Test Methods for the Evaluation of Manufacturing Mobile Manipulator Safety
Jeremy A. Marvel* and Roger Bostelman*,**
*National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8230, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
**IEM, Le2i, Université de Bourgogne
BP 47870, 21078 Dijon, France
-  D. Grubaugh, “Worker killed at Granite City plant,” The Telegraph, 2013.
-  Int. Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO 13854, Safety of machinery – Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body, 1996.
-  ISO, ISO 13855, Safety of machinery – Positioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body, 2010.
-  ISO, ISO 10218-1:2011, Robots and robotic devices – Safety requirements – Part 1: Robots, 2011.
-  ISO, ISO 10218-2:2011, Robots and robotic devices – Safety requirements – Part 2: Industrial robot systems and integration, 2011.
-  American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Robotics Industries Association (RIA), ANSI/RIA R15.06, Industrial robots and robot systems – Safety requirements, 2012.
-  ISO, ISO/PDTS 15066, Robots and robotic devices – Industrial safety requirements – Collaborative industrial robots, unpublished.
-  ANSI/Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation (ITSDF), ANSI/ITSDF B56.5, Safety standard for driverless, automatic guided industrial vehicles and automated functions of manned industrial vehicles, 2012.
-  M. Takahashi, T. Moriguchi, S. Tanaka, H. Namikawa, H. Shitamoto, T. Nakano. Y. Minato, T. Ihama, and T. Murayama, “Development of a Mobile Robot for Transport Application in Hospital,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.24, No.6, 2012.
-  Y. Kume, Y. Hirata, and K. Kosuge, “Object Handling by Coordinated Multiple Mobile Manipulators Without Force/Torque Sensors,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.20, No.3 pp. 394-402, 2008.
-  J. Marvel and R. Bostelman. “Towards mobile manipulator safety standards,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Rob. Sensors Env., pp. 31-36, 2013.
-  P. M. Moubarak and P. Ben-Tzvi, “Adaptive manipulation of a hybrid mechanism mobile robot,” Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Rob. Sens. Env., pp. 113-118, 2011.
-  E. Messina and A. Jacoff, “Performance standards for urban search and rescue robots,” Proc. SPIE, Unmanned Syst. Tech. VIII, Vol.6230, 2006.
-  T. L. Chen and C. C. Kemp, “Lead me by the hand: Evaluation of a direct physical interface for nursing assistant robots,” Proc. 5th ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Human-Rob. Interact, pp. 367-374, 2010.
-  S. S. Srinivasa et al., “Herb 2.0: Lessons learned from developing a mobile manipulator for the home,” Proc. IEEE, Vol.100, No.8, pp. 2410-2428, 2012.
-  European Parliament, “Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC,” Official J. of the European Union, L 157, pp. 24-86, 2006.
-  British Standards Institution, BS EN 1525 Safety of industrial trucks – Driverless trucks and their systems, 1998.
-  R. Bostelman, R. Norcross, J. Falco, and J. Marvel, “Development of standard test methods for unmanned and manned industrial vehicles used near humans,” Proc. SPIE Defense, Secur., and Sens.: Multisens., Multisource Inf. Fusion: Archit., Algorithms, and Appl., 2013.
-  J. Rehg, “Introduction to Robotics: A Systems Approach,” Prentice Hall, Inc., 1985.
-  “BG/BGIA risk assessment recommendations according to machinery directive: Design of workplaces with collaborative robots, U001/2009e October 2009 edition,” BGIA, 2011.
-  J. Fryman and B. Matthias, “Safety of Industrial Robots: From Conventional to Collaborative Applications,” Proc. 7th. Int. Conf. Safety Indust. Autom. Syst., pp. 198-203, 2012.
-  ISO, ISO 9283, Manipulating industrial robots – Performance criteria and related test methods, 1998.
-  J. Falco, J. Marvel, and R. Norcross, “Collaborative robotics: Measuring blunt force impacts on humans,” Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Safety Ind. Autom. Sys., pp. 186-191, 2012.
-  R. Bostelman and J. Marvel, “Control Fusion for Safe Multi-robot Coordination,” Proc. SPIE.DSS Defense and Security, Baltimore, MD, 2014.