system went into practical use nationwide in Japan starting on October 1, 2007. Development has been conducted with cooperation of government, academic community and non-government, and private organizations.

This special issue features papers on the early warning system for the natural disastermitigation covering issues ranging from natural science to social science. The recent developed earthquake early warning technology and its applications will be introduced. Besides earthquakes, the recent early warning technology for tsunami and flood are also included in this issue. The warning time available for tsunami and flood is much longer than that for earthquakes, and the contribution of numerical calculation using the real-time observation data differs with the type of disaster.

Finally I would like to express my deepest gratitude for anonymous reviewers of papers in this special issue.

Page number has been changed. Old number: pp. 201
: pp. 530-538
Earthquake Early Warning Technology Progress in Taiwan
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Kuo-Liang Wen , Tzay-Chyn Shin, Yih-Min Wu, Nai-Chi Hsiao, and Bing-Ru Wu
: pp. 539-545
Promotion Planning for Application of an Earthquake Early Warning System in Taiwan
Abstract
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Liang-Chun Chen, Bing-Ru Wu, Kai-Wen Kuo, Keh-Chyuan Tsai, Nai-Chi Hsiao, Min Chen, and Tzu-Shiu Wu
: pp. 546-556
Development of Application Systems for Earthquake Early Warning
Abstract
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Yukio Fujinawa, Yoshinori Rokugo, Yoichi Noda, Yoshinobu Mizui, Masaji Kobayashi, and Etsuo Mizutani
: pp. 557-564
Earthquake Early Warning System Application for School Disaster Prevention
Abstract
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Masato Motosaka and Makoto Homma
: pp. 565-569
Earthquake Early Warning Hospital Applications
Abstract
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Yoshihito Horiuchi
: pp. 570-578
Application of Earthquake Early Warning System to Seismic-Isolated Buildings
Abstract
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Keiichi Okada, Yutaka Nakamura, and Masaaki Saruta
: pp. 579-587
Practical Site-Specific Earthquake Early Warning Application
Abstract
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Katsuhisa Kanda, Tadashi Nasu, and Masamitsu Miyamura
: pp. 588-594
Real-Time Ground Motion Forecasting Using Front-Site Waveform Data Based on Artificial Neural Network
Abstract
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H. Serdar Kuyuk and Masato Motosaka
: pp. 595-599
History and Challenge of Tsunami Warning Systems in Japan
Abstract
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Fumihiko Imamura and Ikuo Abe
: pp. 600-605
Uncertainty Evaluation in a Flood Forecasting Model Using JMA Numerical Weather Prediction
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Hadi Kardhana and Akira Mano
:
p. 606
Page numbers of the papers published in Vol.4 No.4 have been changed due to editorial mistake. We apologize for any inconvenience.
Abstract
Journal of Disaster Research Editorial Office, April 15, 2016

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Japan’s Advanced Technology for Building Seismic Protection

Special Issue on Japan’s Advanced Technology for Building Seismic Protection

: pp. 173-174
Japan’s Advanced Technology for Building Seismic Protection
Kazuhiko Kasai

Modern buildings have more complex, important functions than ever before, and damage to these functions adversely impacted on socioeconomic activity during and after the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake that leveled much of Kobe, Japan. Although many such buildings protected the lives of occupants, their impaired functioning required costly structural and nonstructural repair.

Questions have been raised about conventional building structure performance enabling inelastic deformation or considerable damage during a major earthquake, as shown in Fig. 1a. Advanced technology such as building base isolation, shown in Fig. 1b, and passive control by dampers, shown in Fig. 1c, was developed prior to the Kobe disaster and became rapidly accepted after it, in line with a strong desire to better protect structural and nonstructural components. In base isolation, a building is placed on a flexible isolator that absorbs lateral ground movement, preventing vibration in the upper parts of the structure, as shown in Fig. 1b. In passive control, dampers connected to the structural frame dissipate seismic input energy, reducing kinetic energy and vibration of the building, as shown in Fig. 1c.

Such advanced technology is currently used for all major buildings and even for small residences in Japan to better protect buildings and their contents. Japan has produced a large number of buildings with the technology, and is believed to have conducted the most extensive research in realizing base isolation and passive control schemes.

This special issue of JDR addresses the present and future of Japan’s advanced technology with special reference to major activities related to design, construction, and research. Its purpose is to globally disseminate and share knowledge on promising schemes to help protect lives and social assets against catastrophic earthquakes.

This issue covers the current status of base isolation and passive control schemes, unique projects promoting technology for structurally challenging cases, building requirements necessitating the use of advanced technology, the status of current codes and specifications, and new directions in technology.

Papers in this issue were authored by leading structural designers and researchers in Japan, to whom we hereby express our deepest gratitude for their invaluable efforts.

: pp. 175-181
Current State of Seismic-Isolation Design
Abstract
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Nagahide Kani
: pp. 182-191
Iconic Architectural Forms Enabled by Base-Isolation
Abstract
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Masayoshi Nakai, Yoshio Tanno, Hirokazu Kozuka, and Masato Ohata
: pp. 192-198
A Seismic Isolated Long-Span Overhanging Urban Infrastructure
Abstract
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Yutaka Nakamura, Toshiaki Saito, and Kazuo Tamura
: pp. 199-207
Seismic Isolation Retrofit for Large-Scale Government Building Identified as Cultural Assets
Abstract
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Takao Nishizawa
: pp. 208-219
Seismic Isolation Retrofit of a Medical Complex by Integrating Two Large-Scale Buildings
Abstract
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Yoe Masuzawa and Yoshiaki Hisada
: pp. 220-228
Seismic Roof Isolation over a Large Space – Kyoto Aquarena Roof Design –
Abstract
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Katsunori Kaneda and Hirokazu Takahashi
: pp. 229-238
Middle-Story Isolated Structural System of High-Rise Building
Abstract
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Yasuhiro Tsuneki, Shingo Torii, Katsuhide Murakami, and Toshiyuki Sueoka
: pp. 239-245
Seismic Response Control of a Soft First-Story Building
Abstract
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Yasuhiro Hayabe and Yuichi Watanabe
: pp. 246-252
High-Rise Building Seismic Vibration Control Using Large Tuned Top-Floor Mass Damper
Abstract
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Akifumi Makino
: pp. 253-260
Structural Control by Innovative Oil Damper with Automatic On/Off Valve Operation
Abstract
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Haruhiko Kurino, Satoshi Orui, and Kan Shimizu
: pp. 261-269
Building Passive Control in Japan
Abstract
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Kazuhiko Kasai, Masayoshi Nakai, Yutaka Nakamura, Hidekatsu Asai, Yousuke Suzuki, and Masato Ishii

Regular Papers

: pp. 271-281
Evaluating Planning Process of the Kobe Recovery Plan Based on Project Management Framework
Abstract
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Toshikazu Ota, Norio Maki, and Haruo Hayashi
: pp. 282-290
Geologist Views of the Predicted Tokai Earthquake
Abstract
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Akira Tokuyama

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Evaluation and disaster prevention research for the coming Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes

Special Issue on Evaluation and disaster prevention research for the coming Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes

