Depth Control of Underwater Robot with Metal Bellows Mechanism for Buoyancy Control Device Utilizing Phase Transition
Koji Shibuya, Yukihiro Kishimoto, and Sho Yoshii
Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Ryukoku University, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta-Oe, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194, Japan
The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a buoyancy control device that utilizes volume change due to phase transition of material between solid and liquid states. This paper describes the depth control method for an underwater robot fitted with the metal bellows buoyancy control devices that we have developed in this study. Four metal bellows buoyancy control devices are installed on an underwater robot. We first measured underwater robot buoyancy change and found that it agreed roughly with theoretical values. We then checked whether the robot could change buoyancy successively so that the robot rises or sinks as commanded. We then conducted a series of experiments on robot depth control in which if the robot depth is more than a certain distance different from the target depth, control devices are either heated or cooled at maximum output. If such a difference is within the threshold, proportional control is applied to develop output in proportion to the distance to the target depth. Experimental results showed that the underwater robot followed varied target depth with a steady-state deviation of a few cmor so, except in some cases of failure.
-  Special Issue, “Recent Advance in Under Water Robotics: Theory and Technique (1),” Advanced Robotics, Vol.15, No.5, pp. 497-639, 2001.
-  Special Issue, “Recent Advance in Under Water Robotics: Theory and Technique (2),” Advanced Robotics, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 1-55, 2002.
-  H. Johannsson, M. Kaess, B. Englot, F. Hover, and J. Leonard, “Imaging Sonar-Aided Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Harbor Surveillance,” Proc. of the 2010 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, pp. 4397-4403, 2010.
-  M. Pfingsthorn, A. Birk, and H. Bulow, “An Efficient Strategy for Data Exchange in Multi-Robot Mapping under Underwater Communication Constraints,” Proc. of The 2010 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, pp. 4886-4893, 2010.
-  G.M. Hallegraeff, “Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ships’ ballast water: bioeconomic risk assesment and efficacy of possible ballast water management strategies,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol.168, pp. 297-309, 1998.
-  P. A. DeBitetto, “Fuzzy Logic for Depth Control of Unmanned Undersea Vehicles,” IEEE J. of Oceanic Engineering, Vol.20, Issue 3, pp. 242-247, 1995.
-  S. Wang, H. Zhang, W. Hou, and J. Liang, “Control and navigation of the variable buoyancy AUV for underwater landing and takeoff,” Int. J. of Control, Vol.80, Issue 7, pp. 1080-1026, 2007.
-  W. M. Bessa, M. S. Dutra, and E. Kreuzer, “Depth control of remotely operated underwater vehicles using an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol.56, pp. 670-677, 2008.
-  N. Kato, H. Liu, and H. Morikawa, “Biology-Inspired Precision Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles,” Bio-mechanisms of Swimming and Flying, Springer, pp. 110-125, 2004.
-  M. R. Clarke, “Structure and Proportions of the Spermaceti Organ in the SpermWhale,” J. of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Vol.58, pp. 1-17, 1978.
-  M. R. Clarke, “Physical Properties of Spermaceti Oil in the Sperm Whale,” J. of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Vol.58, pp. 19-26, 1978.
-  M. R. Clarke, “Buoyancy Control as a Function of the Spermaceti Organ in the SpermWhale,” J. of theMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Vol.58, pp. 27-71, 1978.
-  K. S. Norris and G. W. Harvey, “A theory for the function of the spermaceti organ of the sperm whale (Physeter catodon L.),” Animal orientation and navigation. NASA special publication, pp. 397-417, 1972.
-  D. R. Carrier, S. M. Deban, and J. Otterstorn, “The face that sank the Essex: potential function of the spermaceti organ in aggression,” The J. of Experimental Biology, Vol.205, pp. 1755-1763, 2002.
-  T. Kobayashi, K. Amaike, K. Watanabe, T. Ino, K. Asakawa, T. Suga, T. Kawano, and T. Hyakudome, “Deep NINJA: A new float for deep ocean observation developed in Japan,” Proc. of 2011 IEEE Symp. on Int. Symp. on Underwater Technology and Int. Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables & Related Technologies 2011, 2011.
-  K. Hyodo, W. Koderayama, and M. Nakamura, “Buoyancy Adjusting Device, Underwater Sailing Body, and Buoyancy Adjusting Method,” Japan Patent, Publication number: 2008-120316, 2008.
-  N. Kabei et al., “A Thermal-Expansion-Type Microactuator Using Paraffin as Expansive Material (Basic Performance of a Prototype Linear Actuator),” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (Series C), Vol.62, No.604, pp. 4624-4629, 1996 (in Japanese).
-  L. Klintberg, M. Karlsson, L. Stenmark, J. A. Schweitz, and G. Thornell, “A large stroke, high force paraffin phase transition actuator,” Sensors and Actuators A, Vol.96, Issues 2-3, pp. 189-195, 2002.
-  K. Shibuya, Y. Kado, S. Honda, T. Iwamoto, and K. Tsutsumi, “Underwater Robot with a Buoyancy Control system Based on the Spermaceti Oil Hypothesis,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ, Int. Conf. of Intelligent Robots and Systems, Beijing, pp. 3012-3017, 2006.
-  T. Inoue, K. Shibuya, and A. Nagano, “Underwater Robot with a Buoyancy Control System Based on the Spermaceti Oil Hypothesis – Development of the Depth Control System –,” Proc. of 2010 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, pp. 1102-1107, 2010.
-  K. Shibuya and K. Kawai, “Development of a New Buoyancy Control Device for Underwater Vehicles Inspired by the Sperm Whale Hypothesis,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.23, Nos.7-8, pp. 831-846, 2009.
-  K. Shibuya and S. Yoshii, “New Volume Change Mechanism Using Metal Bellows for Buoyancy Control Device of Underwater Robots,” ISRN Robotics, 2013, Article ID 541643, 2013.
Copyright© 2013 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.