Effects of Research and Development Expenditure and Climate Variability on Agricultural Productivity Growth in Ghana
Geetha Mohan*, Hirotaka Matsuda**, Samuel A. Donkoh***,
Victor Lolig***, and Gideon Danso Abbeam***
*Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1133-8654, Japan
**Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan
***Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University for Development Studies (UDS), Ghana
This paper examines the effects of agricultural research expenditure and climate change on agricultural productivity growth by region in Ghana. A panel dataset is constructed for 2000-2009 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana; and the Agriculture Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) database of the International Food Policy Research Institute. A Malmquist index was used to compute agricultural productivity growth, including decomposition components efficiency change and technical change. The determinants of productivity growth are examined using a fixed effects regression model. The results specify that significant causal factors impact positively on Ghana’s agricultural productivity growth, include climate variability, infrastructure, and agricultural research and development expenditure. The study confirms there is a need to strengthen and develop new technological progress for sustainable agricultural production in Ghana.
Victor Lolig, and Gideon Danso Abbeam, “Effects of Research and Development Expenditure and Climate Variability on Agricultural Productivity Growth in Ghana,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.9, No.4, pp. 443-451, 2014.
-  A. D. Alene, “Productivity growth and the effects of R&D in African Agriculture,” Agricultural Economics, Vol.41, pp. 223-238, 2010.
-  S. Block, “A new view of agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.76, No.4, pp. 619-624, 1994.
-  L. E. Fulginiti, R. K. Perrin, and B. Yu, “Institutions and agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa,” Agricultural Economics, Vol.31, pp. 169-180, 2004.
-  G. Nkamleu, “Productivity growth, technical progress and efficiency change in African agriculture,” African Development Review, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 203-222, 2004.
-  C. Thirtle, D. Hadley, and R. Townsend, “Policy induced innovation in Sub-Saharan African agriculture: A multilateral Malmquist productivity index approach,” Development Policy Review, Vol.13, No.4, pp. 323-348, 1995.
-  N. E. Rada, S. T. Buccola, and K. O. Fuglie, “Government policy and agricultural productivity in Indonesia,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.93, No.3, pp. 867-884, 2011.
-  W. Mao and W. W. Koo, “Productivity growth, technological progress, and efficiency change in Chinese agriculture after rural economic reforms: A DEA approach,” China Economic Review, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 157-174, 1997.
-  T. J. Coelli and D. S. P. Rao, “Total factor productivity growth in agriculture: A Malmquist index analysis of 93 countries, 1980-2000,” Agricultural Economics, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 115-134, 2005.
-  K. Fuglie, “Is a slowdown in agricultural productivity growth contributing to the rise in commodity prices?” Agricultural Economics, Vol.39, pp. 431-441, 2008.
-  K. Fuglie, “Total Factor Productivity in the Global Agricultural Economy: Evidence from FAO Data,” Published in the book entitle, ‘The Shifting Patterns of Agricultural Production and Productivity Worldwid,’ edited by M. Alston, A. Julian, Babcock, G. Bruce, Pardey Philip, Iowa State University, The Midwest Agribusiness Trade Research and Information Center (MATRIC), 2010.
-  K. Fuglie, “Productivity Growth and Technology Capital in the Global Agricultural Economy,” Published in the book entitled, ‘Productivity Growth in Agriculture: An International Perspective,’ edited by K. O. Fuglie, S. L. Wang, and V. E. Ball, Oxfordshire, UK, CAB International, 2012.
-  D. Headey, M. Alauddin, and D. S. P. Rao, “Explaining agricultural productivity growth: An international perspective,” Agricultural Economics, Vol.41, pp. 1-14, 2010.
-  M.-C. Lio and J.-L. Hu, “Governance and agricultural production efficiency: A cross-country aggregate frontier analysis,” Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.60, No.1, pp. 40-61, 2009.
-  A. Nin, C. Arndt, and P. V. Preckel, “Is agricultural productivity in developing countries really shrinking? New evidence using a modified nonparametric approach,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol.71, pp. 395-415, 2003.
