Finite Element Modeling of Cyclic Out-of-Plane Response of Masonry Walls Retrofitted by Inserting Inclined Stainless Steel Bars
Kshitij C. Shrestha*, Takuya Nagae**,
and Yoshikazu Araki*
*Department of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
**Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 1501-21 Nishikameya, Mitsuta, Shijimi-cho, Miki, Hyogo 673-0515, Japan
This paper focuses on finite element (FE) modeling of the out-of-plane response of retrofitted masonry walls subjected to quasistatic cyclic loading. Retrofitting involves inserting inclined stainless steel bars on the plane perpendicular to the wall face, already practiced in several historical masonry structures in Japan. The FE model for masonry walls, in which continuum elements represent brick units, interface elements the brick unit/mortar interface, and truss elements reinforcing bars, is demonstrated in comparisons with experimental results. A simplified FE model we also propose represents reinforcing bars by an equivalent vertical bar to facilitate convergence and reduce the computational burden. A study evaluating numerical result sensitivity to modeling parameters demonstrates both modeling stability and retrofitting robustness.
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