IJAT Vol.10 No.1 pp. 16-22
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2016.p0016


Diamond Machining of Holograms Using Fine Rectangular Shaped Cutting Tools

Axel Meier, Oltmann Riemer, and Ekkard Brinksmeier

Laboratory for Precision Machining
Badgasteiner Str. 2, 28359 Bremen, Germany

July 14, 2015
November 2, 2015
Online released:
January 4, 2016
January 5, 2016
diamond turning, microstructure, hologram, diamond tools
Diamond machining is a flexible process ensuring an excellent workpiece precision. In combination with fast tool servos, which dynamically modulate the depth of cut, diffractive microstructures and holograms can be machined. The complexity and functionality of the structure depends on the flexibility of the machining process. Novel diamond tool geometries with fine rectangular shaped cutting edges and a width below 20 μm extend the machinable structure geometries. This paper presents fundamental cutting experiments using these novel tools with widths of the cutting edge of 10 μm and 20 μm to machine diffractive microstructures with a rectangular shaped profile. Particularly, the influence of the feed on the uniformity of the structure width and on burr formation on the structure edges is investigated. Using these tools together with fast tool servo assisted diamond turning holograms for multiple wavelengths can be machined, forming different intensity patterns in dependence of the wavelength.
Cite this article as:
A. Meier, O. Riemer, and E. Brinksmeier, “Diamond Machining of Holograms Using Fine Rectangular Shaped Cutting Tools,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10 No.1, pp. 16-22, 2016.
Data files:
  1. [1] R. Brunner, “Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II – size estimations for selected markets,” Advanced Optical Technologies, Vol.3/2, pp. 121-128, 2014.
  2. [2] R. Brunner, “Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I – progress in the patent landscape,” Advanced Optical Technologies, Vol.2, No.5-6, pp. 351-359, 2013.
  3. [3] F. Z. Fang, X. D. Zhang, A. Weckenmann, G. X. Zhang, and C. Evans, “Manufacturing and measurement of freeform optics,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.62, No.2, pp. 823-846, 2013.
  4. [4] X. Q. Zhang, K. Liu, V. Sunappan, and X. Shan, “Diamond micro engraving of gravure roller mould for roll-to-roll printing of fine line electronics,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.225, pp. 337-346, 2015.
  5. [5] E. Brinksmeier and L. Schöonemann, “Generation of discontinuous microstructures by Diamond Micro Chiseling,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.63, No.1, pp. 49-52, 2014.
  6. [6] M. A. Davies, B. S. Dutterer, T. J. Suleski, J. F. Silny, and E. D. Kim, “Diamond machining of diffraction gratings for imaging spectrometers,” Precision Engineering, Vol.36, pp. 334-338, 2012.
  7. [7] Y. Wang, Q. Zhao, Y. Shang, P. Lv, B. Guo, and L. Zhao, “Ultra-precision machining of Fresnel microstructure on die steel using single crystal diamond tool,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.211, pp. 2152-2159, 2011.
  8. [8] J. Yan, K. Watanabe, and Y. Nakagawa, “Fabrication of Thin-Film Fresnel Optics by Combining Diamond Turning and Photolithographic Processes,” International Journal of Automation Technology, Vol.7, No.4, pp. 385-390, 2013.
  9. [9] C. Lee and S. K. Lee, “Fabrication and molding testing of the blazed gratings for microoptics applications,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol.447-448, pp. 396-400, 2010.
  10. [10] Y. Takeuchi, S. Maeda, T. Kawai, and K. Sawada, “Manufacture of Multiple-focus Micro Fresnel Lenses by Means of Nonrotational Diamond Grooving,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.51, No.1, pp. 343-346, 2002.
  11. [11] Y. Yamagata and S. Morita, “Fabrication of blazed holographic optical element by ultrahigh-precision cutting,” RIKEN Review: Focused on Advances on Micromechanical Fabrication Techniques, Vol.34, pp. 6-8, 2001.
  12. [12] Y. J. Noh, M. Nagashima, Y. Arai, and W. Gao, “Fast Positioning of Cutting Tool by a Voice Coil Actuator for Micro-Lens Fabrication,” International Journal of Automation Technology, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 257-262, 2009.
  13. [13] D. P. Yu, G. S. Hong, and Y. S. Wong, “Integral Sliding Mode Control for Fast Tool Servo Diamond Turning of Micro-Structured Surfaces,” International Journal of Automation Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 4-10, 2011.
  14. [14] L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, “Fabrication of diffractive optics by use of slow tool servo diamond turning process,” Optical Engineering, Vol.45, No.11, pp. 113401-1-113401-9, 2006.
  15. [15] J. Zhou, L. Li, N. Naples, T. Sun, and A. Y. Yi, “Fabrication of continuous diffractive optical elements using a fast tool servo diamond turning process,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol.23, No.7, doi: 10.1088/0960 – 1317/23/7/075010, 2013.
  16. [16] E. Brinksmeier, O. Riemer, R. Gl”abe, B. Lüunemann, C. von Kopylow, C. Dankwart, and A. Meier, “Submicron functional surfaces generated by diamond machining,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.59, No.1, pp. 535-538, 2010.
  17. [17] M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, “Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Applied Optics, Vol.43, No.24, pp. 5137-5142, 2004.
  18. [18] C. Dankwart, C. Falldorf, and R. B. Bergmann, “Design of Diamond turned holograms for multiple wavelength image formation,” 12th Workshop on Information Optics (WIO), 2013.
  19. [19] L. Olejnik, M. Kulczyk, W. Pachla, and A. Rosochowski, “Hydrostatic extrusion of UFG aluminium,” International Journal of Material Forming, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 621-624, 2009.
  20. [20] J. Osmer, O. Riemer, E. Brinksmeier, A. Rosochowski, L. Olejnik, and M. Richert, “Diamond turning of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys,” Proceedings of the 7th euspen International Conference, Bremen, pp. 316-319, 2007.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024