JDR Vol.10 No.6 pp. 1067-1080
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2015.p1067


The 1755 Lisbon Tsunami at Vila do Bispo Municipality, Portugal

Angela Santos* and Shunichi Koshimura**

*Centre for Geographical Studies, Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning, Universidade de Lisboa
Rua Branca Edmé{e}e Marques,1600-276 Lisboa, Portugal

**International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University
Aoba 6-6-03, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan

June 3, 2015
September 16, 2015
December 1, 2015
1755 Lisbon Tsunami, numerical model, field survey, tsunami hazard

The numerical model of the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami was conducted at Vila do Bispo municipality. The tsunami source area of this historical event is assumed to be on the Gorringe Bank. Numerical model results of historical data have been validated by a combined analysis of eyewitnesses’ accounts, field surveys, geological records and archeological findings (conducted by previous authors). The coastal area has remained a mostly natural landscape since the 18th century, with popular beaches that increase the population potentially exposed to a tsunami, especially one occurring in summer. For these reasons, we use local tsunami hazard assessment as a criterion varying between moderate and critical. Results also show that the 16 low ground areas we surveyed were inundated between 15 and 30 minutes after the earthquake. For this reason, persons should act quickly in future to evacuate areas immediately after an earthquake and to move to higher ground. Results also show that safe, swift evacuation may be difficult in 50% of these areas, endangering special populations such as tourists. Tsunami information boards should therefore be put on beaches and evacuation exercises and drills should be implemented and practiced regularly.

