JDR Vol.4 No.5 pp. 291-297
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2009.p0291


Emerging and Reemerging Infection Threats to Society

Masayuki Saijo

Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
1-23-1 Toyama Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan

June 2, 2009
July 9, 2009
October 1, 2009
emerging infections, re-emerging infections, disasters, large-scale infections, bioterrorism
In societies where infectious disease outbreak potential is steadily rising, the heavy burden on society may adversely influence health status, social activities, and the economy. Influenza pandemics, for instance, threaten society internationally, while infectious outbreaks such as food-borne problems are usually limited to local or domestic levels. Risk factors in infectious outbreaks include destruction of the natural environment, increased international trade and travel, economic activity, lifestyle changes, medical practice, political instability including terrorist activity, and natural disasters. Recent emerging and reemerging infection did not originate naturally and spontaneously, but occurred through the above risk factors. Infectious outbreaks have increased in both size and frequency over those in the past. Risk factors for large-scale infectious emergence and reemergence threatening society should be scientifically analyzed and measures implemented in advance whenever possible.
Cite this article as:
M. Saijo, “Emerging and Reemerging Infection Threats to Society,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.4 No.5, pp. 291-297, 2009.
Data files:
  1. [1] R. J. Whitley, “Smallpox: a potential agent of bioterrorism,” Antiviral Research, Vol.57, pp.7-12, 2003.
  2. [2] B. W. Mahy, “An overview on the use of a viral pathogen as a bioterrorism agent: why smallpox?, ” Antiviral Res., Vol.57, pp. 1-5, 2003.
  3. [3] P. K. Dewan, A. M. Fry, K. Laserson, B. C. Tierney, C. P. Quinn, J. A. Hayslett, L. N. Broyles, A. Shane, K. L. Winthrop, I. Walks, L. Siegel, T. Hales, V. A. Semenova, S. Romero-Steiner, C. Elie, R. Khabbaz, A. S. Khan, R. A. Hajjeh, and A. Schuchat, “Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.8, pp. 1066-1072, 2002.
  4. [4] J. M. Maillard, M. Fischer, K. T. McKee, Jr., L. F. Turner, and J. S. Cline, “First case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, Florida, 2001: North Carolina investigation,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.8, pp. 1035-1038, 2002.
  5. [5] T. H. Holtz, J. Ackelsberg, J. L. Kool, R. Rosselli, A. Marfin, T. Matte, S. T. Beatrice, M. B. Heller, D. Hewett, L. C. Moskin, M. L. Bunning, and M. Layton, “Isolated case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, New York City, 2001,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.9, pp. 689-696, 2003.
  6. [6] R. G. Will, J. W. Ironside, M. Zeidler, S. N. Cousens, K. Estibeiro, A. Alperovitch, S. Poser, M. Pocchiari, A. Hofman, and P.G. Smith, “A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK,” Lancet, Vol.347, pp. 921-925, 1996.
  7. [7] K. J. Goh, C. T. Tan, N. K. Chew, P. S. Tan, A. Kamarulzaman, S. A. Sarji, K. T. Wong, B. J. Abdullah, K. B. Chua, and S. K. Lam, “Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.342, pp.1229-1235, 2000.
  8. [8] K. B. Chua, K. J. Goh, K. T. Wong, A. Kamarulzaman, P. S. Tan, T. G. Ksiazek, S. R. Zaki, G. Paul, S. K. Lam, and C. T. Tan, “Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia,” Lancet, Vol.354, pp. 1257-1259, 1999.
  9. [9] T. G. Ksiazek, D. Erdman, C. S. Goldsmith, S. R. Zaki, T. Peret, S. Emery, S. Tong, C. Urbani, J. A. Comer, W. Lim, P. E. Rollin, S. F. Dowell, A. E. Ling, C. D. Humphrey, W. J. Shieh, J. Guarner, C. D. Paddock, P. Rota, B. Fields, J. DeRisi, J. Y. Yang, N. Cox, J. M. Hughes, J. W. LeDuc, W. J. Bellini, and L. J. Anderson, “A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, pp. 1953-1966, 2003.
