Flood Control Mechanism of Multiple Dams Constructed in a Series Based on Cascade Method
Hideo Oshikawa* and Toshimitsu Komatsu**
*Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University
1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502, Japan
**Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University
744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Using numerical simulation, we clarified the mechanism that the flood control capability is dramatically strengthened by using multiple serial dams efficiently, based on a new flood control concept that let dams overflow through emergency spillways. Numerical analysis results for a group of dry dams were used to quantitatively evaluate this effect and to derive an empirical formula. The conventional flood control approach sets the design high water discharge of individual dams, even when dams are constructed serially, ensuring that no overflows occurs in any of the dams, here called the “conventional” method. By comparing the group of dry dams based on the conventional method and a method on the same scale but set based on a new concept that we called Cascade method, we found that when the flood peak is cut in conventional control, the latter half of the cutoff flood peak must be cut again, making flood control redundant. The Cascade method avoids this redundancy in storage use and cuts the flood peak efficiently and linearly.
-  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis,” Cambridge University Press, 1535p., 2014.
-  Science Council of Japan, Committee on Planet Earth Science and Committee on Civil Engineering and Architecture, Subcommittee on Land, Society and Natural Disasters, “Proposal, Adaptation to Water-related Disasters Induced by Global Environmental Change,” June 26, 2008.
-  T. Sumi, “Designing and Operating of Flood Retention ‘Dry’ Dams in Japan and USA,” Advances in Hydro-Science and Engineering, Vol.8, pp. 1768-1777 (CD-ROM), 2008.
-  H. Oshikawa, A. Hashimoto, K. Tsukahara, and T. Komatsu, “Impacts of Recent Climate Change on Flood Disaster and Preventive Measures,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 131-141, 2008.
-  M. E. M. Shahmirzadi, T. Sumi, and S. A. Kantoush, “Eco-Friendly Adaptation Design for Stilling Basin of Masudagawa Flood Mitigation Dam,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban Flood Risk Management (UFRIM), pp. 69-74, September 2011.
-  F. Nitta and M. Maruta, “An overview of the Nishinotani Dam (dry dam),” Civil Engineering, Vol.65, No.2, pp. 65-67, 2010 (in Japanese).
-  M. Nakagawa, “Questioning the safety and environmental impact of dry dams,” (in Japanese), http://homepage3.nifty.com/nokki/ bekkou.pdf
-  Y. Nakashima, H. Oshikawa, and T. Komatsu, “Study on Improvement in the Flood Control Ability of a Dry Dam,” Advances in River Engineering, Vol.15, pp. 417-422, June, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  T. Sumi, S. A. Kantoush, and A. Shirai, “Worldwide Flood Mitigation Dams: Operating and Designing Issues,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban Flood Risk Management (UFRIM), pp. 101-106, September 2011.
-  A. Tai, H. Oshikawa, and T. Komatsu, “New Development of Functions of a Dry Dam for an Adaptation to Climate Change,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.9, No.1, pp. 78-85, 2014.
-  H. Oshikawa, Y. Mito, and T. Komatsu, “Study of Flood Control Capability and Advanced Application of Multiple Dams Constructed in Series,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 447-455, 2013.
-  H. Oshikawa, Y. Mito, and T. Komatsu, “An Experimental Study on Flood Control Capability of Dry Dams Constructed in a Series,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 467-474, 2015.
-  T. Sumi, “Dry Dams in Austria,” Engineering for Dams, Japan Dam Engineering Center, No.277, pp. 1-13, October 2009 (in Japanese).
-  T. Sumi, S. Funabashi, and A. Shirai, “Dry Dams in Austria – A Continued Report –,” Engineering for Dams, Japan Dam Engineering Center, No.287, pp. 16-28, August 2010 (in Japanese).
-  H. Oshikawa, T. Imamura, and T. Komatsu, “Study on the Flood Control Ability of a Dry Dam Used as a Flood Retarding Basin in a River,” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol.67, No.4, pp. I_667-I_672, 2011 (in Japanese).
-  JSCE, “Hydraulics Formulae: Hydraulics Worked Examples with CD-ROM,” Japan Society of Civil Engineers, ISBN4-8106-0203-6 C3051, 2002 (in Japanese).
-  JSCE, “Hydraulics Formulae 1999,” Japan Society of Civil Engineers, ISBN4-8106-0201-X, 713p., 1999 (in Japanese).
-  S. H. Lamb, “Hydrodynamics,” 6th Edition, Cambridge, 738p., 1932.
-  H. Oshikawa, Y. Mito, and T. Komatsu, “Study on the Flood Control Capability of Dry Dams Constructed in Series,” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol.69, No.4, pp. I_1633-I_1638, 2013 (in Japanese).
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.