Preliminary Assessment of GPM Satellite Rainfall over Myanmar
Muhammad Mohsan*,†, Ralph Allen Acierto*, Akiyuki Kawasaki*, and Win Win Zin**
*The University of Tokyo
7 Chome-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
**Yangon Technological University, Yangon, Myanmar
Intensive and long-term rainfall in Myanmar causes floods and landslides that affect thousands of people every year. However, the rainfall observation network is still limited in number and extent, so satellite rainfall products have been shown to supplement observations over the ungauged areas. One example is the estimates from Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) called Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), which has high spatial (0.1 × 0.1 degree) and temporal (30 min) resolution. This has potential to be used for modeling streamflow, early warnings, and forecasting systems. This study investigates the utility of these GPM satellite estimates for representing the daily rainfall for 25 rain gauges over Myanmar. Statistical metrics were used to understand the characteristic performance of the GPM satellite estimates. Daily rainfall estimates from GPM show a range of 29.3% to 81.1% probability of detection (POD). The satellite estimates show a capability of detecting no-rain days between 61.4 and 93.5%. For different rainfall intensities, the satellite estimates have a 12.9 to 39.1% POD for light rain (1–10 mm/day), 11.1 to 49% POD for moderate rain (10–50 mm/day), a maximum of 36% for heavy rain (50–150 mm/day), and a maximum of 12.5% for extreme rain (=150 mm/day). However, the correlation coefficient (CC) only ranges from 0.064 to 0.581, which is considered low, and is not uniform for all the stations. The highest CC scores and POD scores tend to be located in the northern part and deltaic region extending to the southern coasts in Myanmar, indicating a dependency of the statistical metrics on rainfall magnitude. The high POD scores indicate the utility of the estimates without correction for early warning purposes, but the estimates have low reliability for rainfall intensity. The satellite estimates can be used for forecasting and modeling purposes in the region, but the estimates require bias-correction before application.
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