single-dr.php

JDR Vol.6 No.4 pp. 404-412
(2011)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2011.p0404

Review:

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Akihiko Kawana

Division of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513 Japan

Received:
December 16, 2010
Accepted:
January 5, 2011
Published:
August 1, 2011
Keywords:
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), coronavirus, emerging infection, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), measure against infection
Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, was the first emerging infection of the 21st century. Severe pneumonia is the main symptom, and the case fatality rate was about 10%. In general, convalescence becomes less satisfactory with the age of the patient. The older the patient is, the more unsatisfactorily his or her convalescence is. The disease is transmitted mainly through the spread of droplets from the human respiratory tract. Many health care professionals became infected with SARS within the medical facilities in which they worked. No peculiar medicine or vaccine for SARS has yet been developed. A worldwide epidemic of SARS centered in China broke out around during the period from 2002 to 2003; about 8,000 cases were recorded. Although this epidemic has come to an end, attention should be paid to SARS because of its possible reemergence. Preparedness for SARS can be also applied to measures against other emerging infections.

Cite this article as:
Akihiko Kawana, “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS),” J. Disaster Res., Vol.6, No.4, pp. 404-412, 2011.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] K. Y. Yuen et al., “SARS: a historical perspective from Hong Kong. Severe acute respiratory syndrome” (Edited by M. Peiris et al.), pp. 1-12, Blackwell, Massachusetts, USA, 2005.
  2. [2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Update: outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-worldwide,” MMWR Vol.52, No.12, pp. 241-246, 2003.
  3. [3] J. S. Peiris et al., “Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Lancet Vol.361, No.9366, pp. 1319-1325, 2003.
  4. [4] T. G. Ksiazek et al., “A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, No.20, pp. 1953-1966, 2003.
  5. [5] C. Drosten et al., “Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, No.20, pp. 1967-1976, 2003.
  6. [6] World Health Organization, “Cumulative number of reported probable cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),” 21 April 2004,
    http://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/en/index.html
  7. [7] C. C. Vincent et al., “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev., Vol.20, No.4, pp. 660-694, 2007.
  8. [8] S. K. P. Lau et al., “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruslike virus in Chinese horseshoe bats,” PNAS, Vol.102, No.39, pp. 14040-14045, 2005.
  9. [9] W. Li et al., “Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses,” Science, Vol.310, No.5748, pp. 676-679, 2005.
  10. [10] P. Y. Chong et al., “Analysis of death during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Singapore. Challenges in determining a SARS diagnosis,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., Vol.128, No.2, pp. 195-204, 2004.
  11. [11] W. Li et al., “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus,” Nature, Vol.426, No.6965, pp. 450-454, 2003.
  12. [12] J. Gu and C. Korteweg, “Pathology and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Am. J. Pathol., Vol.170, No.4, pp. 1136-1147, 2007.
  13. [13] World Health Organization, “Consensus document on the epidemiology of sever acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),”
    http://www.who.int/csr/sars/en/WHOconsensus.pdf
  14. [14] J. S. M. Peiris et al., “Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study,” Lancet, Vol.361, No.9371, pp. 1767-1772, 2003.
  15. [15] N. Lee et al., “A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.348, No.20, pp. 1986-1994, 2003.
  16. [16] L. Y. Hsu et al., “Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Singapore: clinical features of index patient and initial contacts,” Emerg. Infec. Dis., Vol.9, No.6, pp. 713-717, 2003.
  17. [17] C. M. Booth et al., “Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area,” JAMA, Vol.289, No.21, pp. 2801-2809, 2003.
  18. [18] A.Wilder-Smith et al., “Asymptomatic SARS coronavirus infection among healthcare workers, Singapore,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol.11, No.7, pp. 1142-1145, 2005.
  19. [19] J. S. M. Peiris et al., “Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study,” Lancet, Vol.361, No.9371, pp. 1767-1772, 2003.
  20. [20] G. W. K. Wong and D. S. C. Hui, “Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): epidemiology, diagnosis and management,” Thorax, Vol.58, No.7, pp. 558-560, 2003.
  21. [21] C. M. Tansey et al., “One-year outcomes and health care utilization in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Arch. Intern. Med., Vol.167, No.12, pp. 1312-1320, 2007.
  22. [22] W. C. Cao et al., “Disappearance of antibodies to SARS-associated coronavirus after recovery,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol.357, No.11, pp. 1162-1163, 2007.
  23. [23] C. Leung et al., “Severe acute respiratory syndrome among children,” Pediatrics, Vol.113, No.6, pp. e535-544, 2004.
  24. [24] K. L. E. Hon et al., “Clinical presentations and outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome in children,” Lancet, Vol.361, No.9370, pp. 1701-1703, 2003.
  25. [25] W. Chan et al., “Epidemiological linkage and public health implication of a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome in an extended family,” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., Vol.23, No.12, pp. 1156-1159, 2004.
  26. [26] C. C. Shek et al., “Infant born to mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Pediatrics, Vol.112, No.4, pp. e254-256, 2003.
  27. [27] World Health Organization, “Alert, verification and public health management of SARS in the post – outbreak period,”
    Available at http://www.who.int/csr/sars/postoutbreak/en/
  28. [28] T. F. Booth et al., “Detection of airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and environmental contamination in SARS outbreak units,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.191, No.9, pp. 1472-1477, 2005.
  29. [29] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings 2007,”
    http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/guidelines/Isolation2007.pdf
  30. [30] R. M. Anderson et al., “Epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and control of SARS: the 2002-2003 epidemic. SARS a case study in emerging infections,” (Edited by A. R. McLean), pp. 61-80, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005.
  31. [31] G. M. Leung, P. H. Chung, T. Tsang et al., “SARS-CoV antibody prevalence in all Hong Kong patient contacts,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.10, No.9, pp. 1653-1656, 2004.
  32. [32] World Health Organization, “Hospital infection control guidance for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),” revised 24 April 2003.
    Available at http://www.who.int/csr/sars/infectioncontrol/en/
  33. [33] C. M. Chu et al., “Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings,” Thorax, Vol.59, No.3, pp. 252-256, 2004.
  34. [34] U. J. Buchholtz et al., “Contributions of the structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to protective immunity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol.101, No.26, pp. 9804-9809, 2004.
  35. [35] A. Bukreyev et al., “Mucosal immunization of African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with an attenuated parainfluenza virus expression the SARS coronavirus spike protein for the prevention of SARS,” Lancet, Vol.363, No.9427, pp. 2122-2127, 2004.
  36. [36] Z. Yang et al., “A DNA vaccine induces SARS coronavirus neutralization and protective immunity in mice,” Nature, Vol.428, No.6982, pp. 561-564, 2004.
  37. [37] Y. T. Yokota et al., “Formalin-treated UV inactivated SARS coronavirus vaccine retains its immunogenicity and promotes Th2-type immune responses,” Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., Vol.60, Nos.2-3, pp. 106-112, 2007.
  38. [38] R. C. Chen et al., “Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome with glucosteroids, the Guangzhou experience,” Chest, Vol.129, No.6, pp. 1441-1452, 2006.
  39. [39] World Health Organization, “WHO global influenza preparedness plan. The role ofWHO and recommendations for national measures before and during pandemics,” World Health Organization, 2005.
  40. [40] A. Kawana, K. Teruya, N. Yamashita, “SARS; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome,” The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, Vol.77, pp. 303-309, 2003 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 13, 2021