single-rb.php

JRM Vol.33 No.5 pp. 1128-1134
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2021.p1128
(2021)

Paper:

Anodal Galvanic Taste Stimulation to the Chin Enhances Salty Taste of NaCl Water Solution

Hiromi Nakamura*1, Tomohiro Amemiya*2,*3, Jun Rekimoto*1,*4, Hideyuki Ando*5, and Kazuma Aoyama*2,*6

*1Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan

*2Virtual Reality Educational Research Center, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

*3Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

*4Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc.
3-14-13 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0022, Japan

*5Osaka University of Arts
469 Higashiyama, Kanan-cho, Minamikawachi-gun, Osaka 585-8555, Japan

*6Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan

Received:
April 20, 2021
Accepted:
August 9, 2021
Published:
October 20, 2021
Keywords:
galvanic taste stimulation, electric taste, enhancement effect, taste augmentation, taste manipulation
Abstract
Anodal Galvanic Taste Stimulation to the Chin Enhances Salty Taste of NaCl Water Solution

Magnification ratio of each experiment

Galvanic taste stimulation (GTS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation of sensory nerves that induces, inhibits, and enhances taste sensation. It has been shown that the cathodal GTS taste enhancement effect occurs when only cathodal electrodes are attached in or near the mouth, while anodal GTS, whose anodal electrodes are attached in or near the mouth, induces an electrical taste sensation rather than taste enhancement. In the present study, we focused on the taste enhancement effect of anodal GTS, enhancing the salty taste produced by a sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution during stimulation. In this study, GTS was applied to the chin rather than the inner mouth so as not to disturb natural eating and drinking behavior, according to a previous study. To demonstrate and quantitatively evaluate its enhancement effect, we conducted two psychophysical experiments in which subjects were asked to indicate the intensity of the saltiness perceived during electrical stimulation by adjusting the concentration of aqueous NaCl to achieve a solution of equivalent saltiness. We discovered that the perceived intensity increased as the current intensity applied to the chin increased. Moreover, the magnification ratios against the baseline exceeded 1 under all conditions of the NaCl aqueous solution. These results indicate that anodal GTS is effective in enhancing the salty taste of NaCl aqueous solutions.

Cite this article as:
Hiromi Nakamura, Tomohiro Amemiya, Jun Rekimoto, Hideyuki Ando, and Kazuma Aoyama, “Anodal Galvanic Taste Stimulation to the Chin Enhances Salty Taste of NaCl Water Solution,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.33, No.5, pp. 1128-1134, 2021.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] D. A. Stevens, D. Baker, E. Cutroni, A. Frey, D. Pugh, and H. T. Lawless, “A direct comparison of the taste of electrical and chemical stimuli,” Chem. Senses, Vol.33, No.5, pp. 405-413, 2008.
  2. [2] B. Krarup, “Electro-gustometry: A method for clinical taste examinations,” Acta Otolaryngol., Vol.49, No.4, pp. 294-305, PMID: 13570949, doi: 10.3109/00016485809134758, 1958.
  3. [3] A. V. Cardello, “Comparison of taste qualities elicited by tactile, electrical, and chemical stimulation of single human taste papillae,” Percept. Psychophys., Vol.29, No.2, pp. 163-169, PMID: 7255095, doi: 10.3758/bf03207280, 1981.
  4. [4] T. P. Hettinger and M. E. Frank, “Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current,” Brain Res. Bullet., Vol.80, No.3, pp. 107-115, PMID: 19576268, doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.06.019, 2009.
  5. [5] K. Aoyama, K. Sakurai, S. Sakurai, M. Mizukami, T. Maeda, and H. Ando, “Galvanic tongue stimulation inhibits five basic tastes induced by aqueous electrolyte solutions,” Front. Psychol., Vol.8, p. 2112, PMID: 29259570, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02112, 2017.
  6. [6] K. Sakurai, K. Aoyama, M. Furukawa, T. Maeda, and H. Ando, “Successive Taste Enhancement with Saltiness and Umami Using Continuance Square Wave Cathodal Current Stimulation,” Trans. of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan, Vol.22, No.2, pp. 149-156, doi: 10.18974/tvrsj.22.2_149, 2017.
  7. [7] H. Nakamura and H. Miyashita, “Proposition of Single-pole Electric Taste Apparatuses for Drink and Food and Evaluation of Changing Taste Quality of Polarity Change,” Inf. Process. Soc. Jpn., Vol.54, No.4, pp. 1442-1449, 2013.
  8. [8] N. Ranasinghe, A. Cheok, R. Nakatsu, and E. Y. L. Do, “Simulating the sensation of taste for immersive experiences,” Proc. 2013 ACM Int. Workshop Immers. Media Exper., Barcelona, pp. 29-34, doi: 10.1145/2512142.2512148, 2013.
  9. [9] K. Aoyama, K. Sakurai, M. Furukawa, T. Maeda, and H. Ando, “New method for inducing, inhibiting, and enhancing tastes using galvanic jaw stimulation,” Trans. of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan, Vol.22, No.2, pp. 137-143, 2017.
  10. [10] Y. Aruga and T. Koike, “Taste change of soup by the recreating of sourness and saltiness using the electrical stimulation,” Proc. of the 6th Augmented Human Int. Conf., pp. 191-192, 2015.
  11. [11] H. Nakamura and H. Miyashita, “Controlling saltiness without salt: evaluation of taste change by applying and releasing cathodal current,” Proc. of the 5th Int. Workshop on Multimedia for Cooking and Eating Activities, pp. 101-105, 2013.
  12. [12] F. Tonozuka, T. Tani, and N. Matsumoto, “Saltiness of Soups Served by Food Services in Institutions,” The Japanese J. of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol.40, No.2, pp. 69-77, 1982.
  13. [13] T. Kamachi, “On the Taste of the Solution of Common Salt,” Bulletin of the Society o Salt Science, Japan, Vol.17, No.3, pp. 150-153, 1963.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Nov. 30, 2021