Sediment Induced Disasters in the World and 1999-Debris Flow Disasters in Venezuela
Takahisa Mizuyama* and Shinji Egashira**
*Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
**NEWJEC Inc., 2-3-20 Honjo-Higashi, Kita-ku, Osaka 531-0074, Japan
Many sediment related disasters have occurred in many areas of the world. The table of sediment related disasters from 1997 to 2006 is shown. It shows strong earthquakes and super hurricanes/typhoons cause large landslides and debris flows. Climate change may trigger larger disasters more frequently in the future. Stratovolcanoes are geologically weak and cause huge landslides and debris avalanches. Active volcanoes release lava flows and pyroclastic flows, which cause serious damages. As an example of a typical sediment disaster, a disaster which occurred in Venezuela, in 1999 is briefly reported. The disaster was caused by unusual heavy rainfall. Many people were killed by many debris flows and shallow landslides. The disaster shows information on hazards such as hazard maps and rainfall is necessary and control structures may reduce damages if they had existed. Proper land-use and hazard education are needed.
-  Japan Sabo Association, “Handbook on Sabo,” 2007.
-  D. J. Varnes, “Slope Movement Types and Processes,” Landslides, Analysis and Control, T.R.B., Spec. Rep., No.176, 1978.
-  Japan Society for Civil Engineers, Hydraulics Committee, “Survey and Research of Flood and Sediment Disasters in Venezuela – December in 1999 –,” 2001 (in Japanese).
-  “A report on 1999 Venezuela disaster,” JICA, 2000 (in Japanese).