JDR Vol.3 No.2 pp. 105-112
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2008.p0105


Global Warming and Vector-borne Infectious Diseases

Mutsuo Kobayashi, Osamu Komagata, and Naoko Nihei

Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases

December 4, 2007
December 10, 2007
April 1, 2008
global warming, vector-borne infectious disease, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Ixodes ricinus
Vector-borne diseases result from infections transmitted to humans by blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. Such cold-blooded animals are influenced by environmental change. A recent IPCC report clearly showed that the emission of greenhouse gases has already changed world climates. Heat waves in Europe, rises in global mean sea level, summer droughts and wild fires, more intense precipitation, and increasing numbers of large cyclones and hurricanes may be typical example of extreme climate phenomena related to global warming. High temperatures may increase survival among arthropods, depending on their vector, behavior, ecology, and valuable factors, and temperate zone warming may accelerate the spread of mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. The MIROK (K1) Model clearly shows a northern limit for Ae. albopictus, particularly in northern Honshu in 2035 and southern and middle Hokkaido Island in 2100 in Japan. The spread of the mosquito vector through global used-tire trading in recent decades to Africa, the Mideast, Europe, and North and South America caused an outbreak of Chikungunya fever in north Italy in 2007. Global warming, extreme climate change, changing physical distribution, and an increase in oversea travel are also expected to influence the epidemiology of vector-borne infectious diseases.
Cite this article as:
M. Kobayashi, O. Komagata, and N. Nihei, “Global Warming and Vector-borne Infectious Diseases,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.3 No.2, pp. 105-112, 2008.
Data files:
  1. [1] IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), “Climatic Change 2001: Synthesis Report,” Contribution of Working Group I, II and III to the Third Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001a.
  2. [2] IPCC, “Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis,” Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001c.
  3. [3] M. K. Van Aalst, “The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters,” Disasters, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 5-18, 2006.
  4. [4] IPCC, “Forth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007,”
  5. [5] M. Scholze, W. Knorr, N. W. Arnell, and I. C. Prentice, “A climatechange risk analysis for world ecosystems,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Vol.103, No. 35, pp. 13116-13120.
  6. [6] N. Komar, “West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America,” Adv. Virus Res. Vol.61, pp. 185-234, 2003.
  7. [7] W. K. Reissen, Y. Fang, and V.M.Martinez, “Effects of temperature on the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae),” J. Med. Entomol. Vol.43, No.2, pp. 309-317, 2006.
  8. [8] D. M. Watts, D. S. Burke, B. A. Harrison, R. E.Whitmire, and A. Nisalak, “Effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of Aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. Vol.36, No.1, pp. 143-152, 1987.
  9. [9] L. D. Kramer, J. L. Harady, and S. B. Presser, “Effect of temperature of extrinsic incubation on the vector competence of Culex tarsalis for western equine encephalomyelitis,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. Vol.32, No.5, pp. 1130-1139, 1983.
  10. [10] WHO, “Malaria, 1982-1997,” Week. Eep. Rec. Vol.74, pp. 265-270, 1999.
  11. [11] M. N. Bayoh and S. W. Lindsay, “Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae),” Bull. Entomol. Res. Vol.93, No.5, pp. 375-381, 2003.
  12. [12] C. J. Koenraadt, K. P. Paaijmans, P. Schneider, A. K. Githeko, and W. Takken, “Low larval vector survival explains unstable malaria in the western Kenya highlands,” Trop. Med. Int. Health Vol.11, No.8, pp. 1195-1205, 2006.
  13. [13] WHO, “Dengue haemorrhagic fever: Diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control 2nd edition,” p. 84, 1997.
