Educational Merits of Lecturing and Discussion Methods in Teaching Disaster Prevention: Toward Improvement of Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior in Merapi Volcano Area Primary Schools
Tuswadi* and Takehiro Hayashi**
*Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima City, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
**Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, 1-1-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima City, Hiroshima 739-8524, Japan
This research investigated the educational benefits of improving students’ performance associated with two types of teaching used in integrated disaster prevention lessons. Our research, experimental in nature, applied a pretest/posttest control group design. The research sample consisted of 89 students in grade 5 at two primary schools near the Merapi volcano, which is under the Sleman regency of Yogyakarta Special Region Province, Indonesia. Students were classified into experimental and control groups. Using the same lesson content, delivered by one of our researchers, the experimental group was taught through discussions and the control group was taught through lectures. Findings showed that lectures improved two viewpoints in students’ knowledge – one regarding appropriate action taken while indoors during a big earthquake and the other about consequences of a big earthquake regarding a residential fire. Student viewpoints regarding their awareness of living in a disaster-prone area were also found to have improved through the use of lectures. Discussions were found to be helpful in improving only one viewpoint of students’ knowledge about appropriate actions while indoors during a big earthquake. Study results suggest that efforts should be made to develop effective education in volcanic disaster at school focusing on changes in students’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior.
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