Arsenic Originating in Kusatsu Hot Springs, Gunma, Japan, and Arsenic Pollution Status of Kusatsu Rivers
Yoshikazu Kikawada*, Satoshi Kawai**, Kazuhiko Shimada***, and Takao Oi*
*Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan
**Kansai SE Center, Nihon Parkerizing Co., Ltd., 2145-1 Komizo, Nakashima, Kurashiki-shi, Okayama 710-0803, Japan
***Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
Kusatsu hot springs at the eastern foot of the Kusatsu-Shirane volcano is a famous spa area in Japan. Its hot springs are strongly acidic making local rivers acidic, requiring lime water neutralization. We determined the arsenic concentration in hot springs, rivers, and neutralization products, to calculate the mass balance of arsenic in river systems. Hot springs supply a total of 45 tons a year in arsenic to local rivers, which transport some 28 tons a year — most of which is accounted for by Bandaiko hot spring and the Yu River. After neutralization, these flow into the Shinaki Dam reservoir, which accumulates large amounts of suspended neutralization products. Mass balance calculation suggests that arsenic dissolved in river water is nearly completely coprecipitated with or adsorbed by neutralization products, so that Shinaki Dam reservoir accumulates some 25 tons of arsenic yearly.
-  T. Sriwana, M. J. van Bergen, S. Sumarti, J. C. M. de Hoog, B. J. H. van Os, R. Wahyuningsih, and M. A. C. Dam, “Volcanogenic pollution by acid water discharges along Ciwidey River, West Java (Indonesia),” J. Geochem. Explor., 62, pp. 161-182, 1998.
-  P. L. Smedley and D. G. Kinniburgh, “A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters,” Appl. Geochem., 17, pp. 517-568, 2002.
-  I. Iwasaki, “Kazan Kagaku (Chemical Volcanology),” Kodansha, 1970 (in Japanese).
-  H. Sato, D. Ishiyama, T. Mizuta, and K. Sera, “Characteristics of thermal water and chemical sediments around Ohbuki spring and Yukawa stream from Tamagawa hot spring, Akita prefecture,” NMCC (Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center) Annual Report, 12, pp. 205-211, 2004 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  Y. Kikawada, S. Kawai, and T. Oi, “Determination of arsenic and bromine in hot spring waters by neutron activation analysis,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 261, pp. 381-386, 2004.
-  Y. Kikawada, S. Kawai, and T. Oi, “Long-term changes in the concentration of dissolved arsenic and its present supply in the Kusatsu hot springs, Gunma, Japan,” Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry), 40, pp. 125-136, 2006 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  J. Ossaka, “Neutralization with lime of acidic Yukawa River water from Kusatsu-Shirane volcano,” Gypsum & Lime, 234, pp. 357-366, 1991 (in Japanese).
-  J. Ossaka, T. Ossaka, J. Hirabayashi, T. Oi, T. Ohba, K. Nogami, Y. Kikawada, and N. Hida, “Water quality changes of Kusatsu hot springs caused by the emergence of Bandaiko hot spring,” J. Balneol. Soc. Jpn., 47, pp. 166-178, 1998 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  Y. Kikawada, K. Koganei, T. Oi, and J. Ossaka, “Volcanic activity of Kusatsu-Shirane volcano and secular change in water quality of Kagusa hot spring water,” J. Balneol. Soc. Jpn., 50, pp. 34-42, 2000 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  J. Hirabayashi and S. Mizuhashi, “The discharge rate of volatiles from Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, Japan,” Reports of the 4th joint observation of Kusatsu-Shirane volcano, pp. 167-174, 2004 (in Japanese).
-  J. M. Bigham and D. K. Nordstrom, “Iron and Aluminum Hydroxysulfates from Acid Sulfate Waters,” Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, 40, pp. 351-403, 2000.
-  M. L. Pierce and C. B. Moore, “Adsorption of arsenite and arsenate on amorphous iron hydroxide,” Water Res., 16, pp. 1247-1253, 1982.
-  K. Fukushi, M. Sasaki, T. Sato, N. Yanase, H. Amano, and H. Ikeda, “A natural attenuation of arsenic in drainage from an abandoned arsenic mine dump,” Appl. Geochem., 18, pp. 1267-1278, 2003.
-  Y. Tomioka, N. Hiroyoshi, and M. Tsunekawa, “Recent topics on environmental contamination caused by minerals containing arsenic and its remediation,” Resources Processing, 52, pp. 145-150, 2005 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  G. A. Waychunas, B. A. Rea, C. C. Fuller, and A. Davis, “Surface chemistry of ferrihydrite: Part 1. EXAFS studies of the geometry of coprecipitated and adsorbed arsenate,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, pp. 2251-2269, 1993.
-  S. Dixit and J. G. Hering, “Comparison of arsenic(V) and arsenic (III) sorption onto iron oxide minerals: Implications for arsenic mobility,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, pp. 4182-4189, 2003.
-  K. Fukushi, T. Sato, and N. Yanase, “Solid-solution reaction in As(V) sorption by schwertmannite,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, pp. 3581-3586, 2003.
-  L. Carlson and U. Schwertmann, “Natural ferrihydrites in surface deposits from Finland and their association with silica,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 45, pp. 421-429, 1981.
-  H. Zhao and R. Stanforth, “Competitive adsorption of phosphate and arsenate on goethite,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, pp. 4735-4757, 2001.
-  Y. Gao and A. Mucci, “Individual and competitive adsorption of phosphate and arsenate on goethite in artificial seawater,” Chem. Geol., 199, pp. 91-109, 2003.