JDR Vol.6 No.5 pp. 486-497
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2011.p0486


Green Revolution: Pathways to Food Security in an Era of Climate Variability and Change?

Netra Chhetri* and Pashupati Chaudhary**,***

*School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes, Arizona State University, PO Box 874401, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA

**Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125, USA

***Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, Royal Enclave, Srirampura, Jakkur Post, Bangalore, 560024, India

May 3, 2011
September 3, 2011
October 1, 2011
food security, Green Revolution, climate change, science and technology policy
Critical technological breakthrough in agriculture and the policy surrounding it resulted in a series of successes in increasing the food productivity, especially in developing countries, and came to be known as Green Revolution. The systems of food production, however, to date, faces new challenges due to convergence of multiple factors, including the impending threat of changing climate. Our goal in this paper is to review and reflect upon the achievements of the Green Revolution, perceived as a superb achievement of science and technology policy in South Asia and elsewhere, and discuss how the program and the policy that came to be associated with it will respond to new challenges. We argue that in an era of rapidly changing climate and the uncertainties associated with it, the world food system is encountering a significant challenge leading us to question whether the Green Revolution celebrated as technically advanced and “modern” in the past is adequate to respond to the diverse array of challenges that will be encountered in the 21st century. For all its innovativeness and achievement, the ability of the Green Revolution to respond to emerging challenges is unlikely to follow a smooth trajectory with time. So responding to emerging challenges requires a new gestalt of concepts that demands different science and technology policy whereby farmers can produce more food and other agricultural commodities sustainably under conditions of declining per capita arable land, irrigation water, dwindling resource base and agricultural labor supply along with the stresses of climate change.
Cite this article as:
N. Chhetri and P. Chaudhary, “Green Revolution: Pathways to Food Security in an Era of Climate Variability and Change?,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.6 No.5, pp. 486-497, 2011.
Data files:
  1. [1] H. C. J. Godfray, J. R. Beddington, Ian. R. Crute, L. Haddad, D. Lawrence, J. F. Muir, J. Pretty, S. Robinson, S. M. Thomas, and C. Toulmin, “Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 billion people,” Science, Vol.327, pp. 812-818, 2010.
  2. [2] H. J. Dubin, and J. P. Brennan, “Combating stem and leaf rust of wheat: Historical perspective, impacts, and lessons learned.” IFPRI Discussion Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.
  3. [3] P. B. R. Hazell, “The Asian Green Revolution,” IFPRI Discussion Paper #911. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute, pp. 40, 2009.
  4. [4] G. S. Khush, “Green revolution: Preparing for the 21st century,” Genome, Vol.42, pp. 646-655, 1999.
  5. [5] G. S. Khush, “Green revolution: the way forward,” Nature Reviews (Genetics), Vol.2, pp. 815-822, 2001.
  6. [6] R. E. Evenson, and D. Gollin, “Crop Genetic Improvement in 2 Developing Countries: Overview and Summary,” In Evenson R.E. and D. Gollin, “Crop Variety Improvement and its Effect on Productivity: the Impact of International Agricultural Research,” Chapter 2, pp. 7-38, 2002.
  7. [7] R. E. Evenson and D. Gollin, “Assessing the impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000,” Science, Vol.330, pp. 758-762, 2003.
  8. [8] FAO, “The State of Food Insecurity in the World Economic crises –impacts and lessons learned. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2009.
  9. [9] M. S. Swaminathan, “Achieving food security in times of crisis,” New Biotechnology, Vol.27, No.5, pp. 453-460, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2010.08.002, 2010.
  10. [10] W. Lutz and S. K. C., “Dimensions of global population projections: What do we know about future population trends and structures?,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, Vol.365, pp. 2779-2791, 2010.
  11. [11] N. Borlaug and J. Carter, “Food for Thought,” Wall Street Journal, New York, N.Y., Oct 14:A10, 2005.
  12. [12] MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), “Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis,” Island Press, Washington. p. 155, 2005.
  13. [13] MDG, “The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Report 2005,” United Nations, New York, 2005.
  14. [14] S. J. Scherr and J. A.McNeely, “Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagriculture’ landscapes,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Vol.363, pp. 477-94, 2008.
  15. [15] J. von Braun, “Time to regulate volatile food markets,” The Financial Times, 9 August, 2010.
