Field Assessment of Tam Pokhari Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Khumbu Region, Nepal
Rabindra Osti*, Shinji Egashira**, Katsuhito Miyake*,
and Tara Nidhi Bhattarai***
*International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management, Public Works Research Institute, Minamihara 1-6, Tsukuba 305-8516, Japan
**NEWJEC Inc., 2-3-20 Honjo-Higashi, Kita-ku, Osaka 531-0074, Japan
***Department of Geology, Tri-Chandra Campus, Tribhuvan University, Ghantaghar, Kathmandu, Nepal
The Tam Pokhari glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Mount Everest region of Nepal is described primarily based on field observations by a survey team studying GLOF transmission areas and flood impact along the Inkhu River. An estimated accumulation of 18 billion cubic meters of water was suddenly released down the Inkhu River when a Tam Pokhari glacial lake moraine dam was breached. Field data suggests that the downstream flow consisted of massive sediment erosion and deposition resulting from bed slope changes and flow width and that river channel morphology was dramatically changed by this GLOF. As a consequence, the characteristics of GLOF changed drastically in downstream areas, resulting in infrastructures damage. In addition, the GLOF created numerous debris fans now occupied by settlements, especially tourism-based industries.
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