Evacuation Facility Selection Situations in Whole-Building Evacuation, Actually Implemented in a Super-High-Rise Building - Results of Questionnaire Survey with Evacuees -
AXS SATOW Inc., 2-10-12 AXS Bldg. Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015, Japan
Received:June 20, 2010Accepted:August 18, 2010Published:October 1, 2010
Keywords:super-high-rise buildings, whole-building evacuation, evacuation by elevator, evacuation by stair, questionnaire survey
This paper presents questionnaire survey results with evacuees in actual whole-building evacuation - not in a safety exercise - from a super-high-rise office building. Its purpose is to provide basic data for establishing special considerations in evacuation plans specific to super-high-rise buildings with increasingly long, complex evacuation routes. The building in which wholebuilding evacuation was actually implemented for reasons other than fire has 33 floors above the ground and 3 below, and was built in a local city in Japan. It is used by a single organization. The evacuation was implemented for the whole building, not an orderly evacuation basis, by judgment of the facility manager. Evacuees totaled 2,000. It was announced that elevators and stairs were available for use as evacuation facilities when the facility manager gave orders for evacuation. The stair-use ratio reached 80%, however, suggesting that the employees are recommended to use the stairs for evacuation and they recognize that the stairs are more reliable than the elevator in evacuation. Blocked movement of evacuees was observed, but to a moderate extent, because movement to the stairs ended before the evacuees from the upper stairs joined those from the lower floors, and the building has many stairs. In contrast, 60% of those who used elevators consider that the evacuation would be completed faster, indicating their expectations for shortened evacuation periods. Some cited physical and health reasons for evacuation by elevator. Use of elevators should be investigated for weaker evacuees.
Cite this article as:S. Yagi, “Evacuation Facility Selection Situations in Whole-Building Evacuation, Actually Implemented in a Super-High-Rise Building - Results of Questionnaire Survey with Evacuees -,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.5 No.5, pp. 601-608, 2010.Data files:
-  A. Sekizawa, “Feasibility issues in Evacuation using Elevators in a High-rise fire, the General Insurance Association of Japan,” Yobou Jihou, Vol.226, 2006 (in Japanese).
-  M. Kobayasi and S. Horiuchi, “Analysis of Occupant Behavior in an Office Building under Fire: Part1 Classifications of Behaviors,” AIJ, Journal of Architecture and Planning, No.280, pp. 137-142,1979.6 (in Japanese).
-  Japan Association for Fire Science and Engineering, “Study on the evacuation behavior of the residents with a fire-hit high-rise building in Motomachi Hiroshima,” KASAI, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 14-22, 1997.4 (in Japanese).
-  K. Muta et al., “The Evacuation Behavior in the High-rise Building (Part1) : The Actual Evacuation Behavior in the Training,” AIJ Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual meeting, structure 52, pp. 2091-2092,1977.10 (in Japanese).
-  S. Yagi, “A Study of the Whole Building Evacuation Drill in the Gunma Prefectural Office Building,” AIJ journal of technology and design, No.19, pp. 147-150, 2004.6.
-  AIJ, “Report on the Damage of the New York World Trade Center by Bomb Blast in 1993,” 1995.8 (in Japanese).
-  AIJ, “Report on the Special Investigating Committee onWTC Towers Collapse,” 2003.9 (in Japanese).
-  D. Nii et al., “NIST Recommendations from the WTC Towers Collapse Investigations : Part 4 Building Evacuation and Emergency Response, and other Categories,” JAFSE Journal of Fire Science and Engineering, Vol.56, No.1, 2006.2 (Japanese translation and commentary).