  16. [16] P. C. Abbott, C. Hurt, and W. E. Tyner, “What’s Driving Food Prices?,” Issue Report, Farm Foundation, July, 2008.
  17. [17] J. Pretty et al., “The top 100 questions of importance to the future of global agriculture,” International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability Vol.8, No.4, pp. 219-236,
    doi:10.3763/ijas.2010.0534, 2010.
  18. [18] Foresight, “The future of food and farming: challenges and choices for global sustainability,” Final Project Report (Government Office for Science, London), 2011.
  19. [19] W. E. Easterling, P. K. Aggarwal, P. Batima, K. M. Brander, L. Erda, S. M. Howden, A. Kirilenko, J. Morton, J. F. Soussana, J. Schmidhuber, and F. N. Tubiello, “Food, fibre and forest products,” In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, “Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” Cambridge, U.K., pp. 274-313, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  20. [20] IPCC, “Summary for Policymakers” In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Eds. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M.Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  21. [21] M. C. MacCracken, E. J. Barron, D. R. Easterling, B. S. Felzer, and T. R. Karl, “Climate change scenarios for the U.S. National Assessment,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol.84, No.12, pp. 1711-1723, 2003.
  22. [22] D. A. Stainforth, T. Aina, C. Christensen, M. Collins, D. J. Frame, J. A. Kettleborough, S. Knight, A. Martin, J. Murphy, C. Piani, D. Sexton, L. A. Smith, R. A. Spicer, A. J. Thorpe, and M. R. Allen, “Uncertainty in Predictions of the Climate Response to Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases,” Nature, Vol.433, No.7024, pp. 403-406, 2005.
  23. [23] L. O. Mearns, C. Rosenzweig, and R. Goldberg, “Mean and variance change in climate scenarios: Methods, agricultural applications, and measures of uncertainty,” Climatic Change, Vol.35, No.4, pp. 367-396, 1997.
  24. [24] N. Chhetri, W. E. Easterling, A. Terando, and L. Mearns, “Modeling pathdependence in agricultural adaptation to climate variability and change,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.100, No.4, pp. 894-907, 2010.
  25. [25] A. Agrawal, “The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptation to Climate Change,” Paper prepared for the “Social Dimensions of Climate Change, Social Development Department,” The World Bank, Washington DC, March 5-6, 2008.
  26. [26] S. M. Howden, J. F. Soussana, F. N. Tubiello, N. Chhetri, M. Dunlop, and H. Meinke, “Adapting agriculture to climate change,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol.104, pp. 19691-19696,
    doi:10.1073/pnas.0701890104, 2007.
  27. [27] G. Fischer, M. Shah, F. N. Tubiello, and H. van Velhuizen, “Socioeconomic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080,” Phil. Trans. Royal. Soc. B, Vol.360, pp. 2067-2073, doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1744, 2005.
  28. [28] M. Lal, “Implications of climate change in sustained agricultural productivity in South Asia,” Regional Environmental Change, Vol.11, pp. 79-94, DOI: 10.1007/s10113-010-0166-9, 2011.
  29. [29] FAO, “The state of food insecurity in the world 2005. Eradicating world hunger – key to achieving the millennium development goals,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2005.
  30. [30] World Bank, “World development report 2008: Agriculture for development,” Washington: World Bank, 2007.
  31. [31] Royal Society, “Reaping the Benefits: Science and the Sustainable Intensification of Global Agriculture,” RS Policy Document 11/09, The Royal Society, London, 2009.
  32. [32] National Research Council, “Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century, National Research Council Report,” The National Academies Press, Washington, DC., 2010.
  33. [33] P. A. Matson, W. J. Parton, A. G. Power, and M. J. Swift, “Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties,” Science, Vol.277, pp. 504-509, 1997.
  34. [34] S. S. Broca, “Food insecurity, poverty and agriculture: A concept paper,” ESA working paper
  35. [35] [FAO] No.02-15, 2002.
  36. [36] S. K. Sinha, “Global change scenario: current and future with reference to land cover changes and sustainable agriculture – south and south-east Asian context,” Curr Sci, Vol.72, No.11, pp. 846-854, 1997.
  37. [37] G. Conway, “The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for All in the Twenty-First Century,” Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing Associates, 1997.
  38. [38] B. Smit and J. Wandell, “Adaptation, Adaptive Capacity and Vulnerability,” Global Environmental Change, Vol.16, No.3, pp. 282-292, 2006.
