Use of a Phase-Oriented Management System Against an Outbreak of Infectious Gastroenteritis in an Evacuation Center After the Great East Japan Earthquake
Seisuke Okazawa*1, Hayato Yamauchi*2, Tomomi Ichikawa*1,*3,
Ryuji Hayashi*1, Koichiro Shinoda*1, Maiko Obi*1,
Takuro Arishima*4, Akinori Wada*5, and Kazuyuki Tobe*1
*1First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
*2Department of Psychiatric Medicine, The Incorporated Medical Institution Jinkeikai Saikihoyouin, 27-12 Higashi-machi, Saiki, Oita 876-0814, Japan
*3Division of Respirology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, 2-2-78 Nishinagae, Toyama 930-8550, Japan
*4Community Medical Support Unit, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan
*5Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
We report an outbreak of infectious gastroenteritis at an evacuation center for survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Infectious gastroenteritis is easily transmitted and its control is difficult in a poor sanitary environment. The objective of this study is to describe a comprehensive system for managing infectious gastroenteritis at an evacuation center. We applied a four-phase-oriented management system to deal with the epidemic. This system was made by modifying the “noro-phase” that we previously developed against norovirus-induced gastroenteritis. The subjects of this study were individuals with infectious gastroenteritis who were living at an emergency evacuation center following the 2011 temblor. An infant diagnosed with gastroenteritis was isolated with her family on day 18 after the earthquake. The next day, four other patients with gastroenteritis were isolated. In the course of the outbreak, a maximum of 12 patients per day were isolated. We applied the phaseoriented management system on day 20. The outbreak subsided by day 27. Early application of surveillance and a management system for infectious gastroenteritis should be introduced after a large-scale disaster. The efficacy of this system should be validated in future studies.
Ryuji Hayashi, Koichiro Shinoda, Maiko Obi,
Takuro Arishima, Akinori Wada, and Kazuyuki Tobe, “Use of a Phase-Oriented Management System Against an Outbreak of Infectious Gastroenteritis in an Evacuation Center After the Great East Japan Earthquake,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.8, No.3, pp. 519-525, 2013.
-  “Press Conference by Prime Minister Naoto Kan,” Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, Archived from the original on 1 April 2011,
http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/kan/statement/201104/01kaiken_e.html [accessed March 24, 2012]
-  S. Shibahara, “The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Devastating Tsunami,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med., Vol.223, pp. 305-307, 2011.
-  “Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures,” National Police Agency of Japan,
http://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo e.pdf [accessed March 24, 2012]
-  “Transition of the number of evacuees,” Cabinet Office of Japan,
http://www.cao.go.jp/shien/en/2count/annex12.pdf [accessed March 24, 2012]
-  Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “International notes Earthquake Disaster – luzon, philippines,” Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., Vol.39, pp. 573-577, 1990.
-  S. Karmakar, A. S. Rathore, S. M. Kadri, S. Dutt, S. Khara, and S. Lal, “Post-earthquake outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Kashmir (India): an epidemiological analysis,” Public Health, Vol.122, pp. 981-989, 2008.
-  K. Nomura, H. Murai, T. Nakahashi, S. Mashiba, Y. Watoh, and T. Takahashi, “Outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in elderly evacuees after the 2007 Noto Peninsula earthquake in Japan,” J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., Vol.56, pp. 361-363, 2008.
-  K. T. Chen,W. J. Chen, J.Malilay, and S. J. Twu, “The public health response to the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, 1999,” Public Health Rep, Vol.118, pp. 493-499, 2003.
-  I. K. Kouadio, S. Aljunid, T. Kamigaki, K. Hammad, and H. Oshitani, “Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures,” Expert Rev. Anti. Infect. Ther., Vol.10, pp. 95-104, 2012.
-  Agency JapanMeteorological,
http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/index.html [accessed March 30, 2012]
-  M. Hatta, S. Endo, K. Tokuda, H. Kunishima, K. Arai, and H. Yano, “Post-tsunami outbreaks of influenza in evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan,” Clin. Infect. Dis., Vol.54, pp. e5-e7, 2012.
-  H. Yamauchi, “The utility of the standardized and consecutive measure for prevention of influenza outbreak in an evacuation center,” The Japanese journal of Infection Control, Vol.20, pp. 553-559, 2011 (in Japanese).
-  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Updated norovirus outbreak management and disease prevention guidelines,” MMWR Recomm. Rep., Vol.60, pp. 1-18, 2011.
-  Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Healthcareassociated Infections (HAIs), “Norovirus in Healthcare Settings,”
http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/norovirus.html [accessed March 24, 2012].
-  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “General Information on Tsunami-Related Diseases and Health Concerns,”
http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/tsunamis/healthconcernsasp.asp [accessed March 24, 2012].
-  A. Wilder-Smith, “Tsunami in South Asia: what is the risk of postdisaster infectious disease outbreaks?,” Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore, Vol.34, pp. 625-631, 2005.
-  C. de Ville de Goyet, “Stop propagating disaster myths,” Lancet, Vol.356, pp. 762-764, 2000.
-  D. D. Blaney, E. R. Daly, K. B. Kirkland, J. E. Tongren, P. T. Kelso, and E. A. Talbot, “Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers as a risk factor for norovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities in northern New England: December 2006 to March 2007,” Am. J. Infect. Control, Vol.39, pp. 296-301, 2011.
-  H. Yamauchi, Y. Inomoto, M. Kohno, Y. Watanabe, M. Miyanishi, and T. Shigeki, “Nosocomial Infection Control against “Norovirus”-Induced Gastroenteritis by Developing and Utilizing the “Noro-Phase”,” Journal of the Japanese Society of Environmental Infection, Vol.22, pp. 247-252, 2007 (in Japanese).
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.