: pp. 61-66
New Research Project for Evaluating Seismic Linkage Around the Nankai Trough —Integration of Observation, Simulation, and Disaster Mitigation—
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Yoshiyuki Kaneda, Kazuo Hirahara, and Takashi Furumura
: pp. 67-71
Structural Research on the Nankai Trough Using Reflections and Refractions
Abstract
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Yoshiyuki Kaneda and Shuichi Kodaira
: pp. 72-82
Continuous Long-Term Seafloor Pressure Observation for Detecting Slow-Slip Interplate Events in Miyagi-Oki on the Landward Japan Trench Slope
Abstract
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Ryota Hino, Shiori Ii, Takeshi Iinuma, and Hiromi Fujimoto
: pp. 83-93
Underground Structural Anomalies and Slow Earthquake Activities Around Seismogenic Megathrust Earthquake Zone as Revealed by Inland Seismic Observations
Abstract
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Kazushige Obara and Katsuhiko Shiomi
: pp. 94-98
Principal Component Analysis as a Tool for Materials Characterization of the Plate Boundary — Seismic Activity Application in the Plate Boundary Zone of the Northeastern Japan Arc.
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Mitsuhiro Toriumi
: pp. 99-105
Toward Advanced Earthquake Cycle Simulation
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Kazuro Hirahara
: pp. 106-110
Conditions for Consecutive Rupture of Adjacent Asperities
Abstract
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Naoyuki Kato
: pp. 111-117
A Model of Earthquake-Generation Cycle with Scale-Dependent Frictional Property – Preliminary Results and Research Plan for a Project of Evaluation for Coming Tokai, Tonankai, and Nankai Earthquakes
Abstract
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Takane Hori, Shin’ichi Miyazaki, and Noa Mitsui
: pp. 118-126
Integrated Ground Motion and Tsunami Simulation for the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake Using High-Performance Supercomputers
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Takashi Furumura and Tatsuhiko Saito
: pp. 127-134
Characteristics and Mitigation Measures for Tsunamis Generated Along the Nankai Trough
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Fumihiko Imamura and Kentaro Imai
: pp. 135-141
Prediction of Strong Ground Motion and Building Damage in Urban Areas and Development of a Disaster Mitigation Strategy
Abstract
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Nobuo Fukuwa, Jun Tobita, Masafumi Mori, and Hiroto Takahashi
: pp. 142-150
Response to Possible Earthquake Disasters in the Tokai, Tonankai, and Nankai Areas, and Their Restoration/Reconstruction Strategies
Abstract
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Norio Maki, Hai-Li Chen, and Shingo Suzuki
: pp. 151-152
Newly Proposed Disaster Mitigation and Recovery for the Next Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquakes
Abstract
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Yoshiyuki Kaneda, Michihiro Ohori, and Takeshi Nakamura

Regular Papers

: pp. 153-164
Damage to Civil Engineering Structures with an Emphasis on Rock Slope Failures and Tunnel Damage Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake
Abstract
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Ö. Aydan, M. Hamada, J. Itoh, and K. Okubo

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Adaptation to Global-Warming-Triggered Disasters

Special Issue on Adaptation to Global-Warming-Triggered Disasters

: pp. 1-2
Adaptation to Global-Warming-Triggered Disasters
Syunsuke Ikeda

The Committee on Disaster Mitigation under Global Changes of Natural and Social Environments, Science Council of Japan (SCJ), issued on May 30, 2007 a report, “Policies for Creation of a Safe and Secure Society against Increasing Natural Disasters around the World”.
The report, which includes an outline of Japan’s past responses to natural disasters of a global scale, provides a comprehensive discussion of a desirable direction for the development of infrastructure and social systems to meet the forthcoming changes in nature and society. Based on the report, the committee reported to the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, in response to the minister’s former inquiry.

Another report was issued on countermeasures by adaptation to water-related disasters, following the former report and the result of discussions made in the subcommittee on June 26, 2008.
This special issue of JDR is based on the latter report of Science Council of Japan.
In Japan, over the past 30 years, the number of days of heavy rain with a daily rainfall of 200 mm or more have increased to about 1.5 times that of the first 30 years of the 20th century.
It has been pointed out that this is likely to have been caused by global warming. The Fourth report of the IPCC indicates that even low-end predictions implies an unavoidable temperature rise of about 2°C, and, even if the concentration of greenhouse gases is stabilized, the ongoing warming and sea level rise will continue for several centuries.

In terms of social systems, population and assets are increasingly concentrated in metropolitan areas. At the same time, economic recession and aging of the population are accelerating especially in rural areas.
The central parts of small- and medium-size cities have lost vitality, and so-called marginal settlements are increasing in farming, forestry and fishing villages.
These factors make it difficult and complicated to maintain social functions to fight with natural disasters.

Under these circumstances, it is quite important in our country to take an action for adaptation to climate changes, where land is vulnerable to water-related disasters. The need for adaptation has widely been recognized in Europe, and various reports have been issued there. In Japan, initiatives to reduce greenhouse gases emission are being actively discussed, but both the central government and the people still do not fully recognize the importance of adaptation to water-related disasters.

Elsewhere, increases in extreme weather and climate events have caused flood disasters, such as those that have been occurring with larger frequency in the downstream deltas of Asian rivers. The latter type of disaster is exemplified by the unprecedented huge flood disaster that occurred in Myanmar in May in the last year. The increase of population in Asia will induce shortage of water resources in near future. Japan, which is in the Asian Monsoon Region, has a natural and social geography similar to these countries. Japan should implement strong assistance programs based on accumulated knowledge and advanced technologies developed.

To treat the adaptations mentioned in the above, there are many components to be considered such as follows:

(1) Reliable assessment of future climate, economic and social situation such as population.
(2) Developing physical and social infrastructures.
(3) Building disaster awareness and preparation in communities.
(4) Planning for recovery and restoration.
(5) Research and development for adaptation.
(6) International contributions for preventing water-related disasters.

In this special issue of JDR, these subjects are treated in series by introducing 5 papers written by leading researchers and engineer worked in the central government. However, the details of international contributions could not be included in this issue.