  14. [14] H.-J. Teng, T.-J. Chen, S.-F. Tsai, C.-P. Lin, H.-Y. Chiou, M.-C. Lim, S.-Y. Yang, Y.-W. Lee, C.-C. Kang, H.-C. Hsu, and N.-Tai, “Chang Emergency vector control in a DENV-2 outbreak in 2002 in Pingtung city, Pingtung county,” Taiwan. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. Vol.60, pp. 271-279, 2007.
  15. [15] S. Hotta, “Dengue vector mosquitoes in Japan: The role of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the 1942-1944 dengue epidemics of Japanese main islands,” Med. Entomol. Zool. Vol.49, No.4, pp. 267-274, 1998 (in Japanese with English abstract).
  16. [16] P. V. Effler, L. Pang, P. Kitsutani, V. Vorndam, M. Nakata, T. Ayers, J. Elm, T. Tom, P. Reiter, J. G. Rigau-Perez, J. M. Hayes, K. Mills, M. Napier, G. G. Clark, and D. J. Gubler, “Hawaii Dengue Outbreak Investigation Team, Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. Vol.11, No.5, pp. 742-749, 2005.
  17. [17] T. Kurihara, “Review of dengue vector mosquitoes in Japan,” Med. Entomol. Zool. Vol.54, No.2, pp. 135-154, 2003.
  18. [18] W. J. La Casse and S. Yamaguchi, “Mosquito Fauna of Japan and Korea,” 207 Malaria Survey Detachment APO 25-6, Kyoto, Honshu, 1955.
  19. [19] T. Kurihara, M. Kobayashi, and T. Kosone, “The northward expansion of Aedes albopictus distribution in Japan,” Med. Entomol. Zool. Vol.48, No.1, pp. 73-77, 1997.
  20. [20] M. Kobayashi, N. Nihei, and T. Kurihara, “Analysis of northern distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera:Culicidae) in Japan by geographical information system,” J.Med. Entomol. Vol.39, No.1, pp. 4-11, 2002.
  21. [21] S. M. Hanson, “Field overwinter survivorship of Aedes albopictus eggs in Japan,” J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. Vol.11, pp. 354-357, 1995.
  22. [22] O. Komagata, N. Nihei, and M. Kobayashi, “Effect of global warming on the number of generation of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus in Japan,” Med. Entomol. Zool., 2008 (in preparation).
  23. [23] N. Nihei, O. Komagata, and M. Kobayashi, “Northern expansion of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus and analysis of environmental factor in Japan,” Med. Entomol. Zool, 2008 (in preparation).
  24. [24] P. Parola, de X. Lamballeri, J. Jourdan, C. Rovery, V. Vaillant, P. Minodier, P. Brouqui, A. Flahault, D. Raoult, and R. N. Charrel, “Novel chikungunya virus variant in travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands,” Emerg. Infect. Dis. Vol.12, No.10, pp. 1493-1499, 2006.
  25. [25] G. Pialouz, B. A. Gauzere, S. Jaureguiberry, and M. Strobel, “Chikungunya, an epidemic arbovirosis,” Lancet infect. Dis. Vol.7, No.5, pp. 319-327, 2007.
  26. [26] European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), “Mission report: Chikungunya in Italy,” p.25, 2007.
  27. [27] R. Romi, “History and updating on the spread of Aedes albopictus in Italy,” Parasitologia Vol.37, No.2-3, pp. 99-103, 1995.
  28. [28] J.-P. Chretien, A. Snyamba, S. A. Bedno, R. F. Breiman, R. Sang, K. Sergon, A.M. Powers, C. O. Onyango, J. Small, C. J. Tucher, and K. J. Linghicum, “Drought-associated Chikungunya emergence along coastal East Africa,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. Vol.76, No.3, pp. 405-407, 2007.
  29. [29] P. L. Epstein, “Chikungunya fever resurgence and global warming,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. Vol.76, No.3, pp. 403-404, 2007.
  30. [30] D. J. Gubler, P. Reiter, K. L. Ebi, W. Yap, R. Nasci, and J. A. Patz, “Climate variability and changes in the United States: Potential Impacts on vector-and rodent-borne diseases,” Environ. Health Persp. Vol.109, No.2, pp. 223-233, 2001.
  31. [31] P. Zeman and Benes Cestmir, “A tick-borne encephalitis ceiling in central Europe has moved upwards during the last 30 years: possible impact of global warming?,” Int. J. Med Microbiol. 293, Suppl. 37: pp. 48-54, 2004.
  32. [32] E. Lindgren, L. Talleklint, and T. Polfeldt, “Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus,” Environ. Health Persp. Vol.108, No.2, pp. 119-123, 2000.
  33. [33] R. S. Nasci and C. G. Moore, “Vector-borne disease surveillance and natural disasters,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.4, No.2, pp. 333-334, 1998.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 10, 2024