IJAT Vol.3 No.2 pp. 151-156
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2009.p0151


Submillimeter Micropart Feeding Along an Asymmetric Femtosecond-Laser-Microfabricated Surface

Atsushi Mitani* and Shinichi Hirai**

*Department of Design, Sapporo City University
Sapporo, Hokkaido 005-0864, Japan

**Department of Robotics, Ritsumeikan University
Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

December 11, 2008
January 19, 2009
March 5, 2009
asymmetric surface, femtosecond laser process, microparts feeder, directionality

Femtosecond laser technology forms minute, stable gratings on such materials as silicon and stainless steel. Forming a periodic structure on the surfaces of sliding parts improves tribology characteristics because adhesion decreases with reductions in area of contact. Double-pulsed femtosecond laser irradiation generates periodic structures with asymmetric profiles, along which, as we have shown elsewhere, microparts such as ceramic chip capacitors and resistors can be fed using simple symmetric planar vibration. Microparts move unidirectionally because they adhere to these surfaces asymmetrically. In testing the feasibility of feeding 0402 capacitors 0.4 × 0.2 × 0.2 mm in size and 0.1 mg weighting along an asymmetric surface fabricated using double-pulsed femtosecond laser irradiation, we evaluated differences in the profiles of the two inclined surfaces, effects of decreased adhesion, the forward and backward coefficient of friction, and the bidirectional friction angle of 0402 capacitors. Based on feed experimental results, we assessed the relationship between drive frequency and feed velocity and, by calculating variations in feed velocity, feed stability.

