JDR Vol.10 No.4 pp. 604-612
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2015.p0604


Learning from the Eco-Toxicology of Fire-Fighting Foams in Aquatic Organisms: Altered Eco-Toxicity of Sodium Alkyl Sulfonates on Green Paramecia and Medaka Fish Maintained in Different Waters

Kaishi Goto*1, Hiroshi Takaichi*1, and Tomonori Kawano*1,*2,*3,*4,*5,†

*1Faculty and Graduate School of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu
1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0135, Japan

Corresponding author,

*2Environmental and Fire-Fighting Technology Development Center, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu, Japan

*3International Photosynthesis Industrialization Research Center, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu, Japan

*4University of Florence LINV Kitakyushu Research Center, Kitakyushu, Japan

*5Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 7 Interdisciplinary Energy Research Institute (PIERI), Paris, France

April 3, 2015
July 23, 2015
August 1, 2015
detergent, eco-toxicity, Paramecium bursaria, SAS, water hardness
A variety of ciliated and flagellated protozoan species have been used as bio-indicators of the eco-toxic impacts of polluting chemicals, especially in aquatic environments such as rivers, ponds, lakes, and wetlands. To date, both the short-term and long-term impacts of fire-fighting foams (FFFs) in aquatic (freshwater environment) and semi-aquatic (wetland) ecosystems have been assessed in laboratory-scale model assays and in biotope-based assays. Little attention has been given to the fact that water qualities, such as hardness, drastically alter the toxic actions of various chemicals against living aquatic organisms including fishes, algae, and other microbes, suggesting that the laboratory water often employed in toxicity assays for fishes and microorganisms might not reflect the actual impact of chemicals in the ecosystem. Therefore, for examining the toxicity of certain chemicals (chiefly detergent-based and soap-based FFFs) in aquatic organisms, we have previously proposed that a series of simple eco-toxicity tests using natural waters sampled from the natural organism’s habitats or blends of mineralcontaining water preparations mimicking the natural habitat waters be used in addition to tests in standard laboratory waters. Based on the knowledge of the eco-toxicity of FFFs obtained through past studies using model aquatic organisms such as green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), we conducted a study aiming to uncover the toxic mechanism of sodium alkyl sulfonates, a series of synthetic detergents known as SAS, using a strain of P. bursaria originally sampled from a river, both in laboratory water and habitat river water (river water from where P. bursaria was collected; HRW). Here, we employed P. bursaria maintained in both a natural HRW-based assay medium and an ultrapure water-based low-mineral standard culturing medium for comparing the apparent toxicity of SAS. Data strongly suggested that the toxicities of most SAS detergents (alkyl chains shorter than 9 carbons or longer than 14 carbons) are minimized in the mineral-rich HRW compared to the commonly used UPW-based low-mineral ciliateculturing conditions. The toxicity of SAS members with moderate chain lengths, such as sodium dodecan sulfonate, tended to be minimized with elevated mineral content. A similar tendency was also observed in medaka fish, a tiny model fish.
Cite this article as:
