Dual Use Research of Concern Issues in the Field of Microbiology Research in Japan
Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan
Microbiology researches and infectious disease researches have to contribute to the progress of science and contribute to measures against infectious disease burdens. However, researches on infectious diseases and microbiology always have a potential risk related to scientific ambiguity, i.e., so-called Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC). Most of microbiologist, now trying to improve the level of biosafety and biosecurity, will be required to also improve their consciousness about DURC and pay attention to trends of domestic and international DURC issues in the field of microbiology and properly cope with them. When making plans, applying for research funding, and publicizing research outcomes, researchers are required to also care about DURC. To set up such system, discussions need to be made also at research institutes, including the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, over DURC issues, such as how to educate the researchers and how to cope with DURC.
-  M. Imai, T. Watanabe, M. Hatta, S. C. Das, M. Ozawa, K. Shinya, G. Zhong, A. Hanson, H. Katsura, S. Watanabe, C. Li, E. Kawakami, S. Yamada, M. Kiso, Y. Suzuki, E. A. Maher, G. Neumann, and Y. Kawaoka. “Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets,” Nature, Vol.486, No.7403, pp. 420-428, 2012.
-  S. Herfst, E. J. Schrauwen, M. Linster, S. Chutinimitkul, E. de Wit, V. J. Munster, E. M. Sorrell, T. M. Bestebroer, D. F. Burke, D. J. Smith, G. F. Rimmelzwaan, A. D. Osterhaus, and R. A. Fouchier, “Airborne transmission of influenza A/H5N1 virus between ferrets,” Science, Vol.336, No.6088, pp. 1534-1541, 2012.
-  R. J. Jacobson, A. J. Ramsay, C. D. Christensen, S. Beaton, D. F. Hall, and I. A. Ramsshaw, “Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox,” J. Virol., Vol.75, pp. 1205-1210, 2001.
-  M. M. Becker, R. L. Graham, E. F. Donaldson, B. Rockx, A. C. Sims, T. Sheahan, R. J. Pickles, D. Corti, R. E. Johnston, R. S. Baric, and M. R. Denison, “Synthetic recombinant bat SARS-like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol.105, No.50, pp. 19944-9, 2008.
-  A. Molla, A. V. Paul, and E. Wimmer, “In vitro synthesis of poliovirus,” Dev. Biol. Stand., Vol.78, pp. 39-53, 1993.
-  N. Nagata, N. Iwata, H. Hasegawa, S. Fukushi, A. Harashima, Y. Sato, M. Saijo, F. Taguchi, S. Morikawa, and T. Sata. “Mousepassaged severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus leads to lethal pulmonary edema and diffuse alveolar damage in adult but not young mice.” Am. J. Pathol., Vol.72, No.6, pp. 1625-1637, 2008.
-  D. Kaiser and J.Moreno, “Dual-use research: Self-censorship is not enough,” Nature, Vol.492, No.7429, pp. 345-347, 2012.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.