: pp. 3-6
Adaptation to Global-Warming-Triggered Water Disasters Measures Taken by Science Council of Japan
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Syunsuke Ikeda
: pp. 7-11
“Disaster Immunity” – A New Concept for Disaster Reduction in Adaptation to Disaster Hazard Intensification
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Hideo Oshikawa, Koji Asai, Kenichi Tsukahara, and Toshimitsu Komatsu
: pp. 12-23
Assessing Climate Change Impact on Water Resources in the Tone River Basin, Japan, Using Super-High-Resolution Atmospheric Model Output
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Kaoru Takara, Sunmin Kim, Yasuto Tachikawa, and Eiichi Nakakita
: pp. 24-31
Infrastructure’s Role Against Climate Change
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ISHII, Yumio
: pp. 32-40
Significance of Studies for Recovery and Restoration Measures in Adaptation to the Intensification of Flood Disasters
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Tsuneyoshi Mochizuki
: pp. 41-52
The 1755 Lisbon Tsunami: Tsunami Source Determination and its Validation
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Angela Santos, Shunichi Koshimura, and Fumihiko Imamura

Vol.3 (2008)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Crisis Management Following Tokyo Metropolitan Near Field Earthquake Disaster

Special Issue on Crisis Management Following Tokyo Metropolitan Near Field Earthquake Disaster

: pp. 369-371
Crisis Management Following Tokyo Metropolitan Near Field Earthquake Disaster
Haruo Hayashi

1. Introduction

It is expected that Tokyo Metropolitan area and her vicinity may be jolted by a devastating earthquake with a 70% chance for the next 30 years.
If it happens, an unprecedented scale of damage and losses may follow. With the severity of possible consequences due to this earthquake, a special project, entitled as “Special Project for Metropolitan Earthquake DisasterMitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area” (2007-2011), is commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (MEXT), This special project consists of three subprojects; Seismology, Earthquake Engineering, and Crisis Management and Recovery.
In this issue of JDR, we will introduce 10 papers produced as a series of the achievements from the subproject on Crisis Management and Recovery.
This subproject considers Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake as a national crisis occurred in the Tokyo metropolitan area.
All the available knowledge of disaster researchers should be gathered from nationwide, including both emergency response and long-term recovery to minimize damage and losses.

This project examines measures for improving the capacity for the people from disaster management organizations to react to crisis and help rebuilding life recovery of disaster victims. An information-sharing platform will be proposed to comprehensively manage individual disaster response and recovery measures. “Training and exercise systems” will be introduced to empower local capacity to mitigate and recover from disaster by integrating all of the project achievements among stakeholders. The final goal of this project is to make ourselves prepared for help the anticipated 25 million victims at most due to Tokyo Metropolitan earthquake.

: pp. 372-380
Building Damage Inspection Analysis in the 2007 Niigata Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake, Kashiwazaki: Self-Inspection Analysis for Damage Evaluation
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Satoshi Tanaka
: pp. 381-389
Household Recovery Consulting Using Household Recovery Support Chart in Anamizu Town After the March 2007 Noto Peninsula Earthquake
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Masasuke Takashima, Satoshi Tanaka, and Kishie Shigekawa
: pp. 390-399
An Emergency Restoration Model for Water Supply Network Damage due to Earthquakes
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Shigeru Nagata, Kohei Kageyama, and Kinya Yamamoto
: pp. 400-406
Estimation of Seismic Shutoff of Intelligent Gas Meters in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area
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Yoshihisa Maruyama, Fumio Yamazaki, Yoshihisa Yano, and Naoyuki Hosokawa
: pp. 407-421
Pre-Disaster Restoration Measure of Preparedness for Post-Disaster Restoration in Tokyo
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Itsuki Nakabayashi, Shin Aiba, and Taro Ichiko
: pp. 422-428
Development of Planning Support System for Urban Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
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Takaaki Kato, Itsuki Nakabayashi, and Taro Ichiko
: pp. 429-441
The Development and Validation of Disaster Response Competency Profile Indices
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Shigeo Tatsuki
: pp. 442-456
Participatory Risk Communication Method for Risk Governance Using Disaster Risk Scenarios
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Toshinari Nagasaka, Hiroaki Tsubokawa, Yuichiro Usuda, Shingo Nagamatsu, Shinya Miura, and Saburo Ikeda
: pp. 457-466
An Analysis of a Local Government’s Disaster Response Activity Records from the Viewpoint of Information Management
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Shinya Kondo and Kimiro Meguro
: pp. 467-478
IT Framework for Disaster Mitigation Information Sharing
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Itsuki Noda, Hiroki Shimora, Hiroki Matsui, Hiroshi Yokota, Akihiro Shibayama, Yoshiaki Hisada, Masahiro Murakami, Takeyasu Suzuki, Yasunori Hada, Takeshi Yamada, Shinsaku Zama, Yasushi Hada, Jun-ichi Meguro, and Ken Okamoto

Regular Papers

: pp. 479-502
The Next Generation of Seismic Isolation
Going Beyond Seismic Design Dominated by Earthquakes
Abstract
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Mitsuo Miyazaki

No.5

(Oct)

Regular papers

Regular Papers

: pp. 321-333
Using Game Technique as a Strategy in Promoting Disaster Awareness in Caribbean Multicultural Societies: The Disaster Awareness Game
Abstract
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Virginia Clerveaux, Balfour Spence, and Toshitaka Katada
: pp. 334-341
Recent Peat Fire Activity in the Mega Rice Project Area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Abstract
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Erianto Indra Putra, Hiroshi Hayasaka, Hidenori Takahashi, and Aswin Usup
: pp. 342-350
Damage to Seisho Bypass due to Storm Waves During Typhoon 0709
Abstract
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Takaaki Uda, Toshiro San-nami, and Toshinori Ishikawa

No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Volcanic Disasters
Information & Communications

Special Issue on Volcanic Disasters

: p. 251
Volcanic Disasters
Toshitsutgu Fujii and Kazuhiro Ishihara

The volcanic disasters are quite variable depending on the nature of the volcanic eruptions, the degrees of land-use surrounding the volcanic areas and preparedness against the eruptions. In order to mitigate the volcanic disasters, therefore, multidisciplinary approach is required. The International Volcanic Conference, “Cities on Volcanoes 5,” held in Shimabara Japan on the November 19-23, 2007 encouraged a wide range of people who are engaged in the volcanic disaster mitigation to gather to discuss topics related to volcanic eruptions and their hazards. The aim of this conference was to evaluate and improve mitigation measures, emergency management, and all required to successfully confront volcanic crises in densely populated area and to recover from any devastation. As the main topics discussed during the conference is quite adequate for the aim of this journal, this special issue tried to include papers read at the conference as many as possible. For the mitigation of the volcanic disasters, several different approaches should be included. Volcano monitoring through observation is the basis for most eruption forecasts and other measures for volcanic disaster mitigation. Impacts on human health and sustainability in volcanic areas in the fields of air and water pollution are also important issues to be included in the management of volcanic hazards. The practical lessons learned through the case histories of actual events should be shared to prepare for and respond to volcano crises that may affect communities. Hiroaki Takahashi proposes a method to estimate the real-time eruption magnitude that might be utilized to judge the duration of eruption in the early stage of eruption. Yoshikazu Kikawada et al. summarize arsenic pollution of rivers originated from the Kusatsu volcanic region. Tsuneomi Kagiyama and Yuichi Morita discuss the strategy to understand the preparing process of caldera forming eruption as a first step to assess the risk of gigantic eruption. Hiroshi Ikeya describes the prevention works executed by the central and local governments during and after the Mt. Unzen 1990-1995 eruption. Harry J. R. Keys summarizes the aspects of risk assessment and mitigation for a dome-break lahar that was predicted in 1995 and actually occurred on 18 March 2007 at Ruapehu volcano. Yoichi Nakamura et al. describe the mitigation systems on volcanic disasters in Japan emphasizing the importance of preparing hazard maps. We know the topics covered by this special issue do not represent the wide-ranging aspect of the conference, but include some significant portion. We hope that this special issue will be utilized to share the lessons learned through the practical trial to mitigate the actual disasters during the volcanic crisis.

