JRM Vol.29 No.2 pp. 395-405
doi: 10.20965/jrm.2017.p0395


A Control System for a Tool Use Robot: Drawing a Circle by Educing Functions of a Compass

Kyo Kutsuzawa, Sho Sakaino, and Toshiaki Tsuji

Saitama University
255 Shimo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, Japan

August 12, 2016
December 13, 2016
April 20, 2017
robotic tool use, functionality, compass

A Control System for a Tool Use Robot: Drawing a Circle by Educing Functions of a Compass

Axes in the compass coordinate system

Robotic tool use is one of various approaches for actualizing versatility of robots, and is thus the focus of many studies. However, selection of the controllers for tool use and how to design them remains indeterminate. This paper addresses the task of drawing a circle with a compass as an example of tool use. This task mandates to deal with complex contact at multiple points and needs to educe functions of the compass to draw a circle accurately. This paper demonstrates the implementation and corresponding method of compass controller design. The method of designing the controller for the compass entails decomposing the usage of the compass into semantic units and subsequently defining a coordinate system and fabricating the controller via mapping of the semantic units to axes. The implementation of a controller for compass use indicates that the ability of the compass to accurately draw a circle is educed via mechanical constraints of the compass. We validated the implemented controller by drawing a circle and comparing the result to a circle drawn using a pencil.

  1. [1] B. B. Beck, “Animal Tool Behavior,” Garland STPM Pub., 1980.
  2. [2] J. J. Gibson, “The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception,” Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1979.
  3. [3] A. Stoytchev, “Behavior-Grounded Representation of Tool Affordances,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., pp. 3060-3065, 2005.
  4. [4] R. Jain and T. Inamura, “Learning of Tool Affordances for Autonomous Tool Manipulation,” IEEE/SICE Int. Symp. on System Integration, pp. 814-819, 2011.
  5. [5] T. Mar, V. Tikhanoff, G. Metta, and L. Natale, “Self-Supervised Learning of Grasp Dependent Tool Affordances on the iCub Humanoid Robot,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., pp. 3200-3206, 2015.
  6. [6] C. Nabeshima, Y. Kuniyoshi, and M. Lungarella, “Towards a Model for Tool-Body Assimilation and Adaptive Tool-Use,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Develop. and Learning, pp. 288-293, 2007.
  7. [7] C. Nabeshima, “A Computational Model of Flexible Tool-Use Based on Body Schema Adaptation and Functionality Learning,” Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Tokyo, 2009 (in Japanese).
  8. [8] P. Kormushev, S. Calinon, and D. G. Caldwell, “Robot Motor Skill Coordination with EM-Based Reinforcement Learning,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intell. Robots Syst., pp. 3232-3237, 2010.
  9. [9] P. Kormushev, S. Calinon, and D. G. Caldwell, “Imitation Learning of Positional and Force Skills Demonstrated via Kinesthetic Teaching and Haptic Input,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.25, No.5, pp. 581-603, 2011.
  10. [10] M. Takeuchi, J. Shimodaira, Y. Amaoka, S. Hamatani, H. Hirai, and F. Miyazaki, “Reconstruction of Human Skills by Using PCA and Transferring Them to a Robot,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.26, No.1, pp. 51-58, 2014.
  11. [11] Y. Watanabe, K. Nagahama, K. Yamazaki, K. Okada, and M. Inaba, “Cooking Behavior with Handling General Cooking Tools Based on a System Integration for a Life-Sized Humanoid Robot,” Paladyn, J. of Behavioral Robotics, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 63-72, 2013.
  12. [12] F. Osawa, H. Seki, and Y. Kamiya, “Clothes Folding Task by Tool-Using Robot,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.18, No.5, pp. 618-625, 2006.
  13. [13] J. K. Salisbury Jr., “Interpretation of Contact Geometries from Force Measurements,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., Vol.1, pp. 240-247, 1984.
  14. [14] N. Mimura and Y. Funahashi, “Parameter Identification of Contact Conditions by Active Force Sensing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., Vol.3, pp. 2645-2650, 1994.
  15. [15] K. Kutsuzawa, S. Sakaino, and T. Tsuji, “Estimation of Individual Contact Force when Two Contact Points Exist During Robotic Tool Use,” Proc. JSME Int. Conf. on Advanced Mechatronics, pp. 46-47, 2015.
  16. [16] M. H. Raibert and J. J. Craig, “Hybrid Position/Force Control of Manipulators,” Trans. ASME, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, Vol.103, No.2, pp. 126-133, 1981.
  17. [17] O. Khatib, “A Unified Approach for Motion and Force Control of Robot Manipulators: The Operational Space Formulation,” IEEE J. Robot. Autom., Vol.3, No.1, pp. 43-53, 1987.
  18. [18] R. Featherstone, S. Sonck, and O. Khatib, “A General Contact Model for Dynamically-Decoupled Force/Motion Control,” Experimental Robotics V, Springer, pp. 128-139, 1998.
  19. [19] J. Park and O. Khatib, “Robot Multiple Contact Control,” Robotica, Vol.26, No.5, pp. 667-677, 2008.
  20. [20] T. Tsuji, H. Nishi, and K. Ohnishi, “A Controller Design Method of Decentralized Control System,” IEEJ Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol.126-D, No.5, pp. 630-638, 2006.
  21. [21] T. Tsuji, K. Ohnishi, and A. uSabanovi‘c, “A Controller Design Method Based on Functionality,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol.54, No.6, pp. 3335-3343, 2007.
  22. [22] N. Mimura and Y. Funahashi, “Parameter Identification of a Grasp by a Planar Two-Fingered Robot Hand,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 12-18, 1993.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Sep. 19, 2017