Analysis of Hot-Cold Confusion on Fingers
1-5 Yokotani, Setaoe-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194, Japan
The thermosensory system may misidentify a temperature stimulus with different thermal properties. The mechanism of this hot-cold confusion has not been clarified; hence, it has not yet been applied. In this study, we created a wearable temperature presentation device that is closer to the application and analyzed the tendency and mechanism of temperature confusion by analyzing the hot-cold confusion of temperature sensation in the fingers, which are most frequently in contact with objects. Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment, we presented stimuli on the tips of three fingers (first, second, and third fingers). In the second experiment, we presented stimuli at the center of the distal phalanx, middle phalanx, and proximal phalanx of the first finger. The experimental results indicated the occurrence of hot-cold confusion. Domination, in which the center is dominated by both ends, and a mutual effect, in which the center interacts with both ends, were observed.
-  C. E. Sherrick and R. Rogers, “Apparent haptic movement,” Perception and Psychophysics, Vol.1, No.6, pp. 175-180, 1966.
-  G. V. Békésy, “Neural Funneling along the Skin and between the Inner and Outer Hair Cells of the Cochlea,” The J. of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol.31, No.9, pp. 1236-1249, 1959.
-  P. Bach, A. Becker, D. Kleinböhl, and R. Hölzl, “The thermal grill illusion and what is painful about it,” Neuroscience Letters, Vol.505, pp. 31-35, 2011.
-  H.-N. Ho, J. Watanabe, H. Ando, and M. Kashino, “Somatotopic or spatiotopic? Frame of reference for localizing thermal sensations under thermo-tactile interactions,” Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, Vol.72, pp. 1666-1675, 2010.
-  H.-N. Ho, J. Watanabe, H. Ando, and M. Kashino, “Mechanisms underlying referral of thermal sensations to sites of tactile stimulation,” J. of Neuroscience, Vol.31, pp. 208-213, 2011.
-  B. G. Green, “Localization of thermal sensation: An illusion and synthetic heat,” Perception and Psychophysics, Vol.22, pp. 331-337, 1977.
-  K. Arai, S. Hashiguchi, F. Shibata, and A. Kimura, “Analysis of paradoxical phenomenon caused by presenting thermal stimulation on three spots,” Proc. of Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 281-286, 2017.
-  K. Sato and T. Maeno, “Presentation of Rapid Temperature Change Using Spatially Divided Hot and Cold Stimuli,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.25, No.3, pp. 497-505, 2013.
-  B. G. Green and A. Cruz, “Warmth-insensitive fields: evidence of sparse and irregular innervation of human skin by the warmth sense,” Somatosensory and Motor Research, Vol.15, No.4, pp. 269-275, 1998.
-  J. C. Stevens, L. E. Marks, and D. C. Simonson, “Regional sensitivity and spatial summation in the warmth sense,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol.13, No.6, pp. 825-836, 1974.
-  W. S. Cain, “Spatial discrimination of cutaneous warmth,” The American J. of Psychology, Vol.86, No.1, pp. 169-181, 1973.
-  F. L. Dimmick, “On the localization of pure warmth sensations,” The American J. of Psychology, Vol.26, No.1, pp. 142-150, 1915.
-  E. A. B. Pritchard, “Cutaneous tactile localization,” Brain, Vol.54, pp. 350-371, 1931.
-  R. H. Taus, J. C. Stevens, and L. E. Marks, “Spatial localization of warmth,” Perception and Psychophysics, Vol.17, pp. 194-196, 1975.
-  A. Craig and M. Bushnell, “The thermal grill illusion: Unmasking the burn of cold pain,” Science, Vol.265, No.5169, pp. 252-256, 1994.
-  B. G. Green, “Referred thermal sensations: Warmth versus cold,” Sensory Processes, Vol.2, pp. 220-230, 1978.
-  E. Ferrè, G. D. Ianetti, J. A. van Dijk, and P. Haggard, “Ineffectiveness of tactile gating shows cortical basis of nociceptive signaling in the thermal grill illusion,” Scientific Reports, Vol.8, 6584, 2018.
-  R. Defrin, A. B. Sheraizin, A. Bezalel, O. Mantzur, and L. A. Nielsen, “The spatial characteristics of the painful thermal grill illusion,” Pain, Vol.138, No.3, pp. 577-586, 2008.
-  A. Marotta, E. R. Ferrè, and P. Haggard, “Transforming the thermal grill effect by crossing the fingers,” Current Biology, Vol.25, No.8, pp. 1069-1073, 2015.
-  S. Patwardhan, A. Kawazoe, D. Kerr, M. Nakatani, and Y. Visell, “Dynamics and Perception in the Thermal Grill Illusion,” IEEE Trans. on Haptics, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 604-614, 2019.
-  A. D. Craig, E. M. Reiman, A. Evans, and M. C. Bushnell, “Functional imaging of an illusion of pain,” Nature, Vol.384, No.6606, pp. 258-260, 1996.
-  M. P. Kammers, F. De Vignemont, and P. Haggard, “Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch,” Current Biology, Vol.20, No.20, pp. 1819-1822, 2010.
-  K. Kushiyama, T. Baba, K. Doi, and S. Sasada, “Thermal design display device to use the thermal tactile illusions: Thermo-Paradox,” Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Posters (SIGGRAPH’10), 99, 2010.
-  R. Watanabe, R. Okazaki, and H. Kajimoto, “Mutual referral of thermal sensation between two thermal-tactile stimuli,” Proc. of 2014 IEEE Haptics Symp., pp. 299-302, 2014.
-  J. Tewell, J. Bird, and G. R. Buchanan, “The Heat is On: A Temperature Display for Conveying Affective Feedback,” Proc. of 35th ACM Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2017), pp. 1756-1767, 2017.
-  J. C. Stevens and B. Green, “History of Research on Touch,” Pain and Touch, pp. 1-23, 1996.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.