K. Goto, H. Takaichi, and T. Kawano, “Learning from the Eco-Toxicology of Fire-Fighting Foams in Aquatic Organisms: Altered Eco-Toxicity of Sodium Alkyl Sulfonates on Green Paramecia and Medaka Fish Maintained in Different Waters,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10 No.4, pp. 604-612, 2015.
Data files:
  1. [1] R. Adams and D. Simmons, “Ecological effects of fire fighting foams and retardants,” Proc. Aust. Bushfire 99 Conf. Albury, Australia, 1999; Ref. 1001.
  2. [2] M. Aonuma, T. Kadono, and T. Kawano, “Inhibition of anodic galvanotaxis in green paramecia by T-type calcium channel inhibitors,” Z. Naturforsch, 62c, pp. 93-102, 2007.
  3. [3] E. Duval, S. Coffinet, C. Bernard, and J. Briand, “Effects of two cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin, on Euglena gracilis,” In: E. Lichtfouse et al. (Eds), “Environmental Chemistry,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 659-671, 2005.
  4. [4] S. Furukawa, C. Karaki, and T. Kawano, “Micro-particle transporting system using galvanotactically stimulated apo-symbiotic cells of Paramecium bursaria,” Z. Naturforsch, 64c, pp. 421-433, 2009.
  5. [5] S. Furukawa and T. Kawano, “Enhanced microsphere transport in capillary by conditioned cells of green paramecia used as living micromachines controlled by electric stimuli,” Sens. Mater., Vol.24, pp. 375-386, 2012.
  6. [6] K. Goto, T. Kadono, and T. Kawano, “Use of natural mineral waters as the sources of diversified natural waters worldwide for testing the eco-toxicity of detergents using green paramecia,” ITE-IBA Lett., Vol.1, pp. 184-188, 2008.
  7. [7] K. Goto, C. Lin, T. Kadono, M. Hirono, K. Uezu, and T. Kawano, “Eco-toxicity of a soap component (sodium oleate) and a synthetic detergent cocktail using green paramecia assayed in East Asia,” J. Environ. Eng. Manag., Vol.17, pp. 377-383, 2007.
  8. [8] T. Kadono, T. Kawano, H. Hosoya, and T. Kosaka, “Effect of host cell growth on the cell cycle of symbiotic algae in green paramecia: flow cytometric approaches to alga-protozoa symbiosis,” Protoplasma, Vol.223, pp. 133-141, 2004.
  9. [9] T. Kadono, K. Uezu, T. Kosaka, and T. Kawano, “Altered toxicities of fatty acid salts in green paramecia cultured in different waters,” Z. Naturforsch, 61c, pp. 541-547, 2006a.
  10. [10] T. Kadono, K. Uezu, and T. Kawano, “Confirming the altered toxicities of fatty acid salts in Paramecium caudatum cultured in different waters,” ITE Lett., Vol.7, pp. 606-609, 2006b.
  11. [11] E. Kalmanzon, E. Slotkin, R. Cohen, and Y. Barenholz, “Liposomes as a model for the study of the mechanism of fish toxicity of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sea water,” Biochem. Biophys. Acta, Vol.1103, pp. 148-156, 1992.
  12. [12] T. Kawano, T. Kadono, T. Kosaka, and H. Hosoya, “Green paramecia as an evolutionary winner of the oxidative symbiosis: A hypothesis and supportive data,” Z. Naturforsch, 59c, pp. 538-542, 2004.
  13. [13] T. Kawano, T. Kadono, N. Matsuoka, T. Tamura, and K. Uezu, “Development of soap-based fire-fighting agents less toxic to germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds,” ITE Lett., Vol.8, pp. 596-600, 2007.
  14. [14] T. Kawano, T. Kadono, N. Matsuoka, T. Tamura, and K. Uezu, “Possible ecological risk assessment of commercial fire-fighting foams using germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds,” ITE Lett. Vol.7, pp. 379-382, 2006.
  15. [15] T. Kawano, C. Lin, T. Kadono, and K. Uezu, “Ecological risk assessment of fire-fighting chemicals using medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) in different water conditions,” ITE Lett., Vol.8, pp. 306-311, 2007.
