Tsunami Safe Town Planning with Evacuation Simulation
Yoshiyuki Yoshida*1, Takeshi Kimura*2, Yoshikazu Minegishi*3,
and Tomonori Sano*4
*1YSD Laboratory, 1-32-3 Shimura, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 174-0056, Japan
*2A&A Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan
*3Takenaka Corporation, Koto-ku, Tokyo, Japan
*4School of Human Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama, Japan
Tsunami evacuation plans have been deliberately developed by local governments in coastal areas in Japan under guidance from the national government since before the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. These plans, however, do not mention the time required for all local residents to evacuate to evacuation areas. This paper reports a procedure to design an effective tsunami safe town planning using multi-agent simulator (MAS) which identify a degree of evacuation risk in objective area. A case study is applied to one of the worst hit town of tsunami, in which additional facilities such as evacuation areas, safe buildings, and evacuation routes are proposed as well.
and Tomonori Sano, “Tsunami Safe Town Planning with Evacuation Simulation,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.9, No.sp, pp. 719-729, 2014.
-  T. Kimura, T. Sano, K. Hayashida, N. Takeichi, Y. Minegishi, Y. Yoshida, and H. Watanabe, “Representation of Crowd in Multi-Agent Model – Development of pedestrian simulation system SimTread –,” J. Archit. Plann., AIJ, Vol.74, No.636, pp. 371-377, Feb., 2009.
-  T. Sano, Y. Yoshida et al., “Experimental study of crowd flow passing through simple shaped room and validation for an evacuation simulator,” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, Gaithersburg (USA), pp. 8-10, March, 2010.
-  N. Takeichi, A. Jou et al., “Fire safety design of night club, Japanese case study, Chapter 4 Evacuation plan by using evacuation simulator,” Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods, Lund (Sweden), June 16-18, 2010.
-  T. Sano, Y. Yoshida, et al., “Implications of Computer Simulation and Experimental Studies of Evacuation Behavior in the Simple-Shaped Room,” Proceedings of Interflam 2010 Fire Science & Engineering Conference, Nottingham (UK), July 5-7, 2010.
-  H. Kagami et al., “Application of Multi-Agent System into Evacuation Simulation from Tsunami, Evaluation of Layout of Evacuation Facilities in Kushiro City,” Summaries of technical papers of annual meeting / Architectural Institute of Japan, September 2006.
-  Y. Goto, M. Affan, Agussabti et al. “Tsunami Evacuation Simulation for Disaster Education and City Planning,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.7 No.1, pp. 92-101, 2012.
-  E. Mas, B. Adriano, and S. Koshimura, “An Integrated Simulation of Tsunami Hazard and Human Evacuation in La Punta, Peru,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8 No.2, pp. 285-295, 2013.
-  A. Sahal, F. Leone et al., “Complementary methods to plan pedestrian evacuation of the French Riviera’s beaches in case of tsunami threat: graph- and multi-agent-based modelling,” Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences, Vol.13, No.7, pp. 1735-1743, 2013.
-  M. L. L. Wijerathne, L. A. Melgar et al., “HPC enhanced large urban area evacuation simulations with vision based autonomously navigating multi agents,” International Conference on Computational Science, Vol.18, pp. 1515-1524, 2013.
-  G. Lämmel, M. Rieser et al., “ Emergency Preparedness in the case of a Tsunami – Evacuation Analysis and Traffic Optimization for the Indone upland Indonesian city of Padang,” International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, Feb. 27-29, 2008.
-  Y. Yoshida, M. Yoshikazu et al., “Verification of Multi-Agent Pedestrian Simulator, SimTread – by Comparing Flow Rate with Surveyed Value and Applying to Model Plans,” Summaries of Technical Papers of AnnualMeeting, Architectural Institute of Japan, pp. 315-958, September 2010.
-  A. Jou, Y. Minegishi, T. Sano et al., “Comparison between simulation and experiment,” Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting, Architectural Institute of Japan, August 2011.
-  K. Kimura, S. Ihara, “Observation of Crowd Flow in Buildings,” Journal of Architecture and Building Science, No.5, p. 54, March, 1937.
-  T. Uchida, “Width of Platform and it’s Stair,” Midterm Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, pp. 7-91, 1956.
-  S. J. Older, “Movement of Pedestrians on Footways in Shopping Streets,” Traffic Engineering & Control, Vol.10. No.4, August 1968.
-  J. J. Fruin, “Designing for Pedestrians, A Level of Service Concept,” Dissertation at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, 1970.
-  M. Mori and H. Tsukaguchi, “Pedestrian Behavior in Passage,” Journal of JSCE, Japan Society of Civil Engineers, No.268, December 1977.
-  A. Yoshioka, “Study Of The Traffic Engineering On Plan Design Of The Road Walk Space,” Thesis for a degree, Department of civil engineering, The University of Tokyo, 1979.
-  K. Togawa, “Study of Fire Escapes Based on the Observation of Multiple Currents,” Ministry of Construction Report, Tokyo Building Research Institute, No.14, pp. 1-29, February 1955.
-  M. Yamamoto, H. Yoshimura et al., “Considerations on Problems in Evacuation Estimation in terms of High-Density Crowd Flow,” pp. 1093-1094, Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting, Architectural Institute of Japan, pp. 957-958, August 2007.
-  S. Okazaki and S. Matsushita, “A study of Simulation Model For Pedestrian Movement In Fire Escape and Evaluation of Fire Safety Plans By It,” Journal of Archit. Plann., Environ. Engng, Architectural Institute of Japan, No.436, pp. 49-58, June 1992.
-  T. Shimada, H. Naoi et al., “An Experimental Study on the Escape Flow of Crowd Including Wheelchair Users,” J. Environ. Eng., AIJ, No.596, pp. 71-75, July 2003.
-  T. Sano, M. Imanishi et al., “Prospect to Flow Passing from Openings Observing of Crowd Experiment,” Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting, Architectural Institute of Japan, pp. 957-958, August 2007.
-  Mapion HP, Housing Map of Otsuchichou, Kamiheigun, Iwateken, Mapion Co., Ltd,
-  Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs, National Census of Population in Otsuchichou, 2011,
http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/List.do?bid=000001036149&cycode=0 [accessed July 1, 2012] 728 Journal of Disaster ResearchVol.9No.sp, 2014