Cite this article as:
A. Santos and S. Koshimura, “The 1755 Lisbon Tsunami at Vila do Bispo Municipality, Portugal,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1067-1080, 2015.
Data files:
  1. [1]  A. Santos, “Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Portugal by the Worst Case Scenario: The November 1st, 1755 Lisbon Tsunami,” PhD Thesis, Tohoku University, p. 210, 2008.
  2. [2]  A. Santos, S. Koshimura, and F. Imamura, “The 1755 Lisbon Tsunami: Tsunami source determination and its validation,” Jour. Disaster Research., Vol.4, No.1, pp. 41-52, 2009.
  3. [3]  L. Sousa, “O terramoto do 1.° de Novembro de 1755 em Portugal e um estudo demografico,” Serviçcos Geol’ogicos, Vol.1, pp. 1-277, 1919.
  4. [4]  L. Sousa, “O terramoto do 1.° de Novembro de 1755 em Portugal Portugal e um estudo demografico,” Serviçcos Geol’ogicos, Vol.2, pp. 283-472, 1919.
  5. [5]  L. Sousa, “O terramoto do 1.° de Novembro de 1755 em Portugal e um estudo demografico,” Serviçcos Geol’ogicos, Vol.3, pp. 479-949, 1928.
  6. [6]  L. Sousa, “O terramoto do 1.° de Novembro de 1755 em Portugal e um estudo demografico,” Serviçcos Geol’ogicos, Vol.4, pp. 955-1013, 1932.
  7. [7]  F. Machado, “Contribuiçc ao para o estudo do terramoto de 1 de Novembro de 1755,” Revista da Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 2textordfeminine séerie, C, Vol.XIV – Fasc. 1, pp. 19-31, 1966.
  8. [8]  R. Grandin, J. F. Borges, M. Bezzeghoud, B. Caldeira, and F. Carrilho, “Simulations of strong ground motion in SW Iberia for the 1969 February 28 (Ms = 8.0) and the 1755 November 1 (Ms = 8.5) earthquakes – II. Strong ground motion simulations,” Geophys. J. Int., Vol.171, pp. 807-822, 2007.
  9. [9]  I. D. L. Foster, A. J. Albon, K. M. Barbell, J. L. Fletcher, T. C. Jardine, R. J.Mothers, M. A. Pritchard, and S. E. Turner, “High energy coastal sedimentary deposits; an evaluation of depositional processes in Southwest England,” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol.16, pp. 341-356, 1991.
  10. [10]  A. Dawson, I. D. L. Foster, S. Shi, D. E. Smith, and D. Long, “The identification of tsunami deposits in coastal sediment sequences,” Scie. Tsun. Haz., Vol.9, No.1, pp. 73-82, 1991.
  11. [11]  D. Banerjee, A. S. Murray, and I. D. L. Foster, “Scilly Isles, UK: optical dating of a possible tsunami deposit from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake,” Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol.20, pp. 715-718, 2001.
  12. [12]  J. Thomson and P. P. E. Weaver, “An AMS radiocarbon method to determine the emplacement time of recent deep-sea turbidites,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol.89, pp. 1-7, 1994.
  13. [13]  S. M. Lebreiro, I. N. McCave, and P. P. E. Weaver, “Late Quaternary Turbidite Emplacement on the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain (Iberian Margin),” Jour. Sed. Res, Vol.67, No.5, pp. 856-870, 1997.
  14. [14]  A. Santos and K. Koshimura, “The historical review of the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami,” Jour. Geodesy and Geomatics Eng, Vol.1, pp. 38-52, 2015.
  15. [15]  A. Santos and S. Koshimura, “A criterion for tsunami hazard assessment at the local scale,” Jour. Geodesy and Geomatics Eng, Vol.2, pp. 87-96, 2015.
  16. [16]  A. Santos and S. Koshimura, “Tsunami Hazards at Setubal Urban Area Considering the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami,” Proc. of the IX C GP, 2013. cgptextunderscore santos textunderscore koshimuratextunderscore 2013textunderscore hazard.pdf [accessed June 2, 2015]
  17. [17]  A. Santos, A. O. Tavares, and A. Emidio, “Comparative tsunami vulnerability assessment of an urban area: An analysis of Set’ubal city, Portugal,” Applied Geography, Vol.55, pp. 19-29, 2014. 2014.08.009.
  18. [18]  S. Kortekaas and A. Dawson, “Distinguishing tsunami and storm deposits: An example from Martinhal, SW Portugal,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol.200, pp. 208-221, 2007.
  19. [19]  M. Silva, R. Hindosn, and C. Andrade, “Bioerosion evidence of extreme marine flooding of Algarve region (Southern Portugal) associated with the tsunami of the AD 1755 Lisbon Earthquake: Taphonomic and (Paleo) ecological analysis,” II Reunion de Tafonomia y fossilizacion, pp. 371-378, 1996.