: pp. 252-260
Real-Time Eruption Magnitude Estimation from Far-Field Geodetic Data: A Proposal for Volcanic Early Warning
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Hiroaki Takahashi
: pp. 261-269
Arsenic Originating in Kusatsu Hot Springs, Gunma, Japan, and Arsenic Pollution Status of Kusatsu Rivers
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Yoshikazu Kikawada, Satoshi Kawai, Kazuhiko Shimada, and Takao Oi
: pp. 270-275
First Steps in Understanding Caldera Forming Eruptions
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Tsuneomi Kagiyama and Yuichi Morita
: pp. 276-283
The Heisei Eruption of Mt. Unzen-Fugendake and Measures Against Volcanic Disasters
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Hiroshi Ikeya
: pp. 284-296
Ruapehu Lahar New Zealand 18 March 2007: Lessons for Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation 1995-2007
Abstract
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Harry J. R. Keys and Paul M. Green
: pp. 297-304
Mitigation Systems by Hazard Maps, Mitigation Plans, and Risk Analyses Regarding Volcanic Disasters in Japan
Abstract
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Yoichi Nakamura, Kazuyoshi Fukushima, Xinghai Jin, Motoo Ukawa Teruko Sato, and Yayoi Hotta

Information & Communications

: pp. 305-306
Development of Disaster Management Robots for Use in Investigating Nuclear Accidents
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Editorial Office

No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Extinction of Organisms

Special Issue on Extinction of Organisms

: p. 165
Extinction of Organisms
Hiroyoshi Higuchi and Hideaki Karaki

Plants and animals are declining or becoming extinct in many parts of the world. They include both well-known species such as the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) and once common land snails, fireflies and small migratory birds. Factors leading to population decline or extinction include habitat destruction, chemical pollution, alien species, poaching, infectious disease, and global warming. In addition to their individual adverse impacts, these factors often overlap or interconnect in time and space, compounding their effects. In limited areas isolated by habitat destruction, for example, alien species and global warming more easily cause local populations to decline and become extinct.

There are also natural disasters such as volcanic activity and meteors that diminish or exterminate flora and fauna populations. However, extinction of species and groups sometimes give an opportunity for other species and groups to occupy vacant niche and similar life styles, which may lead to adaptive radiation in evolution. Organisms have repeated such evolution and extinction throughout geological history.

This special issue focuses on the extinction of plants and animals resulting from both human activity and natural disasters. In the first of seven articles, Hisashi Nagata reviews the history of extinction and the natural and human factors involved. Kazuto Kawakami looks at the impact of alien species on current ecosystems in the Ogasawara Islands, demonstrating interrelationships among different plant and animal species and pointing out what we could do about island ecosystem conservation and management. Haruo Ogi discusses the effects of fisheries by-catch on sea birds. TatsuyaKunisue and Shinsuke Tanabe detail the effects of chemical pollution on wild animals. Both factors are important in conserving biodiversity and in maintaining industries such as marine fisheries. Kazuya Ashizawa et al. focus on the population decline and extinction of plants growing along dry river beds and becoming rare as a result of human activities changing the structure of natural rivers. Yunshan Su deals with the history of the near extinction of crested ibises in China, and introduces successful recovery programs that may be useful in a similar Japanese program for the same species. Takashi Kamijo et al. detail the impact of volcanic activity on the vegetation of a small island, discussing ecosystem recovery.

We hope that this special issue will lead to better understanding of the unique interrelationships among plants, animals and the inorganic world, teaching how to conserve and manage the biodiversity around us. Extinction of one species may appear to have nothing to do with human lives, but the extinction of many plants and animals sets up serious conditions in maintaining life during the changing structure and function of ecosystems comparable in process to an aircraft losing rivets one by one and finally crashing at a critical point with massive loss of life.

: pp. 166-173
Extinction, the Causes of Extinction and the Conservation of Biodiversity
Abstract
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Hisashi Nagata
: pp. 174-186
Threats to Indigenous Biota from Introduced Species on the Bonin Islands, Southern Japan
Abstract
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Kazuto Kawakami
: pp. 187-195
International and National Problems in Fisheries Seabird By-Catch
Abstract
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Haruo Ogi
: pp. 196-205
Contamination Status and Toxicological Implications of Persistent Toxic Substances in Avian Species
Abstract
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Tatsuya Kunisue and Shinsuke Tanabe
: pp. 206-215
Decreasing Processes and Conservation of Floodplain Species
Abstract
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Kazuya Ashizawa, Hisako Okada, and Noboru Kuramoto
: pp. 216-225
Conservation and Management of the Asian Crested Ibis in China
Abstract
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Yunshan Su
: pp. 226-235
Destruction and Recovery of Vegetation Caused by the 2000-Year Eruption on Miyake-Jima Island, Japan
Abstract
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Takashi Kamijo, Minami Kawagoe, Taku Kato, Yutaka Kiyohara, Miyuki Matsuda, Keiko Hashiba, and Kazunori Shimada

No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Climate Change (Part 2)

Special Issue on Climate Change (Part 2)

: p. 97
Climate Change (Part 2)
Hideaki Karaki and Syunsuke Ikeda

Global warming precipitated by human activity in turn affects plants and animals in addition to human life. This special issue on Climate Change (Part 2) presents two reviews on the biological effects of global warming. Higuchi discusses how plants have started to bloom, leaf, and bear fruits earlier than 30 years ago. Birds have started laying eggs earlier than 25 years ago and migrating and singing — both related to breeding — earlier than before. Other changes include a shift in the ranges of some plants and animals northward or to higher elevations. One problem resulting from these changes are distortions or mismatches in biological interactions such as predation, pollination, seed dispersion, and parasitism because changes in phenology and habitation ranges vary by species and groups. newpage Global warming is thus also affecting biodiversity and changing ecosystem structures and functioning. In the second review, Kobayashi et al. show how global warming is changing the habitation range of disease-transmitting insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. Because insects are cold-blooded, their activities are strongly influenced by environmental temperature. Changes in the distribution of disease-transmitting “vector” insects in turn change the distribution of disease. Summarizing his review, Higuchi wrote that “From a cynical point of view, it could be said that we are currently making an experiment on a global scale to investigate when and how our warming of the entire globe will affect the natural world and our own lifestyles.”

