JDR Vol.8 No.4 pp. 644-653
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2013.p0644


Biosecurity, Dual Use and Research Ethics

Hiroshi Yoshikura

National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

April 1, 2013
June 18, 2013
August 1, 2013
biosecurity, dual use, research ethics, innovation
Issues treated in this essay are security concern on science and technology on one hand and research freedom, public health needs and innovation on the other. They are not necessarily compatible with each other, which is called “dual use dilemma.” An important question is how the dilemma can be addressed appropriately in a civil society.
Cite this article as:
H. Yoshikura, “Biosecurity, Dual Use and Research Ethics,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.8 No.4, pp. 644-653, 2013.
Data files:
  1. [1] T. Mori, “A3,” Shueisha-international, 2010 (in Japanese).
  2. [2] T. Sata, “Early detection and rapid diagnosis of pathogens potentially implicated in bioterrorism,” development of the methodology and establishment of evaluation method – Report for the fiscal year 2009 – supported by grand in aid for Research on Emerging and Reemerging Infections, Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, 2009 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] A. Lax, “Toxin-the cunning of bacterial poisons,” Oxford University Press, 2005.
  4. [4] M. Ohashi, “Experience as a legal advisor concerning probability of finding Salmonella typhi D2 with the identical drug resistance pattern,” Gakuyu-kaihou (National Institute of Health Japan), 17, 24-42, 1977 (in Japanese).
  5. [5] Japanese Lawyers Association, “Criminal Trial and Epidemiological Proof,” Hihon-Hyoron-Sha, 1981 (in Japanese).
  6. [6] C. Yamada, “What was the “typhus incident”? – after completing the role of special adviser,” Gakuyu-kaihou (National Institute of Health Japan), Vol.13, pp. 1-5, 1973 (in Japanese).
  7. [7] Mainichi-Shimbun evening paper, 6 October, 2012 (in Japanese).
  8. [8] H. Yoshikura, “Handling of pathogens,” Infectious Diseases, Vol.38, pp. 41-48, 2008 (in Japanese).
  9. [9] H. Yoshikura, “Amendment of Infectious Disease Law and its Impact on Investigation, Research and Industrial Use of Microbes,” Farmacia, Vol.44, pp. 59-62, 2008 (in Japanese).
  10. [10] C. Sunstein, “Freemarkets and Social Justice,” Oxford University Press, 1997.
  11. [11] M. Enserink and D. Malakoff, “The trial of Thomas Butler,” Science, Vol.302, pp. 2054-2063, 2003.
  12. [12] Y. Bhattacharjee, “Scientists pleads guilty of receiving illegally imported avian flu virus,” Science, Vol.305, p. 1888, 2004.
  13. [13] OECD International Futures Programme (IFP), “Promoting Responsible Stewardship in the Biosciences: Avoiding Potential Abuse of Research and Resources,” Chairman’s Summary, /33855561.pdf [accessed July 18, 2013]
  14. [14] WHO, “Life science research: opportunities and risks for public health – Mapping the issues.”
  15. [15] “Special section, H5N1,” Science, Vol.336, pp. 1521-1547.
  16. [16] K. Scannell, “FBI joins war against abuse of fast trading,” Financial Times, Asia, Wednesday March 6 2013.
  17. [17] “Out of the shadows,” The Economist, pp. 35-36, June 1st 2013.
  18. [18] “Masters of the cyber-universe,” The Economist, Special Report China and the Internet, pp. 12-13, April 6th 2012.
  19. [19] E. G. Seeband and R. L. Berry, “Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists and Engineers,” Oxford University Press.
  20. [20] B. Schneier, “Securing medical research: a cybersecurity point of view,” Science, Vol.236, pp. 1527-1529, 2012.
  21. [21] Advancing Science, Serving Society, Association of American Universities, Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Bringing Science and Security for Biological Research: A Dialogue between Universities and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Report of a Meeting February 21-22, 2012.
  22. [22] R. J. Jackson, A. J. Ramsay, C. D. Christensen, S. Beaton, D. F. Hall, and I. A. Ramshaw, “Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppress cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mouse pox,” J. Virol. Vol.75, pp. 1205-1210, 2001.
  23. [23] M. M. Martin and R. Schinzinger, “Ethics in Engineering” (4th ed), McGraw Hill, 2005.
  24. [24] C. Perrow, “Normal accidents – Living with High-Risk Technologies,” Princeton University Press, 1999.
  25. [25] H. Yoshioka, “Sociology of Nuclear Power – Japanese Way to its Development,” Asahi Shimbun Pub. Inc. 2011.
  26. [26] S. Boseley, L. Harding, and S. Goldenberg, “Scientists hunt thousands of vials of deadly flu virus sent across world,” The Guardian Thursday April 14 2005, page 3.
  27. [27] M. Enserink and J. Kaiser, “Accidental anthrax shipment spurs debate over safety,” Science, Vol.304, pp. 1726-1723, 2004.
  28. [28] National Research Council, “Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism,” the National Academies Press, 2004.
  29. [29] SCJ, “Report of Deliberation on Dual Use Issues Arising from Science and Technology,” November 30, 2012 (in Japanese).
  30. [30] K. De Backer, V. López-Bassols, and C. Martinez, “Open Innovation in a Global Perspective: What Do Existing Data Tell Us?,” OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, OECD Publishing, April, 2008, [accessed July 18, 2013]
  31. [31] A. Chessa, A.Morescalchi, F. Pammolli, O. Penner, A.M. Petersen, and M. Riccaboni, “Is Europe evolving toward an integrated research area?” Science, Vol.339, pp. 650-651, 2013.
  32. [32] A. B. Kruger, “What makes a terrorist: economics and roots of terrorism,” Princeton University press, 2007.
  33. [33] C. Holden, “New Suit for Japanese Institute,” Science, Vol.291, p. 2081, 2001.
  34. [34] A. Normile, “Court backs Lab’s Safety Practices,” Science, Vol.292, p. 30, 2001.
  35. [35] M. A. Somerville and R. Atlas, “Ethics: A Weapon to Counter Bioterrorism,” Science, Vol.307, pp. 1881-1882, 2005.
  36. [36] J. Zittrain, “The Future of the Internet and how to stop it,” Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 2008.
  37. [37] B. Schneier, “Liars & Outliers – Establishing the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive,” Wiley, Indianapolis, 2012.
  38. [38] A. Koestler, “The Sleepwalkers,” Penguin, 1959.
  39. [39] L. Lessig, “Code and other laws of cyberspace,” Basic Books, 1999.
  40. [40] D. J. Watts, “The Science of a Connected Age,” Vintage, 2004.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024