Participatory Risk Communication Method for Risk Governance Using Disaster Risk Scenarios
Toshinari Nagasaka, Hiroaki Tsubokawa, Yuichiro Usuda,
Shingo Nagamatsu, Shinya Miura, and Saburo Ikeda
Disaster Prevention System Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan
The capability of resident-led responses to disasters has declined in recent years due to rapid changes in social and urban structures in Japan. In order to improve regional disaster prevention capabilities with regard to disaster risk, which includes a multitude of uncertainties induced by societal changes, it is necessary to reorganize conventional ways of disaster risk management from top-down to bottom-up principle of complementarity with residents as the base point. A multilayered disaster prevention system, corresponded to the diversity of local self-governing activities by residents in ordinary times, would improve regional capabilities for disaster prevention and also increase the likelihood that these capabilities could be expressed in the response at the time of a disaster. This is what we postulate in this paper as a new mode of ‘disaster risk governance’. The effectiveness of this postulation will be verified based on a case study of the disaster response by residents in the Kitajo district of Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture at the time of the Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake, which occurred on July 16, 2007. On that basis, we have developed a new disaster risk communication method in which residents and other stakeholders can ; i) develop an awareness of the current situation of the disaster risk governance structure and related problems, ii) organize a variety of district self-government networks in ordinary times, iii) build a multilayered disaster prevention system that makes use of those networks and other local resources for disaster prevention, and iv) link these efforts to specific disaster prevention activities. To confirm its effectiveness, we have applied this method to the residents-led workshops with voluntary disaster prevention organizations in Fujisawa City, Kanagawa Prefecture.
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