: pp. 98-104
Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity
Abstract
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Hiroyoshi Higuchi
: pp. 105-112
Global Warming and Vector-borne Infectious Diseases
Abstract
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Mutsuo Kobayashi, Osamu Komagata, and Naoko Nihei
: pp. 113-118
Great Water Temperature Changes of 1.5C per Decade in Tokyo Bay, Japan – its Causes and Consequences –
Abstract
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Tetsuo Yanagi
: pp. 119-130
Past Evaluation and Future Projection of Sea Level Rise Related to Climate Change Around Japan
Abstract
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Sin-Iti Iwasaki, Wataru Sasaki, and Tomonori Matsuura
: pp. 131-141
Impacts of Recent Climate Change on Flood Disaster and Preventive Measures
Abstract
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Hideo Oshikawa, Akihiro Hashimoto, Kenichi Tsukahara, and Toshimitsu Komatsu
: pp. 143-149
Factors Associated with Hurricane Preparedness: Results of a Pre-Hurricane Assessment
Abstract
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Jennifer Horney, Cynthia Snider, Sandra Malone, Laura Gammons, and Steve Ramsey

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Climate Change (Part 1)

Special Issue on Climate Change (Part 1)

: p. 3
Climate Change (Part 1)
Akimasa Sumi

Climate change due to global warming is one of the most urgent issues for the society in the 21st century. It is anticipated that the climate change causes various impacts to our society such as natural disasters, food and water shortage, new diseases, and so on. Especially, natural disasters will give strong damage to the infrastructure of our society. When we think natural disaster, we tend to think the earthquake causes severe damage to the society, however, in reality, disaster associated with heavy rainfall is more severe. In short, changes of patterns and intensity of the precipitation is considered to cause severe impacts to the society.

Precipitation is realized in a cloud system, which is 10 km scale. This cannot be resolved in the large-scale atmospheric model, which is used to the present numerical weather prediction (NWP) and global warming simulation. Therefore, we have to interpret information given by the large-scale NWP model and climate model. For that purpose, we need knowledge about the convection system and its interaction with the large-scale circulation.

In this volume, papers relating to the understanding of convection in the present climate and the change in the future climate will be presented. A new possibility of simulating a convective system is also presented. I hope that these papers may help you to take an action to mitigate and adapt the disaster.

: pp. 4-14
Global Warming Projection by an Atmospheric Global Model with 20-km Grid
Abstract
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Shoji Kusunoki, Jun Yoshimura, Hiromasa Yoshimura, Ryo Mizuta, Kazuyoshi Oouchi, and Akira Noda
: pp. 15-24
Effects of Global Warming on Heavy Rainfall During the Baiu Season Projected by a Cloud-System-Resolving Model
Abstract
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Masaomi Nakamura, Sachie Kaneda, Yasutaka Wakazuki, Chiashi Muroi, Akihiro Hashimoto, Teruyuki Kato, Akira Noda, Masanori Yoshizaki, and Kazuaki Yasunaga
: pp. 25-32
Maximum Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones Derived from Numerical Experiments Using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3)
Abstract
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Junichi Tsutsui
: pp. 33-38
Numerical Simulations of Heavy Rainfalls by a Global Cloud-Resolving Model
Abstract
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Masaki Satoh
: pp. 39-50
Potential Changes in Extreme Events Under Global Climate Change
Abstract
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Koji Dairaku, Seita Emori, and Hironori Higashi
: pp. 51-60
Long-Term Changes in Precipitation in Japan
Abstract
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Fumiaki Fujibe
: pp. 61-68
Mesoscale Precipitation Systems Along the Meiyu/Baiu Front and Future Expectation for Research Radar and Weather Radar Network
Abstract
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Hiroshi Uyeda
: pp. 69-77
Convective Activity and Moisture Variation During Field Experiment MISMO in the Equatorial Indian Ocean
Abstract
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Kunio Yoneyama and Yukari N. Takayabu
: pp. 78-88
HARIMAU Radar-Profiler Network over the Indonesian Maritime Continent: A GEOSS Early Achievement for Hydrological Cycle and Disaster Prevention
Abstract
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Manabu D. Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, Shuichi Mori, Pei-Ming Wu, Fadli Syamsudin, Timbul Manik, Hamada Jun-Ichi, Masayuki K. Yamamoto , Masayuki Kawashima, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Namiko Sakurai, Masayuki Ohi, Ryuichi Shirooka, Masaki Katsumata, Yoshiaki Shibagaki, Toyoshi Shimomai, Erlansyah, Wawan Setiawan, Bambang Tejasukmana, Yusuf S. Djajadihardja, and Jana T. Anggadiredja

Vol.2 (2007)

No.6

(Dec)

Special Issue on Long-term Recovery Process

Special Issue on Long-term Recovery Process

: pp. 413-418
Long-term Recovery from Recent Disasters in Japan and the United States
Haruo Hayashi

In this issue of Journal of Disaster Research, we introduce nine papers on societal responses to recent catastrophic disasters with special focus on long-term recovery processes in Japan and the United States. As disaster impacts increase, we also find that recovery times take longer and the processes for recovery become more complicated. On January 17th of 1995, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake hit the Hanshin and Awaji regions of Japan, resulting in the largest disaster in Japan in 50 years. In this disaster which we call the Kobe earthquake hereafter, over 6,000 people were killed and the damage and losses totaled more than 100 billion US dollars. The long-term recovery from the Kobe earthquake disaster took more than ten years to complete. One of the most important responsibilities of disaster researchers has been to scientifically monitor and record the long-term recovery process following this unprecedented disaster and discern the lessons that can be applied to future disasters. The first seven papers in this issue present some of the key lessons our research team learned from the studying the long-term recovery following the Kobe earthquake disaster.

We have two additional papers that deal with two recent disasters in the United States – the terrorist attacks on World Trade Center in New York on September 11 of 2001 and the devastation of New Orleans by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina and subsequent levee failures. These disasters have raised a number of new research questions about long-term recovery that US researchers are studying because of the unprecedented size and nature of these disasters’ impacts. Mr. Mammen’s paper reviews the long-term recovery processes observed at and around the World Trade Center site over the last six years. Ms. Johnson’s paper provides a detailed account of the protracted reconstruction planning efforts in the city of New Orleans to illustrate a set of sufficient and necessary conditions for successful recovery.

All nine papers in this issue share a theoretical framework for long-term recovery processes which we developed based first upon the lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake and later expanded through observations made following other recent disasters in the world. The following sections provide a brief description of each paper as an introduction to this special issue.

(more…)

: pp. 419-430
Nishinomiya Built Environment Database and its Findings
Abstract
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Kei Horie*, Norio Maki**, and Haruo Hayashi**
: pp. 431-444
Damage Scale and Long-term Recovery Plans in Japan: Working with Local People
Abstract
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Norio Maki* , Haruo Hayashi* , and Keiko Tamura**
: pp. 445-452
Monitoring Recovery Using Energy Consumption Indices
Abstract
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Masasuke Takashima* and Haruo Hayashi**
: pp. 453-464
Quantitative Evaluation of Recovery Process in Disaster-Stricken Areas Using Statistical Data
Abstract
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Yuka Karatani* and Haruo Hayashi**
: pp. 465-474
Recovery and Reconstruction Calendar
Abstract
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Reo Kimura
: pp. 475-483
Defining Recovery: 7-Element Model
Abstract
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Keiko Tamura
: pp. 484-501
Long-term Life Recovery Processes Among Survivors of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake: 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2005 Life Recovery Social Survey Results
Abstract
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Shigeo Tatsuki
: pp. 502-516
Recovery Efforts in New York After 9/11
Abstract
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David Mammen
: pp. 517-529
New Orleans’ Recovery Following Hurricane Katrina: Observations on Local Catastrophe Recovery Management
Abstract
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Laurie A. Johnson

Regular Papers

: pp. 531-536
Design Tsunami Forces for Onshore Structures
Abstract
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Harry Yeh

No.5

(Oct)

Special Issue on Recovery from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

Special Issue on Recovery from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake

: p. 329
Recovery from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
Yujiro Ogawa

The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995 revealed the vulnerability of modern cities to earthquakes, not in the damage to structures but also to the lives of people, local communities, and the economy. As a result, recovery and reconstruction have become indispensable to all aspects of modern cities. With the earthquake almost 12 years in the past and recovery and reconstruction almost completed, it is time for us to look back on the process.

