Urban Flooding and Measures
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
Urban flood disasters occur often worldwide, and Japan is no exception, as indicated by the 1999 Fukuoka flood. Urban floods result from changes in the urban environment influenced by the specific features of the city involved. We review recent urban floods, their causes and characteristics, together with the results of recent studies. Focusing on two mathematical models — the integrated urban flood model of urban river basins and the underground inundation model — we discuss their simulation results. To demonstrate the dangers of underground inundations, we introduce evacuation experiments conducted using full-scale staircase and door models. Based on these studies, we propose comprehensive measures against urban floods, including underground inundations.