  39. [39] K. Griffin, “The political economy of agrarian change. An essay on the Green Revolution,” Harvard university Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1974.
  40. [40] M. Prahladachar, “Income distribution effects of the green revolution in India: A review of empirical evidence,” World Development, Vol.11, No.11, pp. 927-944, 1983.
  41. [41] M. Lipton and R. Longhurst, “New Seeds and Poor People” London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
  42. [42] J. Thompson, E. Millstone, I. Scoones, A. Ely, F. Marshall, E. Shah, and S. Stagl, “Agri-food System Dynamics: pathways to sustainability in an era of uncertainty,” STEPS Working Paper 4, Brighton: STEPS Centre, 2007, steps agriculture.pdf [Accessed: April 15, 2011]
  43. [43] E. Holt-Gimenez, M. A. Altieri, and P. Rosset, “Ten Reasons Why the Rockefeller and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations’ Alliance for Another Green Revolution Will Not Solve the Problems of Poverty and Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa,” FoodFirst Policy Brief, 12, October, San Francisco: FoodFirst/Institute for Food and Development Policy, 2006, [Accessed: 12 Apr. 2011]
  44. [44] V. Shiva, “Monocultures of the mind: perspectives on biodiversity and biotechnology,” Penang: Zed Books and Third World Network, 1993.
  45. [45] M. S. Swaminathan, “Wheat revolution: a dialogue,” Madras: Macmillan India Ltd., pp. xiii + p. 164, 1993.
  46. [46] P. C. Kesavan and M. S. Swaminathan, “From green revolution to evergreen revolution: pathways and terminologies,” Curr. Sci., Vol.91, pp. 145-146, 2006.
  47. [47] S. T. Jackson and R. J. Hobbs, “Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history,” Science, Vol.325, pp. 567-569, 2009.
  48. [48] L. Jishnu, A. Pallavi, and S. Bera, “Saving rice,” Down to Earth, 2010, [Accessed: April 25, 2011]
  49. [49] V. Shiva, “Soil not oil: Environmental Justice in an Age of Climate Crisis,” Cambridge: South End Press, 2008.
  50. [50] M. E. Mann, Z. Zhang, M. K. Hughes, R. S. Bradley, S. K. Miller, S. Rutherford, and F. Ni, “Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia,” PNAS, Vol.105, pp. 13252-13257, 2008.
  51. [51] N. E. Borlaug, “Continuing the Green Revolution,” The Wall Street Journal, New York, N.Y., July 18:15, 2007.
  52. [52] M. S. Swaminathan, “An evergreen revolution,” Crop. Sci., Vol.46, pp. 2293-2303, 2006.
  53. [53] O. N. Dhar and S. Nandargi, “Hydrometeorological aspects of floods in India,” Nat. Hazards, Vol.28, pp. 1-33, 2003.
  54. [54] A. J. Challinor, J. M. Slingo, T. R. Wheeler, P. Q. Craufurd, and D. I. F. Grimes, “Toward a combined seasonal weather and crop productivity forecasting system: determination of the working spatial scale,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol.42, pp. 175-192, 2003.
  55. [55] Planning Commission, “Report of the Working Group on Agriculture Statistics for the formulation of Tenth Five Year Plan,” TFYP Working Group Series. No.13/2001. Government of India, New Delhi, 2001.
  56. [56] M. Ashfaq, Y. Shi,W.-w. Tung, R. J. Trapp, X. Gao, J. S. Pal, and N. S. Diffenbaugh, “Suppression of south Asian summer monsoon precipitation in the 21st century,” Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol.36, L01704,
    doi:10.1029/2008GL036500, 2009.
  57. [57] D. I. Jarvis and T. Hodgkin (Eds.), “Strengthening the scientific basis of in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity on-farm. Options for data collecting and analysis,” In Proceedings of a workshop to develop tools and procedures for in situ conservation on-farm 25-29 August 1997, Rome, Italy, p. 104, 1998.
  58. [58] R. Chambers, “Complexity, Diversity and Competence: Toward Sustainable Livelihood from Farming Systems in the 21st Century,” Journal of the Asian Farming Systems Association Vol.1, No.1, pp. 79-89, 1991.
  59. [59] S. Jasanoff, “Designs on Nature: Science and Governance in Europe and the United States,” Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  60. [60] N. B. Chhetri and N. Chhetri, “Sustainability science: transition towards production of knowledge systems for sustainable development.” Encyclopedia Geographic, SAGE publication, 2010.