This issue (JDR Vol.2 No.5) features a roundup of post-earthquake recovery and reconstruction, including viewpoints on the challenges faced in the wake of massive damage and injury, destruction of over 400,000 damaged houses and infrastructure lifeline facilities such as water, electricity, and gas, and the collapse and rebuilding of local communities and the economy.

This issue follows recovery and reconstruction and provides information on processes that could be useful in the case of a large earthquake in the future.

: pp. 330-334
Lessons on Reconstruction Strategies from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
Abstract
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Yoshiteru Murosaki
: pp. 335-348
Problems in Housing Restoration After the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
Abstract
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Kenji Koshiyama
: pp. 349-358
Review and Recommendations for Lifeline Recovery and Reconstruction
Abstract
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Shiro Takada* and Hirofumi Ito**
: pp. 359-371
Machizukuri (Community Development) for Recovery Whose Leading Role Citizens Play
Abstract
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Ikuo Kobayashi
: pp. 372-380
Economic Problems During Recovery from the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
Abstract
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Shingo Nagamatsu

Regular Papers

: pp. 381-383
Reference List Related to Recovery of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
Abstract
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No.4

(Aug)

Special Issue on Fire Disasters

Special Issue on Fire Disasters

: p. 235
Targeting Fire Damage Relief
Yoshiteru Murosaki and Yuji Hasemi

The relationship between human beings and fire is older than legend, making fire the potential disaster closest to men. This makes the mitigation of fire damage an ongoing community concern. The nature of fire risk has been changing with time due to changes in urban structure, the societal environment, and energy consumption. These changes are related to technological progress such as the development of fireproof materials and firefighting techniques. Technological advances such as the development of new materials and huge space may trigger the emergence of the new fire risks. The terrorist-triggered World Trade Center conflagrations in New York and the accident-induced Windsor Building fire in Madrid in 2004 are high-rise examples of this new vulnerability. The subway line fire that broke out in Daegu, Republic of Korea, in 2003 is yet another case — this one subterranean. An example in new-material risks is the outbreak at solid-waste fuel facilities in Mie, Japan, in 2003. Automobile fuel batteries using hydrogen are yet another case of new risks. Ironically, technology developed to solve global environmental issues such as waste recycling are another example of new fire risks. Advancing hand in hand with these new risks are the age-old examples of housing fires in urban areas and structural blazes in forests and fields. Regional differences are a factor, especially urban fires in Japan’s densely populated wooden residential areas and wildfires in populated forests of Australia and Russia. Studies on fire prevention must provide solutions to mitigating such risks — both old and new. Ambitious research in this field is demonstrated in the papers reported in this special issue – articles that readers are about to find exciting, informative, and endlessly interesting!

: pp. 236-249
High-Rise Building Fires
Abstract
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Mamoru Kohno
: pp. 250-258
Survey of Literature on Escape from Underground Spaces
Abstract
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Atsuko Tanaka
: pp. 259-264
Accidents at Hazardous Installations in Japan
Abstract
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Takashi Tsuruda
: pp. 265-275
Recent Large-Scale Fires in Boreal and Tropical Forests
Abstract
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Hiroshi Hayasaka
: pp. 276-283
Risk of Fire Spread in Densely Built Environments – A Review Emphasizing Cities in Japan –
Abstract
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Keisuke Himoto
: pp. 284-291
Protecting Area of Traditional Wooden Construction from Fires Due to Earthquakes Using Local Water – Plan and Implementation of the Project on Environmental Water Supply System for Disaster Prevention –
Abstract
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Takeyuki Okubo
: pp. 292-297
Lessons from Japanese Experience with Fire Disasters in Public Buildings
Abstract
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Yuji Hasemi
: pp. 298-302
The Great Hanshin Earthquake and Fire
Abstract
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Yoshiteru Murosaki
: pp. 303-312
Experiment for Urban Great Fire
Abstract
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Suminao Murakami
: pp. 313-322
Chronology of Major Fire Disasters in Japan
Abstract
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No.3

(Jun)

Special Issue on Meteorological Disasters and Water Disasters in Urban Areas

Special Issue on Meteorological Disasters and Water Disasters in Urban Areas

: p. 133
Meteorological Disasters and Water Disasters in Urban Areas
Nobuo Shuto, Syunsuke Ikeda, Shinji Egashira

Immediately after World War II, economic and human losses due to water disasters were enormous in Japan. In the years of 1947 and 1953, for example, economic loss reach 10% of personal income, and the number of lives lost in the 1959 Isewan Typhoon exceeded 5,000. The Japanese government then implemented successive 5-year flood control plans that dramatically reduced such disasters. Economic loss by flooding now is on the order of 0.2% of personal income, and fewer than 100 lives are lost per year. The situation has begun changing in the last decade, however, ostensibly due to global warming and local climatic change such as the heat island phenomenon. The most typical change is the increase in heavy precipitation. Meteorologists sometimes call 1997 the turning point in climate change. The year 1998 was one of extreme heavy rain in Japan, with downpours exceeding 100 mm/h occurring 10 times and those of 50 mm/h almost 440 times. The record for 50 mm/h was broken in 2004, when some 470 such downpours occurred. Another marked change has been the increase in the fluctuation of precipitation, suggesting that drought may follow floods as a typical pattern portending major water disasters in the future. Lifestyle changes are another factor inducing water disaster. Increased urban populations inherently induce concentrated land use, paving of land surfaces, hazardous living conditions, etc. Frequent urban flooding and high underground use in Japan increases the danger for inundations. Wind disasters are also increasing. In September 2006, a tornado in Nobeoka, Kyushu, killed 3 people. In November 2006, another tornado struck Saroma, Hokkaido, killing 9 workers when a construction company’s meeting room was destroyed. Polluted material transported long distances by wind is a big problem in Asia. Smoke from forest fires and chemical pollutants increasingly endanger people outside of the countries of origin, spreading throughout the continent and to islands beyond. This issue reviews recent meteorological and hydrographic disasters in urban areas that threaten to become major problems in the 21st Century.

