JDR Vol.10 No.2 pp. 299-307
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2015.p0299


Current Relocation Practices Targeting Disaster Prone Communities in Developing Countries: Case Study San Francisco Libre, Nicaragua

Judith Cuadra*1, Janet Dilling*2, Ralph Brower*3, and Malaika Samples*4

*1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2250, USA

*2Homeland Security and Emergency Management Program, Florida State University, Florida, USA

*3Askew School of Public Administration, Florida State University, Florida, USA

*4College of Education, Florida State University, Florida, USA

October 24, 2014
January 28, 2015
April 1, 2015
low income housing, relocation projects, case study nicaragua, high risk settlements, disaster risk-reduction
Multiple studies suggest that disaster risk in developing countries is exacerbated by a combination of conditions such as a lack of affordable housing, hazardous location, human vulnerability, government mismanagement and unfavorable political agendas (Quarantelli, 2003; Jha et al., 2010, Viratkapan & Perera, 2006; Horwood & Phillips, 2007; Davidson et al., 2007; Cronin & Gunthrie, 2011; Satterthwaite, 2011). Although this is not a new issue, governments and urban planners continue to struggle to find solutions for safe, adequate and affordable housing for the urban poor. Urban projects and legislation often unintentionally aggravate the situation in these communities (Sanderson, 2000). The pressure to solve the “low-income settler problem” becomes even more poignant in the face of disasters and other occurrences resulting in multiple fatalities. A well-known approach to low-income communities in high-risk areas is to relocate them either before or after a disaster event. According to Jha et al. (2010) relocation remains one of the most common project endeavors in post-disaster recovery. In San Francisco Libre, a community near Lake Managua in Nicaragua, for example, the local government has undertaken a massive relocation project since 2011 floods that left several coastal families homeless. In this study, we describe the current conditions and challenges for relocated families and discuss efforts by local government officials to provide much needed services on reduced budgets. This research benefits from field observations and interviews with government officials and families from affected communities. Horwood and Phillips (2007) observed that in developing countries such as Nicaragua, relocation projects fail due to the rigid inadequate design of relocation housing and a lack appropriate land and services. Knowledge on relocation practices and outcomes could better inform current practices and improve project development to where it actually provides for low-income families in developing countries.
Cite this article as:
J. Cuadra, J. Dilling, R. Brower, and M. Samples, “Current Relocation Practices Targeting Disaster Prone Communities in Developing Countries: Case Study San Francisco Libre, Nicaragua,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10 No.2, pp. 299-307, 2015.
Data files:
  1. [1] J. Abbott, “A method-based planning framework for informal settlement upgrading,” Habitat International, Vol.26, No.3, pp. 317-333, 2002.
  2. [2] F. Al-Nammari, “Participatory urban upgrading and power: Lessons learnt from a pilot project in Jordan,” Habitat International, Vol.39, pp. 224-231, 2013.
  3. [3] D. Archer, “Baan Mankong participatory slum upgrading in Bangkok, Thailand: Community perceptions of outcomes and security of tenure,” Habitat International, Vol.36, No.1, pp. 178-184, 2012.
  4. [4] P. R. Berke, and T. J. Campanella, “Planning for postdisaster resiliency,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.604, No.1, pp. 192-207, 2006.
  5. [5] L. Botes, and D. Van Rensburg, D, “Community participation in development: nine plagues and twelve commandments,” Community Development Journal, Vol.35, No.1, pp. 41-58, 2000.
  6. [6] L. Bull-Kamanga, K. Diagne, A. Lavell, E. Leon, F. Lerise, H. MacGregor, and A. Yitambe, “From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas,” Environment and Urbanization, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 193-204, 2003.