  10. [10] C. Drosten, S. Gunther, W. Preiser, S. van der Werf, H.R. Brodt, S. Becker, H. Rabenau, M. Panning, L. Kolesnikova, R. A. Fouchier, A. Berger, A. M. Burguiere, J. Cinatl, M. Eickmann, N. Escriou, K. Grywna, S. Kramme, J. C. Manuguerra, S. Muller, V. Rickerts, M. Sturmer, S. Vieth, H. D. Klenk, A. D. Osterhaus, H. Schmitz, and H. W. Doerr, “Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, pp. 1967-1976, 2003.
  11. [11] Anonymous, “Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans,” N. Engl. J. Med. 2009
  12. [12] F. Barre-Sinoussi, J. C. Chermann, F. Rey, M. T. Nugeyre, S. Chamaret, J. Gruest, C. Dauguet, C. Axler-Blin, F. Vezinet-Brun, C. Rouzioux, W. Rozenbaum, and L. Montagnier, “Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS),” Science, Vol.220, pp. 868-871, 1983.
  13. [13] D. Bateman, D. Hilton, S. Love, M. Zeidler, J. Beck, and J, Collinge, “Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 18-year-old in the UK,” Lancet, Vol.346, pp. 1155-1156, 1995.
  14. [14] T. C. Britton, S. al-Sarraj, C. Shaw, T. Campbell, and J, Collinge, “Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 16-year-old in the UK,” Lancet, Vol.346, p. 1155, 1995.
  15. [15] C. T. Tan and K. T. Wong, “Nipah encephalitis outbreak in Malaysia,” Ann Acad Med Singapore, Vol.32, pp. 112-117, 2003.
  16. [16] N. I. Paton, Y. S. Leo, S. R. Zaki, A. P. Auchus, K. E. Lee, A. E. Ling, S. K. Chew, B. Ang, P. E. Rollin, T. Umapathi, I. Sng, C. C. Lee, E. Lim, and T. G. Ksiazek, “Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore,” Lancet, Vol.354, pp. 1253-1256, 1999.
  17. [17] E. C. Claas, A. D. Osterhaus, R. van Beek, J. C. De Jong, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, D. A. Senne, S. Krauss, K. F. Shortridge, and R. G. Webster, “Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus,” Lancet, Vol.351, pp. 472-477, 1998.
  18. [18] K. Subbarao and M. W. Shaw, “Molecular aspects of avian influenza (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans,” Rev. Med. Virol., Vol.10, pp. 337-348, 2000.
  19. [19] P. Keim, K. L. Smith, C. Keys, H. Takahashi, T. Kurata, and A. Kaufmann, “Molecular investigation of the Aum Shinrikyo anthrax release in Kameido, Japan,” J. Clin. Microbiol., Vol.39, pp. 4566-4567, 2001.
  20. [20] T. Saito, T. Fujii, Y. Kanatani, M. Saijo, S. Morikawa, H. Yokote, T. Takeuchi, and N. Kuwabara, “Clinical and immunological response to attenuated tissue-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8,” JAMA, Vol.301, pp. 1025-1033, 2009.
  21. [21] M. Saijo, Y. Ami, Y. Suzaki, N. Nagata, N. Iwata, H. Hasegawa, M. Ogata, S. Fukushi, T. Mizutani, T. Sata, T. Kurata, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “LC16m8, a highly attenuated vaccinia virus vaccine lacking expression of the membrane protein B5R, protects monkeys from monkeypox,” J. Virol., Vol.80, pp. 5179-5188, 2006.
  22. [22] D, Nash, F, Mostashari, A, Fine, J, Miller, D, O’Leary, K, Murray, A, Huang, A, Rosenberg, A. Greenberg, M. Sherman, S. Wong, and M. Layton, “The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.344, pp. 1807-1814, 2001.
  23. [23] R. N. Charrel, de X. Lamballerie, and D. Raoult, “Chikungunya outbreaks - the globalization of vectorborne diseases,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.356, pp. 769-771, 2007.
