JMA’s Tsunami Warning for the 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Warning Improvement Plan
Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Otemachi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued a timely tsunami warning three minutes after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (the Great Tohoku Earthquake) occurred at 14:49 (JST) on March 11, 2011. However, predicted tsunami heights at the early stage were greatly underestimated. Based on lessons learned from this earthquake, the JMA plans to improve its tsunami warning.
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “Monthly Report on Earthquakes and Volcanoes in Japan,” March 2011, 2011a (in Japanese),
http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/gaikyo/monthly201103/201103index.html [last accessed Feb. 7, 2011].
-  The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group, “Results of Tsunami Surveys,” 2011,
http://www.coastal.jp/tsunami2011/ [last accessed Mar. 28, 2012]
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “JMA Tsunami Warning Improvement Plan,” March 2012, 2012a (in Japanese),
http://www.seisvol.kishou.go.jp/eq/tsunami keihou kaizen/index.html
-  T. Ozaki, “Outline of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) – Tsunami warnings/advisories and observations –,” Earth Plants Spaces, Vol.63, pp. 827-830, 2011.
-  M. Hoshiba and T. Ozaki, “Earthquake EarlyWarning and Tsunami warning of JMA of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” Zisin 2, 2012a (in Japanese, accepted).
-  M. Hoshiba and T. Ozaki, “Earthquake Early Warning and Tsunami Warning of the Japan Meteorological Agency, and their performances for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0),” 2012b (submitted).
-  H. Tatehata, “Application of tsunami numerical simulation technique to Tsunami warning,” Kaiyo monthly, special issue 15, pp. 23-30, 1998 (in Japanese).
-  O. Kamigaichi, “Tsunami Forecasting and Warning,” Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Springer., pp. 9592-9618, 2009.
-  A. Katsumata, “Revision of the JMA displacement magnitude,” Quart. J. Seism., Vol.67, pp. 1-11, 2004 (in Japanese with English abstract).
-  Fire and Disaster Management Agency, “Report on damage from the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” 2012 (145th issue, in Japanese).
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “Direction for JMA Tsunami Warning Improvement,” September 2011, 2011b (in Japanese),
http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1109/12a/tsunami kaizen matome.html
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “Recommendation on Tsunami Warning Criteria and Expression of Warning Messages,” February 2012, 2012b (in Japanese),
http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/press/1202/07a/tsunami keihou teigen.html
-  H. Tsushima, R. Hino, H. Fujimoto, Y. Tanioka, and F. Imamura, “Near-field tsunami forecasting from cabled ocean bottom pressure data,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol.114, B06309, doi:10.1029/2008JB005988, 2009.
-  H. Tsushima, K. Hirata, Y. Hayashi, Y. Tanioka, K. Kimura, S. Sakai, M. Shinohara, T. Kanazawa, R. Hino, and K. Maeda, “Nearfield tsunami forecasting using offshore tsunami data from the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” Earth Planets Space, Vol.63, pp. 821-826, doi:10.5047/eps.2011.06.052, 2011.
-  H. Tsushima, R. Hino, Y. Tanioka, F. Imamura, and H. Fujimoto, “Tsunami waveform inversion incorporating permanent seafloor deformation and its application to tsunami forecasting,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol.117, B03311, doi:10.1029/2011JB008877, 2012.
-  P. Wessel and W. H. F. Smith, “New version of the generic mapping tool re-leased,” EOS Trans., AGU, Vol.76, No.329, 1995.