Earthquake Early Warning Technology Progress in Taiwan
Kuo-Liang Wen *1,2,3, Tzay-Chyn Shin*4, Yih-Min Wu*5, Nai-Chi Hsiao*4, and Bing-Ru Wu*1
*1National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, Taiwan
*2Institute of Geophysics, National Central University, Taiwan
*3National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taiwan
*4Central Weather Bureau, Taiwan
*5Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
The dense real-time earthquake monitoring network established in Taiwan is a strong base for the development of the earthquake early warning (EEW) system. In remarkable progress over the last decades, real-time earthquake warning messages are sent within 20 sec after an event using the regional EEW system with a virtual subnetwork approach. An onsite EEW approach using the first 3 sec of P waves has been developed and under online experimentation. Integrating regional and onsite systems may enable EEW messages to be issued within 10 sec after an event occurred in the near future. This study mainly discusses the methodology for determining the magnitude and ground motion of an event.
-  Y. Nakamura, “On the urgent earthquake detection and alarm system (UrEDAS),” Proc., the 9th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan, 1988.
-  Y. M. Wu and T. L Teng, “A Virtual subnetwork approach to earthquake early warning,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.92, No.5, pp. 2008-2018, 2002.
-  R. M. Allen and H. Kanamori, “The potential for earthquake early warning in Southern California,” Science, Vol.300, pp. 786-789, 2003.
-  S. Horiuchi, H. Negishi, K. Abe, A. Kamimura, and Y. Fujinawa, “An automatic processing system for broadcasting earthquake alarms,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.95, pp. 708-718, 2005.
-  J. Espinosa-Aranda, A. Jime’nez, G. Ibarrola, F. Alcantar, A. Aguilar, M. Inostroza, and S. Maldonado, “Mexico City seismic alert system,” Seismological Research Letters, Vol.66, pp. 42-53, 1995.
-  O. Kamigaichi, “JMA earthquake early warning,” Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 134-137, 2004.
-  Y. Nakamura, “UrEDAS, Urgent earthquake detection and alarm system, now and future,” Proc. of the 13th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 908, 2004.
-  M. Hoshiba, O. Kamigaichi, and M. Saito, “Earthquake early warning starts nationwide in Japan,” EOS, transactions of American Geophysical Union, Vol.89, No.8, pp. 73-74, doi:10.1029/ 2008EO80001, 2008.
-  G. Wurman, R. M. Allen, and P. Lombard, “Toward earthquake early warning in northern California,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.112, B08311, pp. 1-19, 2007.
-  Y. M. Wu and H. Kanamori, “Experiment on an onsite early warning method for the Taiwan early warning system,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.95, pp. 347-353, 2005.
-  Y. M. Wu, N. C. Hsiao, W. H. K. Lee, T. L. Teng, and T. C. Shin, “State of the art and progress in the earthquake early warning system in Taiwan,” in Earthquake Early Warning Systems, edited by P. Gasparini, G. Manfredi, J. Zschau, Springer, New York, 2007.
-  T. L. Teng, Y. M. Wu, T. C. Shin, Y. B. Tsai, and W. H. K. Lee, “One minute after: strong-motion map, effective epicenter, and effective magnitude,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.87, pp. 1209-1219, 1997.
-  Y. M. Wu, C. C. Chen, T. C. Shin, Y. B. Tsai, W. H. K. Lee, and T. L. Teng, “Taiwan rapid earthquake information release system,” Seismological Research Letters, Vol.68, pp. 931-943, 1997.
-  N. C. Hsiao, “The application of real-time strong-motion observations on the earthquake early warning in Taiwan,” Ph.D. thesis (in Chinese), Graduate Institute of Geophysics, National Central University, Taiwan, 2007.
-  N. C. Hsiao, Y. M. Wu, T. C. Shin, L. Zhao, and T. L. Teng, “Development of earthquake early warning system in Taiwan,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.36, L00B02, doi:10.1029/2008GL036596, 2009.
-  Y. M. Wu, T. C. Shin, and Y. B. Tsai, “Quick and reliable determination of magnitude for seismic early warning,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.88, pp. 1254-1259, 1998.
-  T. Odaka, K. Ashiya, S. Tsukada, S. Sato, K. Ohtake, and D. Nozaka, “A new method of quickly estimating epicentral distance and magnitude from a single seismic record,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.93, pp. 526-532, 2003.
-  H. Kanamori, “Real-time seismology and earthquake damage mitigation,” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Vol.33, pp. 195-214, doi:10.1146/annurev. earth.33.092203.122626, 2005.
-  Y. M. Wu and H. Kanamori, “Rapid assessment of damaging potential of earthquakes in Taiwan from the beginning of P waves,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.95, pp. 1181-1185, 2005.
-  Y. M. Wu, H. Kanamori, R. Allen, and E. Hauksson, “Determination of earthquake early warning parameters, τc and Pd for southern California,” Geophysical Journal Int., Vol.170, pp. 711-717, 2007.
-  Y. M. Wu and H. Kanamori, “Development of an earthquake early warning system using real-time strong motion signals,” Sensors, Vol.8, pp. 1-9, 2008.
-  Y. M. Wu and H. Kanamori, “Exploring the feasibility of on-site earthquake early warning using close-in records of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake,” Earth Planets Space, Vol.60, pp. 155-160, 2008.
-  J. T, Shieh, Y. M. Wu, and R. M. Allen, “A comparison of τc and τcmax for magnitude estimation in earthquake early warning,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.35, L20301, doi:10.1029/2008GL035611, 2008.
-  L. Malagnini, R. B. Herrmann, and M. D. Bona, “Ground-motion scaling in the Apennines (Italy),” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.90, pp. 1062-1081, 2000.
-  Y. M. Wu, T. C. Shin, and C. H. Chang, “Near real-time mapping of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity following a strong earthquake,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.91, pp. 1218-1228, 2001.
-  W. Y. Jean and C. H. Loh, “A Study on the classification of site effects and its application to the seismic hazard and microzonation,” 10th International Conference on Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume of Extended Abstracts, p. 82, 2001.
-  W. Y. Jean, “Seismic hazard analysis consider the characteristic earthquakes and site effects,” National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taiwan, NCREE-01-036, 2001 (in Chinese).
-  K. L. Wen, M. W. Huang, T. H. Wu, C. L. Chang, S. Y. Liu, M. C. Kuo, and Y. W. Chang, “Probabilities and shakemaps of the potential earthquakes in Taiwan,” Sixth Int. Conf. on Urban Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, 2009.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.