: pp. 134-142
Water Problems in Central Asia
Abstract
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Yoshinobu Kitamura, Osamu Kozan, Kengo Sunada, and Satoru Oishi
: pp. 143-152
Urban Flooding and Measures
Abstract
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Keiichi Toda
: pp. 153-162
Snow Damage in Contemporary Japan – Progress and Measures –
Abstract
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Natsuo Numano
: pp. 163-172
Recent Trends and Future Projections in Asian Air Pollution
Abstract
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Itsushi Uno, Toshimasa Ohara, Kazuyo Yamaji, and Jun-ichi Kurokawa
: pp. 173-189
Remediation of Contaminated Land
Abstract
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Masashi Kamon
: pp. 190-199
Examples of Recent Floods in Europe
Abstract
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Donald Knight and Paul Samuels
: pp. 200-227
Chronology of Major Meteorological Disasters
Abstract
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No.2

(Apr)

Special Issue on Biological Disasters

Special Issue on Biological Disasters

: p. 65
Biological Disasters
Hideaki Karaki

Looking back on history, we find that human beings have suffered from many biological disasters. Most of these have been infectious diseases such as cholera, plague, and small pox. Medical advances have brought vaccines and other specific cures enabling us to avoid damages from some of infectious diseases, yet many remain to be conquered. Highly pathogenic avian influenza, a disease in birds occurring repeatedly since ancient times, is now found worldwide. A World Health Organization (WHO) announced on February 15, 2007 that of 273 bird flu victims in 11 countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, 166 have died. Since bird flu does not spread easily to human beings, the number of victims is limited. Once it mutates to a new strain of virus, however, it may be transmitted so easily that it could cause a large number of deaths. Many such cases have actually occurred in the past. The worst historically recorded ones involved Spanish flu, which started in 1918 during World War I among French and German soldiers and spread globally, resulting in 20 million to 60 million deaths. Spanish flu – said to have been named after its effects on the Spanish royal family – is known to have caused the highest number of deaths of any single infection. More than 30 types of emerging infectious diseases have recently been discovered including Lassa virus, Ebola virus, and Helicobacter pylori which causes stomach ulcers and stomach cancer. Among them, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, has produced 30 million victims globally since its discovery in Los Angeles in 1981. Many infectious diseases are also reemerging after having once been decreased. These include malaria, plague, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and influenza, according to WHO. Rabies is another such case that alone kills 50,000 people a year worldwide. Even in Japan, where no rabies cases have originated since 1956, two victims contracted rabies and died within the last year after being bitten during trips to Southeast Asia. Besides microorganisms or viruses, abnormal protein named ‘prion’ was found to cause disease. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was such a case which set off a global panic when it spread from cattle to human beings, in whom it causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). We have experienced biological terrorisms, which are intentionally-caused biological disasters by human. For example, the terrorist sent anthrax bacillus through the mail in the United States in 2001 – an act killed 5 people. WHO has warned that smallpox virus, plague bacillus, and botulinum toxin could also be used in bioterrorism. This issue features cases of biological disasters that are sure to prove both interesting and informational to readers. We thank the authors and others who, through their dedication and hard work, have made this edition possible.

: pp. 66-70
Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases – Past, Present and Future
Abstract
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Yoshifumi Takeda
: pp. 71-80
AIDS: How Do We Overcome This Social or Biodisaster?
Abstract
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Tsutomu Murakami and Naoki Yamamoto
: pp. 81-89
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan
How was the “Blanket Testing Myth” Created?
Abstract
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Hideaki Karaki
: pp. 90-93
The Rabies Prevention and the Risk Management in Japan
Abstract
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Satoshi Inoue
: pp. 94-98
Avian Influenza Occurred in Japan
Abstract
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Koichi Otsuki
: pp. 99-109
Countermeasures Against Biological Terrorism (Bioterrorism)
Abstract
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Sumio Shinoda
: pp. 110-113
Chronology of Major Global Diseases
Abstract
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: pp. 115-126
Wild Birds and Avian Influenza
Abstract
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Editorial Office

No.1

(Feb)

Special Issue on Water Disasters

Special Issue on Water Disasters

: pp. 3-10
Flood Disaster in Japan
Abstract
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Kazuya Inoue
: pp. 11-18
Review of Research Related to Sediment Disaster Mitigation
Abstract
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Shinji Egashira
: pp. 19-28
A Century of Countermeasures Against Storm Surges and Tsunamis in Japan
Abstract
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Nobuo Shuto
: pp. 29-36
Beach Erosion Arising from Artificial Land Modification
Abstract
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Takaaki Uda
: pp. 37-43
Typhoon 0410 Causes Sediment Disaster in Tokushima Prefecture
Abstract
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Yoshifumi Satofuka and Takahisa Mizuyama
: pp. 44-49
Damage and Reconstruction at Okushiri Town Caused by the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Earthquake Tsunami
Abstract
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Nobuo Shuto
: pp. 50-53
Lessons Learned from Tokai Heavy Rainfall
Abstract
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Akihiro Tominaga

Vol.1 (2006)

No.3

(Dec)

Reviews on Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan (Part 3)
Special Issue on Overseas Earthquakes

Reviews on Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan (Part 3)

: pp. 341-356
Seismic Design Codes for Buildings in Japan
Abstract
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Hiroshi Kuramoto
: p. 357
A Short Note for Dr. Watabe’s Review in 1974
Abstract
Hiroshi Kuramoto
: pp. 358-377
Aseismic Structural Systems for Buildings
Abstract
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Makoto Watabe
: pp. 378-389
Seismic Analysis of Underground Structures
Abstract
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Kazuhiko Kawashima
: p. 390
Introduction to Dr. Okubo’s Paper Entitled “Aseismic Considerations of Transportation Systems”
Abstract
Kazuhiko Kawashima
: pp. 391-406
Aseismic Considerations of Transportation Systems
Abstract
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Tadayoshi Okubo
: pp. 407-414
Earthquake Observation and Strong Motion Seismology in Japan from 1975 to 2005
Abstract
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Kazuki Koketsu and Hiroe Miyake
: p. 415
Introduction to Professor Usami’s Review in 1974
Abstract
Kazuki Koketsu
: pp. 416-433
Earthquake Studies and the Earthquake Prediction System in Japan
Abstract
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Tatsuo Usami

Special Issue on Overseas Earthquakes

: pp. 435-443
Damage to Civil Engineering Structures by Oct. 8, 2005 Kashmir Earthquake and Recommendations for Recovery and Reconstruction
Abstract
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Ömer Aydan and Masanori Hamada
: pp. 444-448
Rebuilding Brick Masonry Housing Following the Mid-Java Earthquake Disaster of May 27, 2006
Abstract
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Masasuke Takashima and Satoshi Tanaka
: pp. 449-451
Book Review of “On Strong Motion Seismology” (in Japanese) written and edited by Hiroaki Yamanaka, published by University of Tokyo Press
Abstract
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Editorial Office
: pp. 452-487
Chronology of Earthquakes
Abstract
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No.2

(Oct)

Reviews on Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan (Part 2)
Reports on Transportation Disasters

Reviews on Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan (Part 2)

