Finite Element Modeling of Cyclic Out-of-Plane Response of Masonry Walls Retrofitted by Inserting Inclined Stainless Steel Bars
Kshitij C. Shrestha*, Takuya Nagae**,
and Yoshikazu Araki*
*Department of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
**Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 1501-21 Nishikameya, Mitsuta, Shijimi-cho, Miki, Hyogo 673-0515, Japan
This paper focuses on finite element (FE) modeling of the out-of-plane response of retrofitted masonry walls subjected to quasistatic cyclic loading. Retrofitting involves inserting inclined stainless steel bars on the plane perpendicular to the wall face, already practiced in several historical masonry structures in Japan. The FE model for masonry walls, in which continuum elements represent brick units, interface elements the brick unit/mortar interface, and truss elements reinforcing bars, is demonstrated in comparisons with experimental results. A simplified FE model we also propose represents reinforcing bars by an equivalent vertical bar to facilitate convergence and reduce the computational burden. A study evaluating numerical result sensitivity to modeling parameters demonstrates both modeling stability and retrofitting robustness.
-  C. Modena, F. Casarin, F. da Porto, and M. Munari, “L’Aquila 6th April 2009 Earthquake: Emergency and Post-emergency Activities on Cultural Heritage Buildings,” In: M. Garevski and A. Ansal (Eds.), Earthquake Engineering in Europe, New York, Springer, pp. 495-521, 2010.
-  M. Takashima and S. Tanaka, “Rebuilding Brick Masonry Housing Following the Mid-Java Earthquake Disaster of May 27, 2006,” J. of Disaster Research, 1-3, pp. 444-448, 2006.
-  F. V. Karantoni and M. N. Fardis, “Effectiveness of Seismic Strengthening Techniques for Masonry Buildings,” J. of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 118-4, pp. 1884-1902, 1992.
-  M. A. ElGawady, P. Lestuzzi, and M. Badoux, “A Review of Conventional Seismic Retrofitting Techniques for URM,” Proc. of 13th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference, Amsterdam, 2004.
-  D. Abrams, T. Smith, J. Lynch, and S. Franklin, “Effectiveness of Rehabilitation on Seismic Behavior of Masonry Piers,” J. of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 133-1, pp. 32-43, 2007.
-  M. R. Ehsani, H. Saadatmanesh, and J. I. Velazquez-Dimas, “Behavior of Retrofitted URM Walls Under Simulated Earthquake Loading,” J. of Composites for Construction, 3-3, pp. 134-142, 1999.
-  C. R.Willis, R. Seracino, andM. C. Griffith, “Out-of-Plane Strength of Brick Masonry Retrofitted with Horizontal NSM CFRP Strips,” Engineering Structures, 32-2, pp. 547-555, 2010.
-  N. Takiyama, T. Nagae, H. Maeda, M. Kitamura, N. Yoshida, and Y. Araki, “Cyclic out-of-plane flexural behavior of masonry walls rehabilitated by inserting steel pins,” Proc. of the 14th WCEE, Beijing, 2008.
-  P. B. Lourenco and J. G. Rots, “Multisurface interface model for analysis of masonry structures,” ASCE J. of Engineering Mechanics, 123-7, pp. 660-668, 1997.
-  DIANA, “DIANA User’s Manual Release 9.3,” TNO DIANA BV, Delft, 2008.
-  ASTM, “Annual Book of ASTM Standards,” Section Four, Construction, Volume 04.05, Chemical-Resistant Nonmetallic Materials; Vitrified Clay Pipe; Concrete Pipe; Fiber-Reinforced Cement Products; Mortars and Grouts; Masonry; Precast Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007.
-  RILEM, “RILEM Technical recommendations for the testing and use of construction materials,” Taylor & Francis, New York, 1994.
-  M. R. Button and R. L. Mayes, “Out-of-Plane Seismic Response of Reinforced Masonry Walls,” J. of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 118-9, pp. 2495-2513, 1992.
and Yoshikazu Araki, “Finite Element Modeling of Cyclic Out-of-Plane Response of Masonry Walls Retrofitted by Inserting Inclined Stainless Steel Bars,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.6, No.1, pp. 36-43, 2011
and Yoshikazu Araki, J. Disaster Res., Vol.6, No.1, pp. 36-43, 2011