  61. [61] I. Scoones, M. Leach, A. Smith, S. Stagl, A. Stirling, and J. Thompson, “Dynamic Systems and the Challenge of Sustainability,” STEPS Working Paper 1, Brighton: STEPS Centre, 2007, steps dynamics.pdf [Accessed: April 15, 2011]
  62. [62] A. Subedi, P. Chaudhary, B. K. Baniya, R. B. Rana, R. K. Tiwari, D. K. Rijal, B. R. Sthapit, and D. I. Jarvis, “Who Maintains Crop Genetic Diversity and How?: Implications for On-farm Conservation and Utilization,” Culture and Agriculture, Vol.25, No.2, pp. 41-50, 2003.
  63. [63] B. R. Sthapit, P. K. Shrestha, and M. P. Upadhyay (Eds.), “Good practices: On-farm management of agricultural biodiversity in Nepal,” NARC, LI-BIRD, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and IDRC, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2006.
  64. [64] D. I. Jarvis, A. H. D. Brown, P. H. Cuong, et al., “A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities,” PNAS, Vol.105, pp. 5326-5331, 2008.
  65. [65] J. R. Harlan, “Crops and Man,” First Edition. American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 1975.
  66. [66] S. B. Brush, “A farmer-based approach to conserving crop germplasm,” Economic Botany, Vol.45, pp. 153-165, 1991.
  67. [67] M. Alteiri, “Pest management strategies for peasants. A farming system approach,” Crop Protection, Vol.3, pp. 87-94, 1984.
  68. [68] D. K. Letourneau, I. Armbrecht, B. S. Rivera, et al., “Does Plant Diversity Benefit Agroecosystems? A Synthetic Review,” Ecological Applications, Vol.21, No.1, pp. 9-21, 2011.
  69. [69] T. T. Chang, “Principle of genetic conservation,” IOWA State Journal of Research, Vol.59, pp. 325-348, 1985.
  70. [70] IAASTD, “Agriculture at a crossroads,” International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, Washington DC: IAASTD, 2008.
  71. [71] FAO “The state of food and agriculture,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1996.
  72. [72] R. C. Johnson, “Gene Banks Pay Big Dividends to Agriculture, the Environment, and Human Welfare,” PLoS Biology, Vol.6, pp.1152-1155, 2008.
  73. [73] G. Wilkes, “Germplasm collections: their use, potential, social responsibility, and genetic vulnerability,” In I, D. R. Buxton, R. Shibles, R. A. Forsberg, B. L. Blad, K. H. Asay, G. M. Paulsen, and R. F. Wilson, “International Crop Science,” Crop Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 1993.
  74. [74] ICARDA, “Biodiversity: a key part of food security,” ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. p. 20, 1999.
  75. [75] J. J. Hardon, “Conservation and use of agro-biodiversity,” Biodivers. Lett., Vol.3, No.3, pp. 92-96, 1996.
  76. [76] K. Ammann, “Why farming with high tech methods should integrate elements of organic agriculture,” New Biotechnol. Vol.25, pp. 378-388, 2009.
  77. [77] M. M. Q. Mirza, R. A. Warrick, N. J. Erickson, and G. J. Kenny, “Are floods getting worse in the GBM Basins?” In: MMQ Mirza, and Q. K. Ahmad (Eds.), “Climate change and water resources in South Asia,” A. A. Balkema Publishers, Leiden, p. 322, 2005.
  78. [78] M. A. Kahlown, M. A. Tahir, and M. Ashraf, “Water quality issues and status in Pakistan,” Proceedings of seminar on strategies to address the present and future water quality issues,” Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources Islamabad, Publication No.123-2003, 2003.
  79. [79] S. R. Gupta and R. D. Deshpande, “Water for India in 2050: first order assessment of available options,” Curr. Sci., Vol.86, pp. 1216-1224, 2004.
  80. [80] D. Molden and C. de Fraiture, “Investing in water for food, ecosystems and livelihoods,” Comprehensive Assessment Blue Paper, CA discussion paper 1, International Water Management Institute: Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2004.
  81. [81] P. K. Kataki, P. Hobbs, and B. Adhikary, “The rice-wheat cropping system of South Asia: trends, constraints and productivity- A prologue” In: The rice-wheat cropping system of South Asia: trends, constraints, productivity and policy (Ed. P. K. Kataki), 2001.
