JDR Vol.8 No.6 pp. 1090-1095
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2013.p1090


Wind Speed of Tornado to Make a Road Damage

Minoru Noda and Fumiaki Nagao

*The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506, Japan

July 12, 2013
October 16, 2013
December 1, 2013
tornado disaster, windborne debris, adhesion strength
Three tornadoes almost simultaneously hit the northern Kanto region north of Tokyo, Japan, on May 6, 2012. One peeled away and scattered asphalt 4 m wide, 30mlong and 50mmthick from roads in Tochigi prefecture. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, the F scale of this tornado was between F1 and F2. A few F1-F2 tornadoes occur in Japan each year, but the scale of road damage following an F1-F2 tornado has not been previously observed. To determine the wind speed behind this road damage, a new approach was adopted focusing on the speed of flying debris and the pressure drop. The resulting determined a wind speed of approximately 100 m/s.
Cite this article as:
M. Noda and F. Nagao, “Wind Speed of Tornado to Make a Road Damage,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.8 No.6, pp. 1090-1095, 2013.
Data files:
  1. [1] Japanese Meteorological Agency, 2012, [accessed October 16, 2013]
  2. [2] T. T. Fujita, “Proposed Characterization of Tornadoes and Hurricanes by Area and Intensity,” Satellite and Mesometeorology Research Project Paper, No.91, 1971.
  3. [3] J. MacDonald, K. Mehta, D. Burgess, J. Schaefer, M. Riley, and B. Smith, “A Recommendation for an Enhanced Fujita Scale (EFScale),” Wind Science and Engineering Center, Texas Tech University, 2004.
  4. [4] Japan Road Association, “Installation standards of Guard fence and Commentary,” Maruzen Co, Ltd, 2008 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] M. Noda and F. Nagao, “Simulation of 6DOF motion of 3D flying debris,” Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 2010.
  6. [6] M. Noda and F. Nagao, “Behavior of Plate-like flying debris,” Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Wind Engineering, 2011.
  7. [7] M. Tachikawa, “Trajectories of flat plates in uniform flow with application to wind-generated missiles,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol.14, pp. 443-453, 1983.
  8. [8] J. D. Holmes, C. J. Baker, and Y. Tamura, “Tachikawa number: A proposal,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol.94, pp. 41-47, 2006.
  9. [9] G. R. Sabareesh, M.Matsui, and Y. Tamura, “Characteristics of surface pressure on a building under a tornado-like flow at different swirl ratios,” Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 30-40, 2011.
  10. [10] OpenCFD Ltd (ESI Group), “OpenFOAM,” 2013, [accessed October 16, 2013]

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 23, 2024