Damage to Civil Engineering Structures with an Emphasis on Rock Slope Failures and Tunnel Damage Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake
Ö. Aydan, M. Hamada, J. Itoh, and K. Okubo
*1Department of Marine Civil Engineering, Tokai University, Shizuoka, Japan
*2Department of Civil Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
*3SAVEARTH, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
*4Naka-Nihon Expressway Company (NEXCO), Tokyo, Japan
The Great Wenchuan (Sichuan) Earthquake of 2008 occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, extensively damaging buildings and infrastructures, caused natural and cut slope failures, and over 85,000 people lost their lives. We present an overview of the damage to civil engineering structures, emphasizing slope failures and tunnel damage. Damage to civil engineering structures was due mainly to high strong ground motion and permanent ground deformation resulting from the earthquake fault’s diluted deformation front. After discussing damage to bridges and viaducts, we classify slope failures, landslides, and possible causative mechanisms. We then introduce slope-rehabilitation measures. And then damage to tunnels, which are generally resistant to earthquakes, are explained together with mitigation measures.
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