An Experimental Study on Flood Control Capability of Dry Dams Constructed in a Series
Hideo Oshikawa*, Yuka Mito**, and Toshimitsu Komatsu***
*Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University
1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502, Japan
**Kyushu Office, Waterworks Structure Division, CTI Engineering Co., Ltd.
CTI Fukuoka Building, 2-4-12 Daimyo, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-0041, Japan
***Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University
744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
The new Cascade concept of flood control is demonstrated in laboratory experiments in which upstream dams in a series of dams constructed along a river overflow from emergency spillways while the final downstream dam is required only to use its normal spillway and never do its emergency spillway. Multiple small dry dams lacking a slide gate in a normal spillway should be constructed in a series rather than as a single large dam to prevent flood disasters and to preserve the natural environment. Dry dams for flood control have recently been reviewed, planned, and built at sites in Japan. In this paper, we compare the Cascade method to conventional flood control in laboratory experiments conducted based on the condition that dams all have the same reservoir capacity. Results have shown that the Cascade method using multiple dry dams was considerably more effective than conventional flood control. Furthermore, the additional flood control effect of a dry dam equipped with closable and openable gate in its regular spillway was experimentally confirmed although there is no such kind of the gate on an ordinary dry dam. This new dry dam should be constructed in the river’s upper reaches away from the existing downstream storage dam needing still more its capacity for water utilization, thus ensuring the amount of water available by closing the regular spillway after the dry dam is filled to capacity. The flood control capacity of dams including the new dry dam is stronger than that of an ordinary storage dam thanks to the dry dam’s storage function.
-  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis,” Cambridge University Press, 996p., 2007.
-  Science Council of Japan, Committee on Planet Earth Science and Committee on Civil Engineering and Architecture, Subcommittee on Land, Society and Natural Disasters, “Proposal, Adaptation to Water-related Disasters Induced by Global Environmental Change,” June 26, 2008.
-  A. Tai, H. Oshikawa, and T. Komatsu, “New Development of Functions of a Dry Dam for an Adaptation to Climate Change,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.9, No.1, pp. 78-85, 2014.
-  T. Sumi, “Designing and Operating of Flood Retention ‘Dry’ Dams in Japan and USA,” Advances in Hydro-Science and Engineering, Vol.8, pp. 1768-1777 (CD-ROM), 2008.
-  H. Oshikawa, A. Hashimoto, K. Tsukahara, and T. Komatsu, “Impacts of Recent Climate Change on Flood Disaster and Preventive Measures,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 131-141, 2008.
-  S. A. Kantoush and T. Sumi, “Influence of Stilling Basin Geometry on Flow Pattern and Sediment Transport at Flood Mitigation Dams,” 9th FISC, The Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conferences, Las Vegas, NV, USA, pp. 115-133, 2010.
-  M. E. M. Shahmirzadi, T. Sumi, and S. A. Kantoush, “Eco-Friendly Adaptation Design for Stilling Basin of Masudagawa Flood Mitigation Dam,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban Flood Risk Management (UFRIM), pp. 69-74, September 2011.
-  A. E. Morgan, “The Miami Conservancy District,” McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, 504p., 1951.
-  T. Sumi, “Flood Control ‘Flowing-type (Dry)’ Dam in USA,” Engineering for Dams, Japan Dam Engineering Center, No.256, pp. 20-34, 2008 (in Japanese).
-  T. Sumi, “Dry Dams in Austria,” Engineering for Dams, Japan Dam Engineering Center, No.277, pp. 1-13, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  T. Sumi, S. Funabashi, and A. Shirai, “Dry Dams in Austria – A Continued Report –,” Engineering for Dams, Japan Dam Engineering Center, No.287, pp. 16-28, 2010 (in Japanese).
-  H. Oshikawa, Y. Mito, and T. Komatsu, “Study of Flood Control Capability and Advanced Application of Multiple Dams Constructed in Series,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 447-455, 2013.
-  D. Komori, S. Nakamura, M. Kiguchi, A. Nishijima, D. Yamazaki, S. Suzuki, A. Kawasaki, K. Oki, and T. Oki, “Characteristics of the 2011 Chao Phraya River flood in Central Thailand,” Hydrological Research Letters, Vol.6, pp. 41-46, 2012.
-  S. Wongsa, “2011 Thailand Flood,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 380-385, 2013.
-  N. Kanchit, “A Presentation Material on Flow Discharge Data on Dams with Historical Flood Events from Bhumibol Hydro Power Plant,” Personal communication, February 2012.
-  S. H. Lamb, “Hydrodynamics,” 6th Edition, Cambridge, 738p., 1932.
-  M. E. M. Shahmirzadi, “Eco-Friendly Hydraulic Design of In-Ground Stilling Basin for Flood Mitigation Dams,” Dam and River Environmental Assessment and Management, Kyoto University, 155p., March 2014.
-  H. Oshikawa, T. Imamura, and T. Komatsu, “Study on the Flood Control Ability of a Dry Dam Used as a Flood Retarding Basin in a River,” Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. B1 (Hydraulic Engineering), Vol.67, No.4, pp. I_667-I_672, 2011 (in Japanese).