single-rb.php

JRM Vol.33 No.5 pp. 1029-1042
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2021.p1029
(2021)

Paper:

Effect of the Opponent’s Appearance on Interpersonal Cognition that Affects User-to-User Relationship in Virtual Whole-Body Interaction

Sho Sakurai, Takumi Goto, Takuya Nojima, and Koichi Hirota

The University of Electro-Communications
1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan

Received:
April 16, 2021
Accepted:
August 23, 2021
Published:
October 20, 2021
Keywords:
embodiment, interpersonal recognition, avatar, human relationship, whole-body interaction
Abstract
Effect of the Opponent’s Appearance on Interpersonal Cognition that Affects User-to-User Relationship in Virtual Whole-Body Interaction

VR Twister: VR whole-body interaction environment used in this experiment

People infer the internal characteristics (attitude, intent, thoughts, ability, relationship, etc.) of others (interpersonal cognition, IC) from the impressions they form from the personality or attributes of those others (impression formation). Studies premised on interpersonal communication in a seated condition have confirmed that, regardless of whether the communication is in the real world or in a media environment, the appearance of the other person affects IC and the outcome of the communication. People also develop relationships based on impressions or images of the other party. The psychological relationship manifests in physical relationships, that is, the relative positions of the body or the movement. In this study, we evaluate the effects of the appearance of the opponent’s avatar on the players’ IC in whole-body interaction taking place in a virtual reality (VR) space. Moreover, we examine the feasibility of constructing a method of changing the players’ relationship in interpersonal interactions that accompany the control and interference of the entire body, “whole-body interaction,” by manipulating their appearances. In this study, we selected the party game Twister as a case model of whole-body interaction and developed a system that allows users to play Twister in VR space. Using this system environment, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the players’ IC based on the gender and realism of the opponent’s avatar. The results showed that differences in the appearance of the opponent’s avatar affected the IC of male players. We also indicated that changes in IC observed in the experiment can affect the players’ relationship, thus identifying issues that must be resolved in order to realize the method.