-  C. Thirtle, J. Piesse, A. Lusigi, and K. Suhariyanto, “Multi-factor agricultural productivity, efficiency and convergence in Botswana, 1981-1996,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol.71, pp. 605-624, 2003.
-  T. Coelli, “A Guide to DEAP Version 2.1: A Data Envelopment Analysis (Computer) Program,” CEPA Working Paper 96/08, University of New England, Armidale, 1996.
-  Salim. A. Ruhul and I. Nazrul, “Exploring the impact of R&D and climate change on agricultural productivity growth: the case of Western Australia,” The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol.54, pp. 561-582, 2010.
-  S. Block, “The Decline and Rise of Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1961,” Working Paper 16481, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau Of Economic Research (NBER), 2010.
-  A. Lusigi and C. Thirtle, “Total factor productivity and the effects of R&D in African agriculture,” Journal of Int.l Development, Vol.9, No.4, pp. 529-538, 1997.
-  A. Nin and B. Yu, “An updated look at the recovery of agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa,” IFPRI Discussion Paper 00787, Washington, DC, 2008.
-  R. S. J. Tol, “Estimates of the damage costs of climate change,” Part I. Benchmark. Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol.21, pp. 47-73, 2002.
-  R. Mendelsohn, A. Dinar, L. Williams, “The distributional impact of climate change on rich and poor countries,” Environment and Development Economics, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 159-178, 2006.
-  World Bank, “Africa rainfall and temperature evaluation system (ARTES),”Washington, D.C., 2003.
-  C. Rosenzweig andM. L. Parry, “Potential impact of climate change on world food supply,” Nature, Vol.367, pp. 133-138, 1994.
-  R. Mendelsohn, W. Nordhaus, and D. Shaw, “The impact of global warming on agriculture: a Ricardian analysis,” The American Economic Review, Vol.84, pp. 753-771, 1994.
-  J. Felkner, Kamilya Tazhibayeva, and Robert Townsend, “Impact of Climate Change on Rice Production in Thailand,” American Economic Review, Vol.99, No.2, pp. 205-10, 2009.
-  D.W. Caves, L. R. Christensen, and W. E. Diewert, “The economic theory of index numbers and the measurement of input output, and productivity,” Econometrica, Vol.50, No.6, pp. 1393-1414, 1982b.
-  R. Färe, S. Grosskopf, M. Norris, and Z. Zhang, “Productivity growth, technical progress and efficiency changes in industrialized countries,” American Economic Review, Vol.84, pp. 66-83, 1994.
-  FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), “FAOCOUNTRYSTAT, Ghana,” 2012,
available at: http://www.countrystat.org/home.aspx?c=GHA [accessed January, 2013]
-  FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), “FAOSTAT agricultural database,” 2012,
available at: http://faostat.fao.org/ [accessed December, 2012]
-  P. G. Pardey and R. Johannes, “Statistical Brief on the National Agricultural Research System,” ISNAR indicator series project: Phase II, Special Program for African Agricultural Research (SPAAR), 1994.
-  Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), “National soil fertility management action plan (p.159),” Accra: Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA), 1998.
-  Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), “Agriculture in Ghana: facts and figures,” Produced by the Statistics, Research and Information Directorate, Accra, 2009.
-  International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), “Agriculture Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) Data Tool,”Washington D.C., USA,
http://www.asti.cgiar.org/data/ [accessed March, 2013]
-  Y. Hayami and V. Ruttan, “Agricultural productivity differences among countries,” The American Economic Review, Vol.60, No.5, pp. 895-911, 1970.
-  Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA), “Agriculture in Ghana: facts and figures,” Produced by the Statistics, Research and Information Directorate, Accra, 2010.
-  G. Mohan and H. Matsuda, “Regional level total factor productivity growth in Ghana agriculture,” Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, Vol.4, No.5, 2013.
-  S. Wu, D. Walker, S. Devadoss, and Y. Lu, “Productivity growth and its components in Chinese agriculture after reforms,” Review of Development Economics, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 375-391, 2001.
-  K. O. Agyeman, O. Amponsah, I. Braimah, and S. Lurumuah, “Commercial charcoal production and sustainable community development of the Upper West region, Ghana,” Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol.5, No.4, 2012.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.