  20. [20]  A. Dawson, R. Hindson, C. Andrade, C. Freitas, R. Parish, and M. Bateman, “Tsunami sedimentation associated with the Lisbon earthquake of 1 November AD 1755: Boca do Rio, Algarve, Portugal,” The Holocene, Vol.5, No.2, pp. 209-215, 1995.
  21. [21]  R. A. Hindosn and C. Andrade, “Sedimentation and hydrodynamic processes associated with the tsunami generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake,” Quaternary Int., Vol.56, pp. 27-38, 1999.
  22. [22]  M. Baptista and J. Miranda, “Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis,” Nat. Haz. Earth Syst. Sci., Vol.9, pp. 9-25, 2009.
  23. [23]  J. Borrero “Field Survey of Northern Sumatra and Banda Aceh Indonesia after the Tsunami and Earthquake of 26 December 2004,” Seismo. Res. Letts., Vol.76, No.1, pp. 312-20, 2005.
  24. [24]  D. Dominey-Howes, L. Dengler, P. Dunbar, L. Kong, H. Fritz, F. Imamura, B. McAdoo, K. Satake, A. Yalciner, M. Yamamoto, E. Yulianto, S. Koshimura, J. Borrero, Int. Tsunami Survey Team (ITST), “Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide,” UNESCO-IOC, 2nd edition. Paris, 89p., 2012.
  25. [25]  F. Imamura, T. Arikawa, T. Tomita, T. Yasuda, and Y. Kawata, “Field Investigation on the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in the Southwestern Coast of Sri Lanka? Sumatra Tsunami on 26th December 2004,” Proc. of the Special Asia Tsunami Session at APAC, 93-105, 2005.
  26. [26]  A. Santos and M. Queir’os, “Public buildings safety: Addressing a pilot evacuation exercise,” Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications, Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp. 2009-2015, 2015, queirostextunderscore 2015.pdf [accessed June 2, 2015]
  27. [27]  M. Kobes, I. Helsloot, B. de Vries, J. G. Post, N. Oberijée, and K. Groenewegen, “Way finding during fire evacuation; an analysis of unannounced fire drills in a hotel at night,” Building and Environment, Vol.45, pp. 537-548, 2010.
  28. [28]  S. Koshimura, H. O. Mofjeld, F. I. Gonzáalez, and A. L. Moore, “Modeling the 1100 bp paleotsunami in Puget Sound, Washington,” Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol.29, No.20, pp. 1948, 2002.
  29. [29]  K. Satake, K. Wang, and B. F. Atwater, “Fault Slip and Seismic Moment of the 1700 Cascadia Earthquake Inferred from Japanese Tsunami Descriptions,” J. Geophys. Res., 108: B11, 2535, 17p., 2003.
  30. [30]  A. Oliveira, “Pesos e Medidas,” SERR AO, Joel, Dicionáario de Hist’oria de Portugal, 5, Porto, Livraria Figueirinhas, 67-72, 1985.
  31. [31]  J. B. Lopes, “Corografia ou Mem’oria Econ’omica, estat’istica e Topográafica do Reino do Algarve,” Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, 1841.
  32. [32]  A. Silva, “Roteiro maritimo da costa occidental e meridional de Portugal,” 102pp., 1889.
  33. [33]  MP- Marinha Portuguesa, Direccao Geral de Farois, “Farois de Portugal,” 111pp., Ciencia Viva, 2005.
  34. [34]  A. Santos, S. Mendes and J. Corte-Real, “Impacts of the Storm Hercules in Portugal,” Finisterra, XLIX, 98, 197-220, 2014, [accessed June 2, 2015]
  35. [35]  A. Santos, S. Mendes, and J. Corte-Real “Impacts of storm Hercules in southwestern Europe,” RIMMA – Risk Information Management, Risk Models, and Applications, Lecture Notes In Science, Vol.7, pp. 39-48, 2015.
  36. [36]  M. L. Santos, “Arqueologia Romana do Algarve,” 404p., Licence Degree Thesis, Lisbon University, 1971.
  37. [37]  F. Alves, “Em torno dos projectos da Boca do rio e do Ocean,” Setubal Arqeuologica, Vol.11-12, pp. 225-239, 1997.
  38. [38]  J. Bernades, “Boca do Rio, 130 ano depois,” Actas do 4 Encotnro Arqueologia do Algarve, pp. 341-354, 2003.
  39. [39]  A. R. Carrasco, Ó. Ferreira, A. Matias, and J. A. Dias, “Historic Monuments Threatened by Coastal Hazards at Boca do Rio, Algarve, Portugal,” Coastal Management, Vol.35, No.2, pp. 163-179, 2007.
  40. [40]  A. Johnston, “Seismic moment assessment of earthquakes in stable continental regions – III. New Madrid 1811-1812, Charleston 1886 and Lisbon 1755,” Geophys. J. Int., Vol.126, pp. 314-344, 1996.