: pp. 177-188
Earthquake Damage to Industrial Facilities and Development of Seismic and Vibration Control Technology – Based on Experience from the 1995 Kobe (Hanshin-Awaji) Earthquake –
Abstract
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Kohei Suzuki
: p. 189
A Short Note for Dr. Shibata’s Review in 1975
Abstract
Kohei Suzuki
: pp. 190-200
Anti-Earthquake Design of Industrial Facilities
Abstract
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Heki Shibata
: pp. 201-209
Recent Seismic Microzoning Maps in Japan
Abstract
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Saburoh Midorikawa
: p. 210
A Short Note for Dr. Kobayashi’s Review in 1974
Abstract
Saburoh Midorikawa
: pp. 211-225
Seismic Microzoning for Urban Planning
Abstract
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Hiroyoshi Kobayashi
: pp. 226-243
Recent Developments in Liquefaction Research Learned from Earthquake Damage
Abstract
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Takaji Kokusho
: p. 244
A Short Note for Dr. Ishihara’s Review in 1974
Abstract
Takaji Kokusho
: pp. 245-261
Liquefaction of Subsurface Soils During Earthquakes
Abstract
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Kenji Ishihara
: pp. 262-271
Seismic Design of Bridges After 1995 Kobe Earthquake
Abstract
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Kazuhiko Kawashima
: pp. 272-273
Introduction to Dr. Iwasaki’s Paper Entitled “Response Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures Subjected to Earthquake Motions”
Abstract
Kazuhiko Kawashima
: pp. 274-295
Response Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures Subjected to Earthquake Motions
Abstract
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Toshio Iwasaki

Reports on Transportation Disasters

: pp. 297-312
Fukuchiyama Line Train Derailment
Abstract
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Prepared by Editorial Office
: pp. 313-319
Private Company’s Admirable Assistance in Derailment Attracts Nationwide Attention
Abstract
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Prepared by Editorial Office
: pp. 320-324
Teito Rapid Transit Authority’s Hibiya Line Derailment
Abstract
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Prepared by Editorial Office

Regular Papers

: pp. 325-333
Floods – Are We Prepared?
Abstract
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Donald Knight, Shuyou Cao, Huasheng Liao, Paul Samuels, Nigel Wright, Xingnian Liu, and Akihiro Tominaga

No.1

(Aug)

Congratulatory Message
Reviews on Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan (Part 1)
Special Issue on Indian Ocean Tsunami

Congratulatory Message

: p. 3
Message from Editors-in-Chief
Suminao Murakami and Katsuki Takiguchi
: p. 4
Message to the “Journal of Disaster Research”
Christopher Arnold
: p. 5
In Celebration of the New “Journal of Disaster Research”
Joseph Penzien
: pp. 6-7
Thinking of Disasters
Minoru Matsuo
: pp. 8-10
Reviews on “Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan”
Katsuki Takiguchi

It seems that when human beings attain one thing, it is at the simultaneous loss of something else. Upon developing recording devices, we lose our ability to memorize. Upon creating convenient computers, we lose our ability to calculate. What, then, do progress and development really mean? In considering this, time spans become especially important.

How are we to properly understand the progress and changes that have occurred in the last 3 decades in light of disaster prevention and reduction? Advances in communication technologies and developments in transportation system seem somehow to have accelerated the speed at which we live and at which our lives pass. How are we to balance the changes between progress in disaster prevention/reduction and the increasing potential risks disasters can bring due to our increasingly complex society? It seems certain that one thing has not advanced at all – the human capacity for foresight.

Let us consider the span of 3 decades from another perspective: Henry Petroski, in his Design Paradigms – Case Histories of Error and Judgment in Engineering – (Cambridge University Press, 1994), introduces the theory that every 30 years, a bridge falls – within the span of 30 years, succession in wisdom dies out.

Articles published more than 30 years ago give us a unique opportunity to assess their foresight, especially those written by persons in leadership positions at the time.

In the 3 years from 1973 to 1975, the journal Technocrat, published by Fuji Technology Press Ltd., presented 9 review articles on earthquake disaster prevention. They were all written by leaders in the field. An editorial reviewing urban disaster prevention in Japan was also published in Toshi bousai keikakuron (Urban Disaster Prevention Planning) (Dobunshoin) in 1986 – roughly a decade later.

These 10 articles will be republished in Vol. 1 Nos. 1-3 in this journal, together with new articles reviewing progress and development afterward. This unique series will consist of 18 articles as shown in the following list. Don’t miss it!

Katsuki Takiguchi

Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology

Reviews on Progresses of Earthquake Engineering in Japan (Part 1)

: pp. 11-24
Earthquake Disaster Mitigation and Earthquake Engineering in Japan – A Review with a Special Emphasis on the Kobe Earthquake and its Impact
Abstract
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Tsuneo Katayama
: p. 25
A Short Note for Dr. Omote’s Review in 1973
Abstract
Tsuneo Katayama
: pp. 26-45
Earthquake Disasters and Earthquake Engineering in Japan
Abstract
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Syun'itiro Omote
: pp. 46-71
Development of Urban Disaster Prevention Systems in Japan – from the Mid-1980s
Abstract
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Itsuki Nakabayashi
: p. 72
A Short Note for Dr. Murakami’s Review in 1986
Abstract
Itsuki Nakabayashi
: pp. 73-94
Trends in Disaster Management Measures in Post World War II in Japan
Abstract
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Suminao Murakami
: pp. 95-102
Urban Renewal for Earthquake-Proof Systems
Abstract
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Shunichi Sato

Special Issue on Indian Ocean Tsunami

: pp. 103-115
Damage and Height Distribution of Sumatra Earthquake-Tsunami of December 26, 2004, in Banda Aceh City and its Environs
Abstract
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Yoshinobu Tsuji, Yuichiro Tanioka, Hideo Matsutomi, Yuichi Nishimura, Takanobu Kamataki, Yoshikane Murakami, Tsutomu Sakakiyama, Andrew Moore, Guy Gelfenbaum, Sindhu Nugroho, Budi Waluyo, Inyoman Sukanta, Rahmat Triyono, and Yuichi Namegaya
: pp. 116-122
Banda Aceh Overview – After One Year Tsunami
Abstract
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Ir. Muwardi Nurdin
: pp. 123-130
Field Survey of the Tsunami Caused by the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004 and the Restoration of Impacted Inland Water Bodies in Sri Lanka
Abstract
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Anil C. Wijeyewickrema, Shusaku Inoue, Priyantha Gunaratna, Manoj Madurapperuma, Hiroyuki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Miura, and Toru Sekiguchi
: pp. 131-135
Global Disaster: The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Abstract
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Fumihiko Imamura, Shunichi Koshimura, Kazuhisa Goto, Hideaki Yanagisawa, and Yoko Iwabuchi
: pp. 136-141
Excitation Process of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Determined from Seismic Fault Rupture
Abstract
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Hiroyuki Matsumoto, Hitoshi Mikada, and Masanori Suzuki
: pp. 142-147
Wave Dispersion Effect in the Indian Ocean Tsunami
Abstract
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Yoshinori Shigihara and Koji Fujima

Regular Papers

: pp. 148-156
Numerical Simulation of Tsunami Inundation in Urban Areas
Abstract
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Tetsuya Hiraishi and Tomohiro Yasuda
: pp. 157-168
Study on Oil Spread Caused by the 1964 Niigata Earthquake Tsunami
Abstract
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Yoko Iwabuchi , Shunichi Koshimura, and Fumihiko Imamura

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Last updated on Oct. 20, 2017