  16. [16] T. Kawano, K. Otsuka, T. Kadono, R. Inokuchi, Y. Ishizaki, B. Dewanker, and K. Uezu, “Eco-toxicological evaluation of fire-fighting foams in small-sized aquatic and semi-aquatic biotopes,” Adv. Mater. Res., pp. 875-877: pp. 699-707, 2014, doi:10.4028/
  17. [17] Kitakyushu City Fire and Disaster Management Department, “Research and development of ecologically acceptable fire suppression formula for urban fires,” Gekkan Shobo (Monthly Fire Fighting by Tokyo Ho-Rei), Vol.313, pp. 1-8, 2005 (in Japanese).
  18. [18] T. Kosaka, “Life cycle of Paramecium bursaria syngen 1 in nature,” J. Protozool., Vol.38, pp. 140-148, 1991.
  19. [19] S. H. Lee and J. B. Pritchard, “Bicarbonate-chloride exchange in gill plasma membranes of blue crab,” Amer. J. Physiol., Vol.249(Pt 2): R544-550, 1985.
  20. [20] C. Lin, T. Kadono, K. Yoshizuka, K. Uezu, and T. Kawano, “Assessing the eco-toxicity of novel soap-based fire-fighting foam using medaka fish (Oryzias latipes, Red-orange variety) adopted to river and sea water conditions,” ITE Lett., Vol.7, pp. 499-503, 2006.
  21. [21] N. Miyoshi, T. Kawano, M. Tanaka, T. Kadono, T. Kosaka, M. Kunimoto, T. Takahashi, and H. Hosoya, “Use of Paramecium species in bioassays for environmental risk management: determination of IC50 values for water pollutants,” J. Health Sci., Vol.46, pp. 429-435, 2003.
  22. [22] H. Mizuki, K. Uezu, T. Kawano, T. Kadono, M. Kobayashi, S. Hatae, Y. Oba, S. Iwamoto, S. Mitsumune, M. Owari, Y. Nagatomo, H. Umeki, and K. Yamaga, “Novel environmental friendly soap-based fire-fighting agent,” J. Environ. Eng. Manag., Vol.17, pp. 403-408, 2007.
  23. [23] H. Mizuki, M. Toyomura, K. Uezu, H. Yasui, T. Kawano, I. Akiba, T. Kawahara, S. Hatae, N. Sakamoto, M. Akiyama, C., Mizota, H. Umeki, and K. Yamaga, “Microbial degradation of a soap-based fire-fighting agent in activated sludge,” J. Environ. Eng. Manag. Vol.20, pp. 109-113, 2010.
  24. [24] S. Nishihama, A. Haraguchi, T. Kawano, K. Michiki, K. Nakazawa, T. Suzuki, K. Uezu, and K. Yoshizuka, “Seasonal changes in the microbial population of the water column and sediments of the Ongagawa river, northern Kyushu, Japan,” Limnology, Vol.9, pp. 35-45, 2008.
  25. [25] H. Ohkawa, N. Hashimoto, S. Furukawa, T. Kadono, and T. Kawano, “Forced symbiosis between Synechocystis spp. PCC 6803 and apo-symbiotic Paramecium bursaria as an experimental model for evolutionary emergence of primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes,” Plant Signal. Behav., Vol.6, pp. 773-776, 2011.
  26. [26] D. Rawet, R. Smith, and G. Kravainis, “A comparison of water additives for mopping-up after forest fires,” Int. J. Wildland Fire, Vol.6, pp. 37-43, 1996.
  27. [27] T. Takahashi, M. Yoshii, T. Kawano, T. Kosaka, and H. Hosoya, “A new approach for the assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a green paramecium,” Toxicol. In Vitro, Vol.9, pp. 99-105, 2005.
  28. [28] M. Tanaka, M. Murata-Hori, T. Kadono, T. Yamada, T. Kawano, T. Kosaka, and H. Hosoya, “Complete elimination of endosymbiotic algae from Paramecium bursaria and its confirmation by diagnostic PCR,” Acta Protozool., Vol.41, pp. 255-261, 2002.
  29. [29] D. L. Williams, A. T. Kuhn, M. A. Amann, M. B. Hausinger, M. M. Konarik, and E. I. Nesselrode, “Computerised measurement of contact angles,” Galvanotechnik, Vol.101, pp. 2502-2512, 2010.
  30. [30] K. Yokawa, T. Kagenishi, and T. Kawano, “Effects of water salinity on the cold-induced suspended animation and irreversible damages in Oryzias latipes: Experimental eco-physiology predicting the seasonal changes in limnological fish distribution, J. Environ. Eng. Manag., Vol.19, pp. 195-200, 2009.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Apr. 22, 2024