  41. [41]  F. Imamura, “Review of tsunami simulation with a finite difference method,” Long Wave runup models, World Scientific, pp. 25-42, 1995.
  42. [42]  Y. Okada, “Surface Deformation due to Shear and Tensile Faults in a Half Space,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., Vol.75, No.4, pp. 1135-1154, 1985.
  43. [43]  S. Koshimura, T. Oie, H. Yanagisawa, and F. Imamura, “Developing fragility functions for tsunami damage estimation using numerical model and post-tsunami data from Banda Aceh, Indonesia,” Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol.51, No.3, pp. 243-273, 2009.
  44. [44]  A. Santos and S. Koshimura, “Inundation at Boca do Rio site due to the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami,” Tohoku Branch of the Japan Society of Civil Engineering, 2008.
  45. [45]  GEBCO Digital Atlas, General Bathymetric chart of the Oceans, British Oceanographic Data Centre, 2003.
  46. [46]  IH – Instituto Hidrografico, Int. bathymetric chart of the Central and Eastern Atlantic, sheet 1.01, 2001.
  47. [47]  IH – Instituto Hidrográfico, CSIOAN, 24P05, 24P06, 2009.
  48. [48]  IGeoE – Instituto Geográfico do Exército, CMP, 592, 601, 602, 609, 2005.
  49. [49]  IGeoE – Instituto Geográfico do Exército, CMP, 593, 2006.
  50. [50]  H. Tsushima and Y. Ohta, “Review on Near-Field Tsunami Forecasting from Offshore Tsunami Data and Onshore GNSS Data for Tsunami Early Warning,” Jour. Disaster Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 339-357, 2014.
  51. [51]  NHK Morioka, “On that day, on that time: an account from Tarou Kunimitsu san, age 52, at Yamada,” NHK Morioka online, broadcasted on 2011 Jul 6 (in Japanese).
  52. [52]  NHK Morioka, 2011b. “On that day, on that time: an account from Komukai Aso san, age 60, at Tarou,” NHK Morioka online, broadcasted on 2011 Jul 28 (in Japanese).
  53. [53]  NHK Morioka, “On that day, on that time: an account from Koishi Koetsu san, age 64, at Otsuchi,” NHK Morioka online, broadcasted on 2011 Jun 29 (in Japanese).
  54. [54]  NHK Morioka, “On that day, on that time: an account from Oikawa Masami san, age70, at Ofunato,” NHK Morioka online, broadcasted on 2011 Aug 8 (in Japanese).
  55. [55]  NHK Morioka, “On that day, on that time: an account from Tashiro Saiko san, Age71, at Kamaishi,” NHK Morioka online, broadcasted on 2011 Sep 5 (in Japanese).
  56. [56]  F. Imamura and K. Imai, “Characteristics and Mitigation Measures for Tsunamis Generated Along the Nankai trhough,” Jour. Disaster Research, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 127-134, 2012.
  57. [57]  A. Santos, A. O. Tavares, and M. Queirós, “Numerical modelling and evacuation strategies for tsunami awareness: lessons from the 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami,” Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 2015.
  58. [58]  A. Santos and M. Queirós, “Risk communication at university campus,” III Int. Congress, Guimar aes, Portugal, 5 pp, 2014. communicationtextunderscore university textunderscore campus [accessed June 2, 2015]
  59. [59]  A. Santos, A. Machado and P. Fernandes, “Tsunami pamplet for high school students,” 2013 (in Portuguese), https://sites. [accessed June 2, 2015]
  60. [60]  A. Santos, P. Fernandes, and L. Carvalho, “Tsunami booklet for elementary school students,” 2015 (in Portuguese), https://sites. [accessed June 2, 2015]
  61. [61]  A. Machado, “Perceçc ao do risco e implementaçc ao de uma cultura de segurançca: construindo comunidades educativas resilientes,” Master Thesis, Lisbon University, 114p., 2012.
  62. [62]  S. Koshimura, S. Hayashi, and H. Gokon, “Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Disaster,” Jour. Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 549-560, 2013.
  63. [63]  A. Santos and M. Queirós, “The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami: analyzing the evacuation of the survivors,” IGU Regional Conf., 2013, abstractstextunderscore survivors.pdf [accessed June 2, 2015]

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2019