Cite this article as:
Sho Sakurai, Takumi Goto, Takuya Nojima, and Koichi Hirota, “Effect of the Opponent’s Appearance on Interpersonal Cognition that Affects User-to-User Relationship in Virtual Whole-Body Interaction,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.33, No.5, pp. 1029-1042, 2021.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] S. T. Fiske and S. E. Taylor, “Social cognition,” Mcgraw-Hill, 1991.
  2. [2] A. Mehrabian and S. R. Ferris, “Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels,” J. of Consulting Psychology, Vol.31, pp. 248-252, 1967.
  3. [3] J. S. Bruner and R. Tagiuri, “The perception of people,” G. Lindzey (Ed.), “Hand-book of social psychology,” Vol.2, Cambridge, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1954.
  4. [4] L. Jackson, J. Hunter, and C. Hodge, “Physical Attractiveness and Intellectual Competence: A Meta-Analytic Review,” Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol.58, No.2, pp. 108-122, 1995.
  5. [5] K. Dion, E. Berscheid, and E. Walster, “What is beautiful is good,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.24, pp. 285-290, 1972.
  6. [6] P. Ekman (Ed.), “Darwin and facial expression A century of research in review,” Academic Press (New York), 1973.
  7. [7] R. D. Walk and K. L. Walters, “Perception of the smile and other emotions of the body and face at different distances,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, Vol.26, pp. 510-510, 1988.
  8. [8] L. M. DeBruine, “Facial resemblance enhances trust,” Proc. of the Royal Society of London,” Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol.269, No.1498, pp. 1307-1312, 2002.
  9. [9] L. M. DeBruine, “Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces,” Proc. of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, Vol.1552, No.271, pp. 2085-2090, 2004.
  10. [10] R. B. Adams, U. Hess, and R. E. Kleck, “The Intersection of Gender- Related Facial Appearance and Facial Displays of Emotion,” Emotion Review, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 5-13, 2015.
  11. [11] C. Zanbaka, P. Goolkasian, and L. Hodges, “Can a virtual cat persuade you?: the role of gender and realism in speaker persuasiveness,” Proc. of the SIGCHI Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’06), pp. 1153-1162, 2006.
  12. [12] T. Kuroda, S. Yamada, and K. Terada, “Influence of Relationship between Agents’ Appearance and Behaviors to Buying Motivation in Online Shopping,” The Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, Vol.31, No.2, pp. 1-11, 2016.
  13. [13] N. Nakazato, S. Yoshida, S. Sakurai, T. Narumi, T. Tanikawa, and M. Hirose, “Smart Face: Enhancing Creativity During Video Conferences using Real-time Facial Deformation,” Proc. of the 17th ACM Conf. on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW2014), pp. 75-83. 2014.
  14. [14] E. T. Hall, “The Hidden Dimension,” Anchor Books, 1966.
  15. [15] T. Sakamoto and Y. Takeuchi, “Simulation of Spatial Behavior Based on an Agent Model in Human-Agent Initial Interaction,” Proc. of the 6th Int. Conf. on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI’18), New York, NY, USA, pp. 310-317, 2018.
  16. [16] C. J. Cascio, D. Moore, and F. McGlone, “Social touch and human development,” Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol.35, 2019, pp. 5-11, 2019.
  17. [17] P. A. Andersen and K. Leibowitz, “The development and nature of the construct touch avoidance,” Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 89-106, 1978.
  18. [18] B. Major, A. M. Schmidlin, and L. Williams, “Gender patterns in social touch: The impact of setting and age,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.58, No.4, pp. 634-643, 1990.
  19. [19] R. Heslin, T. D. Nguyen, and M. L. Nguyen, “Meaning of touch: The case of touch from a stranger or same sex person,” J. of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 147-157, 1983.
  20. [20] A. Haans and I. Wijnand, “Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions,” Virtual Reality, Vol.9, pp. 149-159, 2006.
  21. [21] A. Kotranza, B. Lok, C. M. Pugh, and D. S. Lind, “Virtual humans that touch back: enhancing nonverbal communication with virtual humans through bidirectional touch,” 2009 IEEE Virtual Reality Conf., pp. 175-178, 2009.
  22. [22] K. Suzuki, M. Yokoyama, Y. Kionshita, T. Mochizuki, T. Yamada, S. Sakurai, T. Narumi, T. Tanikawa, and M. Hirose, “Gender-impression modification enhances the effect of mediated social touch between persons of the same gender,” Augmented Human Research, Vol.1, Article No.2, 2016.
  23. [23] M. Shiomi, H. Sumioka, and H. Ishiguro, “Survey of Social Touch Interaction Between Humans and Robots,” J. Robot. Mechatron, Vol.32, No.1, pp. 128-135, 2020.
  24. [24] K. R. Scherer, “Vocal affect expression: A review and a model for future research,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.9, No.9, pp. 143-165, 1986.
  25. [25] H. G. Wallbott, “Bodily expression of emotion,” European J. of Social Psychology, Vol.28, pp. 879-896, 1998.
  26. [26] D. Banakou, “The effects of Avatars’ Gender and Appearance on Social Behavior in Virtual Worlds,” J. of Virtual Worlds Research, Vol.2, No.5, 2009.
  27. [27] M. Mori, K. F. MacDorman, and N. Kageki, “The Uncanny Valley [From the Field],” IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, Vol.19, No.2, pp. 98-100, 2012
  28. [28] M. B. Mathur and D. B. Reichling, “Navigating a social world with robot partners: A quantitative cartography of the Uncanny Valley,” Cognition, Vol.146, pp. 22-32, 2015.
  29. [29] A. Pentland, “HONEST SIGNALS – How They Shape Our World –,” The MIT Press, 2008.
  30. [30] M. Argyle and J. Dean, “Eye-contact, distance and affiliation,” Sociometry, Vol.28, pp. 289-304, 1965.
  31. [31] J. K. Burgoon, L. A. Stern, and L. Dillman, “Interpersonal adaptation: Dyadic interaction patterns,” Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  32. [32] T. Komatsu and Y. Abe, “Comparing an on-screen agent with a robotic agent in non-face-to-face interactions,” Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 498-504, 2008.
  33. [33] R. V. Laban, “Mastery of Movement,” Princeton Book Co. Pub., 1988.
  34. [34] I. Bartenieff and D. Lewis, “Body movement: coping with the environment,” Gordon and Breach Publisher, 1980.
  35. [35] Y. Hatada, S. Yoshida, T. Narumi, and M. Hirose, “Double Shellf: What Psychological Effects can be Caused through Interaction with a Doppelganger?,” Proc. of the 10th Augmented Human Int. Conf. (AH’19), Article No.34, 2019.
  36. [36] T. Komatsu and S. Yamada, “Adaptation gap hypothesis: How differences between users’ expected and perceived agent functions affect their subjective impression,” J. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol.9, 2011.
  37. [37] N. Yee and J. Bailenson, “The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self Representation on Behavior,” Human Communication Research, Vol.33, pp. 271-290, 2007.
  38. [38] D. Banakou, K. Sammer, and M. Slater, “Virtual Being Einstein Results in an Improvement in Cognitive Task Performance and a Decrease in Age Bias,” Frontiers in Psychology, Vol.9, p. 917, 2018.
  39. [39] A. Tajadura-Jiménez, A. Väljamäe, I. Toshima, T. Kimura, M. Tsakiris, and N. Kitagawa, “Action sounds recalibrate perceived tactile distance,” Current Biology, Vol.22, No.13, pp. R516-R517, 2012.
  40. [40] M. Tsakiris and P. Haggard, “The rubber hand illusion revisited: visuotactile integration and self-attribution,” J. of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, Vol.31, No.1, pp. 80-91, 2005.
  41. [41] A. D. Galinsky, W. W. Maddux, D. Gilin, and J. B. White, “Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent: the differential effects of perspective taking and empathy in negotiations,” Psychological Science, Vol.19, No.4, pp. 378-384, 2008.
  42. [42] A. Gerace, A. Day, S. Casey, and P. Mohr, “An exploratory investigation of the process of perspective taking in interpersonal situations,” J. of Relationships Research, Vol.4, Article e6, 2013.
  43. [43] R. S. Marvin, M. T. Greenberg, and D. G. Mossler, “The Early Development of Conceptual Perspective Taking: Distinguishing among Multiple Perspectives,” Child Development, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 511-514, 1976.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Nov. 30, 2021