Recent Destructive Earthquakes and International Collaboration for Seismic Hazard Assessment
Ken Xiansheng Hao and Hiroyuki Fujiwara
National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 3-1 Tennaodai, Tsukuba 305-0006, Japan
Recent destructive earthquakes in East Asia, such as the 1976 Tangshan, 1995 Kobe, 1999 Chi-Chi, 2008 Wenchuan, 2010 Yushu, 2011 Tohoku, and 2013 Ya’an-Lushan earthquakes, claimed one third of a million lives. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) can help define earthquake zones and guide urban planning and construction based on statistical seismology, geophysics, and geodesy. The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has promoted SHA as a national mission in Japan over the last 10 years, and as an international cooperation with neighboring countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated the China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated collaborative programs with the committee of the Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well as with many other parties. Consequently, the NIED, with its highly valuated SHA methodologies and technologies, proudly joined the Global Earthquake Model Foundation (GEM). Our international activities in East Asia could become one of the GEMRegional Programs. By examination of SHA maps using the Tohoku earthquake data set, some improvements and reconsiderations are made.
-  X. S. Hao, K. Seo, and T. Samano, “Low Damage Anomaly of the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake: an Analysis Based on the Explosion Ground Motions,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. of Am., Vol.84, No.4, pp. 1018-1027, 1994.
-  China Earthquake Administration (CEA), “Seismic intensity distribution of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake” (in Chinese),
http://www.cea.gov.cn/manage/html/8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf/_content/09_05/07/1241683169822.html [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  Editor committee of WEDM, “Wenchuan Earthquake Disaster Maps (WEDM),” Chengdu map press, China, 2008 (in Chinese).
-  K. X. Hao, H. Si, H. Fujiwara, and T. Ozawa, “Coseismic surfaceruptures and crustal deformations of the 2008Wenchuan earthquake Mw7.9, China, (with Cover image of),” Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol.36, L11303, doi:10.1029/2009GL037971, 2009.
-  K. X. Hao, T. Kobayashi, and H. Fujiwara, “Rapid assessment of high seismic intensity areas of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using satellite SAR data,” Seismo. Res. Lett., Vol.83, pp. 658-665, doi:10.1785/0220110117, 2012.
-  M. Tobita, T. Nishimura, T. Kobayashi, K. X. Hao, and Y. Shindo, “Estimation of coseismic deformationl and a fault model of the 2010 Yushu earthquake using PALSAR interferometry data,” Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., Vol.307, pp. 430-, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.017, 2011.
-  T. C. Shin, K. W. Kuo, W. H. K. Lee, T. L. Teng, and Y. B. Tsai, “A preliminary report on the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake,” Seism. Res. Lett., Vol.70, No.1, pp. 24-30, 2000.
-  K.-L. Wen, “Site Amplification Study-Case of Taipei Basin,” 2012,
http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/doc/meeting/2nd/30_16_Taiwan.pdf [accessed March 1, 2013]
-  T.-S. Kang and M.-S. Jun, “Some studies on the 1952 earthquake near Pyeongyang, North Korea,” 2011,
http://www.jshis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/doc/meeting/1st/27 04 Korea.pdf [accessed March 1, 2012]
-  M.-S. Jun, “Improving input Data for the Seismic Hazard Assessment in Korea,” 2013,
http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/doc/meeting/3rd/2A-3.pdf [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  The ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009), 2013,
http://www.isc.ac.uk/iscgem/index.php [accessed July 1, 2013]
-  C. A. Cornell, “Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. of Am., Vol.58, No.6, pp. 1583-1606, 1968.
-  R. K. McGuire, “Fortran computer program for seismic risk analysis,” U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rept., 76-67, 90pp., 1976.
-  A. Frankel, “Mapping seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States,” Seism. Res. Lett., Vol.66, No.4, on., pp. 8-21, 1995.
-  X. S. Hao and Y. Gao, “An example of seismic risk analysis in Beijing,” Proc. of 9th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Vol.2, pp. 53-59.
-  NIED: Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station (J-SHIS), 2005,
http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/ [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  Y. Ishikawa, T. Okumura, J. Miyakoshi, and N. Nojima, “National statistics of probabilistic seismic hazard (No.1) Statistical distribution of intensity,” Proc. of 4th Annual meeting, Japan, Association of Earthq. Eng., pp. 326-327, 2006 (in Japanese).
-  H. Fujiwara, N. Morikawa, Y. Ishikawa, T. Okumura, J. Miyakoshi, N. Nojima, and Y. Fukushima, “Statistical Comparison of National Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps and Frequency of Recorded JMA Seismic Intensities from the K-NET Strong-motion Observation Network in Japan during 1997-2006,” Seism. Res. Lett., Vol.80, No.3, pp. 458-464, doi:10.1785/gssrl.80.3.458, 2009.
-  H. Fujiwara, S. Kawai, S. Aoi, N. Morikawa, S. Senna, N. Kudo, M. Ooi, K. X. Hao, K. Wakamatsu, Y. Ishikawa, T. Okumura, T. Ishii, S. Matsushima, Y. Hayakawa, N. Toyama, and A. Narita, “Technical reports on national seismic hazard maps for Japan,” Technical note of the NIED, Vol.336, 2009.
-  H. Fujiwara, S. Kawai, S. Aoi, N. Morikawa, Senna, H. Azuma, M. Ooi, K. X. Hao, N. Hasegawa, T. Maeda, A. Iwaki, M. Wakamatsu, Y. Imoto, T. Okumura, H. Matsuyama, and A. Narita, “Some improvements of seismic hazard assessment based on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake,” Technical note of the NIED, Vol.379, 2013 (in Japanese).
-  MEXT, 2006,
http://www.mext.go.jp/english/whitepaper/1302732.htm [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  NIED, 2011 (in Japanese), http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/dokuritu/chuuki/bousai.htm [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  People’s Republic of China national standard (PRCNS), “Seismic ground motion parameter zonation map of China, GB 18306-2001,” China Standard Press, 2001 (in Chinese).
-  M. Gao, “The new seismic map of China,” 2013,
http://www.jshis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/3rd_annual_meeting.html [accessed August 1, 2013]
-  J. S. Jeon, “Current status of probabilistic seismic hazard map in Korea,” 2013,
http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/3rd annual_meeting.html [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  CJK, 2011,
http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/ [accessed May 1, 2011]
-  G. P. Hayes, D. J. Wald, and R. L. Johnson, “Slab1.0: A threedimensional model of global subduction zone geometries,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol.117, B01302, doi:10.1029/2011JB008524.
-  TEM, 2012,
http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/intl/tem/ [accessed May 1, 2012]
-  GEM,
http://www.globalquakemodel.org [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  J-SHIS, 2011, http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/map/?lang=en [accessed May 1, 2013]
-  Nature editorial, Risk management, Nature, Vol.498, No.271, 20 June 2013, doi:10.1038/498271a
-  Seismic data set could improve Earthquake Forecasting – ScienceNOW,
http://news.science mag.org/sciencenow/2013/06/seismicdata-set-could-improve-e.html [accessed August 1, 2013]
-  P.Wessel and W. H. F. Smith, “Free software helps map and display data,” Eos Trans. AGU Vol.72, pp. 445-446, 1991.
-  Editor committee of JSSHA Abstract Proceedings: Joint symposium on Seismic Hazard Assessment (JSSHA), June 17-19, 2013, Sendai, Japan, NIED report, 79pp.,
http://www.jshis.bosai.go.jp/intl/cjk/doc/meeting/3rd/abstract-proceedings.pdf [accessed May 1, 2013]
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.