Evaluation of Seismic Vulnerability of Buildings Based on Damage Survey Data from the 2007 Pisco, Peru Earthquake
Shizuko Matsuzaki*, Nelson Pulido**, Yoshihisa Maruyama*,
Miguel Estrada***, Carlos Zavala***, and Fumio Yamazaki*
*Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
**National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Ibaraki, Japan
***Japan-Peru Center for Earthquake Engineering Research and Disaster Mitigation, National University of Engineering, Lima, Peru
The seismic vulnerability of buildings located in Pisco, Peru, was studied using damage survey data and seismic ground motion simulation. Inventory and damage information for more than 10,000 buildings was registered in survey data compiled by CISMID at Peru’s National University of Engineering. The soil classes in the Pisco district were classified into three zones based on the predominant periods of microtremors at 85 sites, and damage ratios were calculated for each zone. Surface ground motions in each zone were estimated on the basis of base-rock motion simulation and shallow soil-column response analysis. Finally, fragility curves for adobe and brickmasonry buildings were derived in terms of PGA and PGV. The results were compared with fragility functions developed in other studies.
-  F. Yamazaki and C. Zavala, “SATREPS project on enhancement of earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation technology in Peru,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 224-234, 2013.
-  M. Blondet, J. Vargas, and N. Tarque, “Observed behaviour of earthen structures during the Pisco (Peru) earthquake of August 15, 2007,” Proc. of the 14th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, No.01-1031, 2008.
-  T. Narafu, H. Imai, S. Matsuzaki, K. Sakoda, F. Matsumura, Y. Ishiyama, and A. Tasaka, “Basic study for bridge between engineering and construction practice of non-engineered houses,” Proc. of the 14th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, S18-003, 2008.
-  A. S. Elnashai, H. J. Alva, O. Pineda, O. Kwon, Y. L. Moran, G. Huaco, and G. Pluta, “The Pisco-Chincha earthquake of August 15, 2007 seismological, geotechnical, and structural assessments,” MAE Center Report 08-01, Mid-America Earthquake Center, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, IL, 2008.
-  O. Murao and F. Yamazaki, “Development of fragility curves for buildings based on damage data due to the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake,” Proc. of the Asian-Pacific Symposium on Structural Reliability and Its Applications, pp. 259-269, 1999.
-  K. Jaiswal, D. Wald, and D. D’Ayala, “Developing empirical collapse fragility functions for global building types,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.27, No.3, pp. 775-795, 2011.
-  U. Hancilar, F. Taucer, and C. Corbane, “Empirical fragility functions based on remote sensing and field data after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.29, No.4, pp. 1275-1310, 2013.
-  Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Multi-hazard Loss Estimation Methodology Earthquake Model (HAZUS-MH MR3), DC, 2003.
-  N. Tarque, H. Crowley, R. Pinho, and H. Varumd, “Displacementbased fragility curves for seismic assessment of adobe buildings in Cusco, Peru,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.28, No.2, pp. 759-794, 2012.
-  M. A. Erberik, “Generation of fragility curves for Turkish masonry buildings considering in-plane failure modes,” Earthquake Engineering Structural Dynamics, Vol.37, pp. 387-405, 2008.
-  M. A. Erberik, “Seismic risk assessment of masonry buildings in Istanbul for effective risk mitigation,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 967-982, 2010.
-  National Institute of Statistic and Informatics (INEI), Census 2007, 2007.
-  A. Sladen, H. Tavera, H. Simons, J. P. Avouac, A. O. Konca, H. Perfettini, L. Audin, E. J. Fielding, F. Ortega, and R. Cavagnoud, “Source model of the 2007 Mw 8.0 Pisco, Peru earthquake: Implications for seismogenic behavior of subduction megathrusts,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.115, B02405, 2010.
-  N. Pulido, H. Tavera, Z. Aguilar, S. Nakai, and F. Yamazaki, “Strong motion simulation of the M8.0 August 15, 2007, Pisco earthquake; Effect of a multi-frequency rupture process,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 235-242, 2013.
-  C. Zavala, M. Estrada, L. Chang, L. Cardenas, J. Tayra, L. Conislla, and G. Guibovich, “Behavior of non-engineered houses during Pisco earthquake 15/8/2007,” Proc. of the 14th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, S18-031, 2008.
-  S.Matsuzaki, F. Yamazaki, M. Estrada, and C. Zavala, “Visual damage interpretation of buildings using QuickBird images following the 2007 Peru earthquake,” Proc. of the third Asia Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, ACEE-P-067, 2010.
-  U. S. Tejada and Buena tierra, “apuntes para el diseño y construcción con adobe,” CIDAP, pp. 169, 2010 (in Spanish).
-  Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation, Peru, National Building Code (Las Normas del Reglamento Nacional de Edificaciones), E.070 Brick Structure, E.080 Adobe Structure, 2012 (in Spanish).
-  European Macroseismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98), European Seismological Commission, G. Grünthal (editor), Luxembourg, 1998,
http://www.franceseisme.fr/EMS98_Original_english.pdf [accessed Jul. 28, 2014]
-  M. Astroza, O. Moroni, S. Brzev, and J. Tanner, “Seismic performance of engineered masonry buildings in the 2010 Maule earthquake,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.28, pp. S385-S406, 2012.
-  M. Matsuoka and M. Estrada, “Development of earthquake-induced building damage estimation model based on ALOS/PALSAR observing the 2007 Peru earthquake,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 346-355, 2013.
-  Y. Onishi and Y. Hayashi, “Fragility curves for wooden houses considering aged deterioration of the earthquake resistance,” Proc. of the 14th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, S12-028, 2008.
-  J. Johansson, P. Mayorca, T. Torres, and E. Leon, Reconnaissance team by Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering (JAEE) and University of Tokyo, “A reconnaissance report on the Pisco, Peru earthquake of August 15, 2007,” 2007,
http://www.jsce.or.jp/report/45/content.pdf [accessed Jul. 28, 2014].
-  Y. Nakamura, “A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface,” Railway Technical Research Institute, Quarterly Reports, Vol.30, Issue Number 1, pp. 25-33, 1989.
-  Y. Nakamura, “Clear identification of fundamental idea of Nakamura’s technique and its applications,” Proc. of the 12th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 2656, 2000.
-  D. F. Watson and G. M. Philip, “A refinement of Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation,” Geo-processing, Vol.2, pp. 315-327, 1985.
-  J. P. Bardet, K. Ichii, and C. H. Lin, “EERA; A computer program for Equivalent-linear Earthquake site Response Analyses of layered soil deposits,” Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southern California, CA, 2000.
-  J. I. Sun, R. Golesorkhi, and H. B. Seed, “Dynamic moduli and damping ratios for cohesive soils,” Report No. UCB/EERC-88/15, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, 42p., 1988.
-  B. Mansouri, M. Ghafory-Ashtiany, K. Amini-Hosseini, R. Nourjou, and M. Mousavie, “Building seismic loss model for Tehran,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.26, No.1, pp. 153-168, 2010.