  82. [82] D. Molden (Ed.), “Water for food, Water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture,” Earthscan/IWMI, 2007.
  83. [83] J. Rockström, M. Falkenmark, and M. Lannerstad, “Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.104, pp. 6253-6260, 2007.
  84. [84] H. Gitay, S. Brown, W. Easterling, and B. Jallow, “Ecosystems and their Goods and Services,” In J. McCarthy, Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, 235-342. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, 2001.
  85. [85] K. Ammann, “Integrated farming: why organic farmers should use transgenic crops,” New Biotechnol, Vol.25, pp. 101-107, 2008.
  86. [86] D. Tilman, J. Fargione, B. Wolff, B. D’Antonio, D. Dobson, R. Howarth, D. Schindler, D., W. H. Schlesinger, D. Simberloff, and D. Swackhamer, “Forecasting Agriculturally Driven Global Environmental Change,” Science, Vol.292, No.13, pp. 281-284, 2001.
  87. [87] D. B. Lobell, M. B. Burke, C. Tebaldi, M. Mastrandea, W. P. Falcon, and R. L. Naylor, “Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030,” Science, Vol.319, pp. 607-610, 2008.
  88. [88] U. C. Kothyari, and V. P. Singh, “Rainfall and temperature trends in India” Hydrological Processes, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 357-372, 1996.
  89. [89] N. Singh, and N. A. Sontakke, “On climatic fluctuations and environmental changes of the Indo-Gangetic plains, India,” Climatic Change, Vol.52, pp. 287-313, 2002.
  90. [90] R. Lal, J. M. Kimble, E. Levine, and B. A. Stewart, “Soils and Global Change,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995.
  91. [91] P. J. Ericksen, “Assessing the Vulnerability of Food Systems to Global Environmental Change: A Conceptual and Methodological Review,” GECAFS Working Paper, 3, Wallingford, UK: GECAFS International Project Office, NERC-Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2006.
  92. [92] W. N. Adger, S. Huq, K. Brown, D. Conway, and M. Hulme, “Adaptation to climate change in the developing world,” Progress in Development Studies, Vol.3, pp. 179-195, 2003.
  93. [93] T. Morton, “Ecology without nature: rethinking environmental aesthetics,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 262, 2007.
  94. [94] P. M. Blaikie and H. C. Brookfield, “Land Degradation and Society,” London: Methuen.
  95. [95] Lipton, Michael, 2004. Crop science, poverty and the family farm in a globalizing world. 4th International Crop Science Congress held in Brisbane, Australia from September 26 to October 1., p. 49, 1987.
  96. [96] F. Ellis, “Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000.
  97. [97] W. N. Adger, S. Agrawala, M. M. Q. Mirza, C. Conde, K. O’Brien, J. Pulhin, R. Pulwarty, B. Smit, and K. Takahashi. InM. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, C. E. Hanson, “Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability,” (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK), pp. 717-743, 2007.
  98. [98] R. Pielke, G. Prins, S. Rayner, and D. Sarewitz, “Climate change 2007: Lifting the taboo on adaptation,” Nature, Vol.445, pp. 597-598, 2007.
  99. [99] R. J. T. Klein, S. E. H. Erickson, L. O. Nass, A. Hammill, T. M. Tanner, C. Robledo, and K. L. O’Brien, “Portfolio screening to support the mainstreaming of adaptation to climatic change into development assistance,” Climatic Change, Vol.84, pp. 23-44, 2007.
  100. [100] N. S. Jodha, “Effectiveness of farmers’ adjustment to risk,” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.13, pp. A38-A48, 1978.
  101. [101] J. Diamond, “Collapse: how societies choose to fail or survive,” London: Penguin, 2005.
  102. [102] G. Conway and G. Toenniessen, “Feeding the World in the Twenty-First Century,” Nature, Vol.402, pp. 6761, Suppl: C55-58, 1999.
  103. [103] S. O. Funtowicz and J. R. Ravetz, “Science for the post-normal age,” Future, Vol.93, No.7, pp. 739-755, 1993.
  104. [104] D. Gauchan, M. Smale, and P. Chauhdary, “Market-based incentives for conserving diversity on farms: the case of rice landraces in Central Tarai, Nepal,” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Vol.52, pp. 293-303, 2005.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024