Precursory Phenomena Possibly Related to the 2011 M9.0 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake
Toshiyasu Nagao*, Yoshiaki Orihara**, and Masashi Kamogawa**
*Earthquake Prediction Research Center (EPRC), Tokai University, Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0902, Japan
**Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8501, Japan
In this article, we review papers on precursors for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We discuss phenomena such as seismic, geodetic, electromagnetic, ionospheric, and macroscopic anomalies for which time scales range from a few decades to a few hours, from long-, mid- to short-term precursors. Of these, we treat ionospheric anomalies in the greatest detail. Through our review, we found that many “signals” preceded the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake.
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