  1. [1] A. Mitani, N. Sugano, and S. Hirai, "Micro-parts feeding by a sawtoothsurface," IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol.11,No.6, pp. 671-681, 2006.
  2. [2] T. Ninomiya, H. Sawada et al., "Formation of Periodic SurfaceStructure by Double-pulsed Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Journalof the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.71, No.7,pp. 921-925, 2005 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] Y. Ando and J. Ino, "The effect of asperity array geometry on frictionand pull-off force," Transactions of the ASME Journal of Tribology,Vol.119, pp. 781-787, 1997.
  4. [4] K. S. J. Pister, R. S. Fearing, and R. T. Howe, "A planar air levitatedelectrostatic actuator system," Procs. of IEEE Micro ElectroMechanical System, pp. 67-71, 1990.
  5. [5] Y. Fukuta et al., "Conveyor for pneumatic two-dimensional manipulationrealized by arrayed MEMS and its control," Journal ofRobotics and Mechatronics, Vol.16, No.2, pp. 163-170, 2004.
  6. [6] S. Konishi and H. Fujita, "A conveyance system using air flow basedon the concept of distributed micro motion systems," IEEE/ASMEJournal of Microelectromechanical system, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 54-58,1994.
  7. [7] S. Konishi et al., "Experimental investigation of distributed conveyancesystem using air flow," Procs. of 1998 International Symposiumon Micro Mechatronics and Human Science, pp. 195-200,1998.
  8. [8] S. Konishi, Y. Mizoguchi, and K. Ohno, "Development of a noncontactconveyance system composed of distributed nozzle units,"Procs. of 7th International Workshop on Emerging Technologiesand Factory Automation, pp. 593-598, 1999.
  9. [9] M. Arai et al., "An air-flow actuator array realized by bulk micromachiningtechnique," Procs. of IEEJ the 19th Sensor Symposium,pp. 447-450, 2002.
  10. [10] P. -J. Ku et al., "Distributed control system for an active surfacedevice," Procs. of the 2001 IEEE International Conference onRobotics and Automation, pp. 3417-3422, 2001.
  11. [11] M. Ataka et al., "Fabrication and operation of polyimide bimorphactuators for a ciliary motion system," IEEE/ASME Journal of MicroelectromechanicalSystem, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 146-150, 1993.
  12. [12] J. W. Suh et al., "CMOS integrated ciliary actuator array as ageneral-purpose micromanipulation tool for small objects," Journalof Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 483-496,1999.
  13. [13] J. W. Suh et al., "Fully programmable MEMS ciliary actuator arraysfor micromanipulation tasks," the Procs. of 2000 IEEE InternationalConference of Robotics and Automation, Vol.2, pp. 1101-1108, 2000.
  14. [14] T. Ebefors et al., "A robust micro conveyer realized by arrayed polyimidejoint actuators," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering,Vol.10, pp. 337-349, 2000.
  15. [15] H. Oyobe, H. Kitajima, and Y. Hori, "Design and realization ofautonomous decentralized object transfer system: magic carpet,"Procs. of 6th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control,pp. 25-29, 2000.
  16. [16] H. Oyobe and Y. Hori, "Object conveyance system "Magic Carpet"consisting of 64 linear actuators-object position feedback controlwith object position estimation," Procs. of 2001 IEEE/ASME InternationalConference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Vol.2,pp. 1307-1312, 2001.
  17. [17] T. Fukuda et al., "Distributed control of flexible transfer system(FTS) using learning automata," Procs. of the IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 96-101, 1999.
  18. [18] K. -F. Bohringer, B. R. Donald, and N. C. MacDonald, "Upperand lower bounds for programmable vector fields with applicationsto MEMS and vibratory plate parts feeders," International Workshopon Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics (WAFR), pp. 255-276, 1996.
  19. [19] K. -F. Bohringer, B. R. Donald, and N. C. MacDonald, "Singlecrystalsilicon actuator arrays for micro manipulation tasks," Procs.of the 1996 IEEEWorkshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems(MEMS), pp. 7-12, 1996.
  20. [20] K. -F. Bohringer, B. R. Donald, R. Mihailovich, and N. C. Mac-Donald, "Sensorless manipulation using massively parallel microfabricatedactuator arrays," Procs. of the 1994 IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp. 826-833, 1994.
  21. [21] K. -F. Bohringer, B. R. Donald, R.Mihailovich, and N. C. MacDonald,"A theory of manipulation and control for microfabricated actuatorarrays," Proc. of IEEEWorkshop on Micro Electro MechanicalSystems (MEMS), pp. 102-107, 1994.
  22. [22] K. -F. Bohringer, B. R. Donald, and N. C. MacDonald, "What programmablevector fields can (and cannot) do: Force field algorithmsfor MEMS and vibratory plate parts feeders," Procs. of 1996 IEEEInternational Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp.822-829, 1996.
  23. [23] K. -F. Bohringer, V. Bhatt, and K. Goldberg, "Sensorless manipulationusing transverse vibrations of a plate," Procs. of 1995 IEEEInternational Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol.24, pp.1989-1996, 1995.
  24. [24] K. -F. Bohringer, "Surface modification and modulation in microstructures:controlling protein adsorption, monolayer desorptionand micro-self-assembly," Journal of Micromechanics and microengineering,Vol.13, S1-S10, 2003.
  25. [25] K. -F. Bohringer, "Algorithms for sensorless manipulation using avibrating surface," Algorithmatica, pp. 389-429, 2000.
  26. [26] G. P. Maul and M. B. Thomas, "A systems model and simulationof the vibratory bowl feeder," Journal of Manufacturing System,Vol.16, No.5, pp. 309-314, 1997.
  27. [27] S. Okabe and Y. Yokoyama, "Study on vibratory feeders: calculationof natural frequency of bowl-type vibratory feeders," ASMEJournal of Mechanical Design, Vol.103, pp. 249-256, 1981.
  28. [28] D. Morrey and J. E. Mottershead, "Modelling of vibratory bowlfeeders," Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, PartC, Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol.200, No.C6, pp. 431-437,1986.
  29. [29] P. Wolfsteiner and F. Pfeiffer, "The parts transportation in a vibratoryfeeder," IUTAM Symposium on Unilateral Multibody Contacts,pp. 309-318, 1999.
  30. [30] P. U. Frei, "An intelligent vibratory conveyer for the individual objecttransportation in two dimensions," Procs. of the 2002 IEEE/RSJInternational Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp.1832-1837, 2002.
  31. [31] W. A. Morcos, "On the design of oscillating conveyors ? case of simultaneousnormal and longitudinal oscillations ?," ASME Journalof Engineering for Industry, Vol.92, No.1, 53, 1970.
  32. [32] R. N. Barnes, "A novel design of a vibratory feeder incorporating anintegral cut off valve," Procs. of International Conference on BulkMaterials Handling and Transportation, pp. 315-319, 1992.
  33. [33] J. C. M. Carvalho and M. Dahan, "Modelling a vibratory feeder:a new viewpoint," Applied Simulation & Modelling, pp. 127-130,1990.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Aug. 18, 2017