  24. [24] G. Rezza, L. Nicoletti, R. Angelini, R. Romi, A. C. Finarelli, M. Panning, P. Cordioli, C. Fortuna, S. Boros, F. Magurano, G. Silvi, P. Angelini, M. Dottori, M. G. Ciufolini, G. C. Majori, and A Cassone, “Infection with Chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region,” Lancet, Vol.370, pp. 1840-1846, 2007.
  25. [25] K. D. Reed, J. W. Melski, M. B. Graham, R. L. Regnery, M. J. Sotir, M. V. Wegner, J. J. Kazmierczak, E. J. Stratman, Y. Li, J. A. Fairley, G. R. Swain, V. A. Olson, E. K. Sargent, S. C. Kehl, M. A. Frace, R. Kline, S. L. Foldy, J. P. Davis, and I. K. Damon, “The detection of monkeypox in humans in the Western Hemisphere,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.350, pp. 342-350, 2004.
  26. [26] F. Qadri, A. I. Khan, A. S. Faruque, Y. A. Begum, F. Chowdhury, G. B. Nair, M. A. Salam, D. A. Sack and A. M. Svennerholm, “Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae diarrhea, Bangladesh, 2004,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.11, pp. 1104-1107, 2005.
  27. [27] D. Sur, P. Dutta, G. B. Nair, and S. K. Bhattacharya, “Severe cholera outbreak following floods in a northern district of West Bengal,” Indian J. Med. Res., Vol.112, pp. 178-182, 2000.
  28. [28] H. Kondo, N. Seo, T. Yasuda, M. Hasizume, Y. Koido, N. Ninomiya, and Y. Yamamoto, “Post-flood-infectious diseases in Mozambique,” Prehosp. Disaster Med., Vol.17, pp. 126-133, 2002.
  29. [29] A. M. Vollaard, S. Ali, H. A. van Asten, S. Widjaja, L. G. Visser, C. Surjadi, and J. T. van Dissel, “Risk factors for typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia,” JAMA, Vol.291, pp. 2607-2615, 2004.
  30. [30] T. Katsumata, D. Hosea, E.B. Wasito, S. Kohno, K. Hara, P. Soeparto, and I. G. Ranuh, “Cryptosporidiosis in Indonesia: a hospital-based study and a community-based survey,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.59, pp. 628-632, 1998.
  31. [31] H. Y. Yang, P. Y. Hsu, M. J. Pan, M. S. Wu, C. H. Lee, C. C. Yu, C. C. Hung, and C. W. Yang, “Clinical distinction and evaluation of leptospirosis in Taiwan-a case-control study,” J. Nephrol., Vol.18, pp. 45-53, 2005.
  32. [32] S. Karande, M. Bhatt, A. Kelkar, M. Kulkarni, A. De, and A. Varaiya, “An observational study to detect leptospirosis in Mumbai,” India, 2000, Arch. Dis. Child., Vol.88, pp. 1070-1075, 2003.
  33. [33] M. Marin, H. Q. Nguyen, J. R. Langidrik, R. Edwards, K. Briand, M. J. Papania, J. F. Seward, and C. W. LeBaron, “Measles transmission and vaccine effectiveness during a large outbreak on a densely populated island: implications for vaccination policy,” Clin. Infect. Dis., Vol.42, pp. 315-319, 2006.
  34. [34] M. Gaspar, F. Leite, L. Brumana, B. Felix, and AA. Stella, “Epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in Angola, 1994-2000,” Epidemiol. Infect., Vol.127, pp. 421-424, 2001.
  35. [35] N. Campanella, “Infectious diseases and natural disasters: the effects of Hurricane Mitch over Villanueva municipal area, Nicaragua,” Public Health Rev., Vol.27, pp. 311-319, 1999.
  36. [36] A. R. Lifson, “Mosquitoes, models, and dengue,” Lancet, Vol.347, pp. 1201-1202, 1996.
  37. [37] R. Saenz, R. A. Bissell, and F. Paniagua, “Post-disaster malaria in Costa Rica,” Prehosp Disaster Med., Vol.10, pp. 154-160, 1995.
  38. [38] Anonymous, “Update: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a patient receiving a cadaveric dura mater graft,” MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., Vol.36, pp. 324-325, 1987.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024