Study of Flood Control Capability and Advanced Application of Multiple Dams Constructed in Series
Hideo Oshikawa*, Yuka Mito**, and Toshimitsu Komatsu*
*Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka-City 819-0395, Japan
**Kyushu Office, Waterworks Structure Division, CTI Engineering Co., Ltd., CTI Fukuoka Building, 2-4-12 Daimyo, Chuo-Ku, Fukuoka-City 810-0041, Japan
The new concept for flood control called ‘Cascade’ method which permits dams to overflow around an upstream region with a sequence of dams constructed in a river is proposed. Multiple small scale dry dams should be constructed in series instead of a large scale dam in order to prevent flood disaster and preserve the natural environment. Recently a flood control dam with a bottom outlet hole as its regular spillway, known as ‘dry dam’, has been reviewed, planned and built in some sites in Japan. Under a condition of a common reservoir capacity, the Cascade type flood control permitting upstream dams to overflow except for the most downstream dam in a river is compared with a conventional one not to overflow each dam in a numerical simulation. As a result, it is made clear that the Cascade method using multiple dry dams is much more effective than the conventional one. In this connection, the Cascade type flood control method permitting upstream dams to overflow from emergency spillways except for the most downstream dam can be applied to normal storage dams with slide gates operated conventionally. Therefore, it could become an effective adaptation method for the global warming problem since it is performed by only changing how to operate slide gates in existing storage dams constructed in series. In addition, we also propose a new type of dry dam that has a closable and openable gate for its regular spillway primarily to retain the water for the water utilization. The new type of dry dam, which should be constructed in the upper reach away from the existing downstream storage dam needing still more its capacity for water utilization, ensures the amount of water available for the use by closing the regular spillway after the new dry dam is at full capacity, and the flood control capacity of the dams including the new dry dam is stronger than that of the normal dams owing to the storage function with the new dry dam. The new dry dams may improve the water utilization, the flood control, and environmentfriendliness under the current condition in Thailand damaged by the severe flood in 2011.
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