  7. [7] D. P. Coppola, “Introduction to international disaster management,” Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier, 2011.
  8. [8] V. Cronin, and P. Guthrie, “Community-led resettlement: From a flood-affected slum to a new society in Pune, India,” Environmental Hazards, Vol.10, No.3-4, pp. 310-326, 2011.
  9. [9] C. H. Davidson, C. Johnson, G. Lizarralde, N. Dikmen, and A. Sliwinski, “Truths and myths about community participation in post-disaster housing projects,” Habitat International, Vol.31, No.1, pp. 100-115, 2007.
  10. [10] M. Fay, F. Ghesquiere, and T. Solo, “Natural Disasters and the Urban Poor (No.10374),” The World Bank, 2003.
  11. [11] N. E. Ganapati, and S. Ganapati, “Enabling participatory planning after disasters: a case study of the World Bank’s housing reconstruction in Turkey,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 41-59, 2008.
  12. [12] K. Hewitt, “Regions at Risk. A geographical introduction to disasters,” Addison Wesley Longman, 1997.
  13. [13] C. Horwood, and T. Phillips, “Tomorrow’s Crises Today: The Humanitarian Impact of Urbanization,” United Nations Publications, 2007.
  14. [14] I. Imparato, and J. Ruster, “Slum upgrading and participation: Lessons from Latin America,” World Bank Publications, 2003.
  15. [15] Instituto Nacional de Informaci”on de Desarrollo INIDE Censo de Poblacion (2005) Cifras Municipales, CifrasMun/Managua/Managua.pdf [accessed Nov. 20, 2012]
  16. [16] Instituto Nicaraguense de Industria y Comercio INIFOM. (2005) Ficha Municipal Managua. documentos/MANAGUA/managua2.pdf [accessed Nov. 20, 2012]
  17. [17] A. K. Jha, and J. E. Duyne, “Safer homes, stronger communities: a handbook for reconstructing after natural disasters,” World Bank Publications, 2010.
  18. [18] E. La Ferrara, “Self-help Groups and Income Generation in the Informal Settlements of Nairobi,” Journal of African Economies, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 61-89, 2002.
  19. [19] B. Nidhiprabha, “Adjustment and Recovery in Thailand Two Years after the Tsunami,” Asian Development Bank Institute, 2007.
  20. [20] S. Paul, “Community participation in development projects,” World Bank, 1987.
  21. [21] E. L. Quarantelli, “Urban vulnerability to disasters in developing countries: managing risks,” Building safer cities: the future of disaster risk, pp. 211-232, 2003.
  22. [22] D. Sanderson, “Cities, disasters and livelihoods,” Environment and Urbanization, Vol.12, No.2, pp. 93-102, 2000.
  23. [23] D. Satterthwaite, “What role for low-income communities in urban areas in disaster risk reduction,” Background Paper prepared for the 2011 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, 2011.
  24. [24] R. E. Stake, “The art of case study research,” Sage Publications, 1995.
  25. [25] A. Strauss, and C. Corbin, “Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory,” Sage Publications, 1998.
  26. [26] J. F. C. Turner, and R. Fichter, “Freedom to build: Dweller control of the housing process,” Macmillan. Book, 1972.
  27. [27] U. N. Habitat, “The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements 2003,” Earthscan, 2003.
  28. [28] United Nations Human Settlements Programme, “Enhancing Urban Safety and Security: Global Report on Human Settlements 2007,” Earthscan, 2007.
  29. [29] United Nations, “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Risk and Poverty in a Changing Climate,” Earthscan, 2009.
  30. [30] UN-HABITAT, “State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013,” 2013, .pdf [accessed Oct. 16, 2012]
  31. [31] V. Viratkapan, and R. Perera, “Slum relocation projects in Bangkok: what has contributed to their success or failure?” Habitat International, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 157-174, 2006.
  32. [32] H. Werlin, “The slum upgrading myth,” Urban Studies, Vol.36, No.9, pp. 1523-1534, 1999.
  33. [33] B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis, “At risk: natural hazards, people”s vulnerability and disasters (Ed. 2),” 2004.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 19, 2024