Design Methodology for Human Symbiotic Machines Based on the Description of User’s Mental Model
Rui Fukui*1, Shuhei Kousaka*2, Tomomasa Sato*3,
and Masamichi Shimosaka*4
*1Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
*2Komatsu, Ltd., 2-3-6 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8414, Japan
*3The University of Tokyo Future Center Initiative, 227-6 Wakashiba, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-0871, Japan
*4Department of Mechano-Informatics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
This research establishes a methodology for designing human symbiotic machines. In our proposal, the mental model of a user is described by a user model diagram as an extended version of the well-known System Modeling Language (SysML). The user model diagram originated in the state machine diagram and the activity diagram of SysML. Concretely, the behavior of a machine observed by a user (user model), is drawn as a parallel to the actual behavior of a machine (system model). The user model diagram can visualize the physical processes required to use the machine and can reveal any inconsistencies between user and system models. We have selected a non-industrial stacker crane, which stores and retrieves containers through human manual operation, as an application target of the proposed design methodology. To make the stacker crane interface more user-friendly, several design plans are proposed and discussed together with descriptions of user model diagrams. To evaluate the relationship between diagrams and actual performance, prototypes of interfaces are developed, and usability tests are conducted. Results of usability tests indicate that the user model diagram is a good design tool for estimating the basic usability of a human symbiotic machine.
-  K. S. Gill, “Human Machine Symbiosis: The Foundations of Human-centred Systems Design,” Springer, 1996.
-  L. Leventhal and J. Barnes, “Usability Engineering: Process, Products and Examples,” Prentice Hall, 2007.
-  D. Norman, “The Psychology of Everyday Things,” Basic Books, 1988.
-  G. Salvendy, “Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics,” John Wiley and Sons, 2012.
-  T. Inagaki, “Design of human and machine interactions in light of domain-dependence of human-centered automation,” Cognition, Technology and Work, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 161-167, 2006.
-  J. Tick, “Software user interface modelling with UML support,” In Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computational Cybernetics, pp. 325-328, 2005.
-  P. Markopoulos and P. Marijnissen, “UML as a representation for interaction design,” In Proc. of OZCHI, pp. 240-249, 2000.
-  P. P. Da Silva and N. W. Paton, “User interface modelling with UMLi,” IEEE Software, Vol.20, pp. 62-69, 2003.
-  S. Kim, K. Sekiyama, and T. Fukuda, “User-adaptive interface based on mental model and symbol matching,” In Proc. of IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 457-462, 2009.
-  C. Bunse, H.-G. Gross, and C. Peper, “Applying a model-based approach for embedded system development,” In Proc. of IEEE EUROMICRO Conf. on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, pp. 121-128, 2007.
-  J. Guiochest, B. Tondu, and C. Baron, “Integration of UML in human factors analysis for safety of a medical robot for teleechography,” In Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Robots and Systems, pp. 3212-3217, 2003.
-  M. V. Farina, “Flowcharting,” Prentice Hall, 1970.
-  O. A. Yakimenko, “Engineering Computations and Modeling in MATLAB/Simulink,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2011.
-  E. Huang, R. Ramamurthy, and L. F. McGinnis, “System and simulation modeling using SysML,” In Proc. of the Winter Simulation Conf., pp. 796-803, 2007.
-  S. Friedenthal, A. Moore, and R. Steiner, “A Practical Guide to SysML,” Elsevier Inc., 2009.
-  R. Fukui, S. Kousaka, T. Sato, and M. Shimosaka, “Non-industrial stacker crane with compatibility/extensibility between manual operation and electrical driving,” In Proc. of IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 383-390, 2012.
-  S. Dekker, “The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error,” Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006.
-  S. G. Hart, “NASA-task load index NASA-TLX; 20 years later,” In Proc. of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting, pp. 904-908, 2006.
-  N. Hashimoto, S. Kato, and S. Tsugawa, “Evaluation of acceptability and usability of a parking assistance system for elderly drivers – relationship between experiment results, gender, driving frequency and driving styles –,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.22, No.6, pp. 745-750, 2010.
-  M. Wada, K. S. Yoon, and H. Hashimoto, “Development of advanced parking assistance system in the iCAN framework,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.13, No.4, pp. 402-408, 2001.
-  Z. Hu and D. Zhao, “Adaptive cruise control based on reinforcement leaning with shaping rewards,” J. of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, Vol.15, No.3, pp. 351-356, 2010.
-  S.Weinschenk, “100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People,” New Riders, 2011.
- [a] Object Management Group, Inc., “Documents Associated with Systems Modeling Language (SysML), Version 1.3.”
http://www.omg.org/spec/SysML/1.3/PDF/ [Accessed: July 22, 2013]
- [b] BMW AG, “BMW Head-Up Display.”
http://www.bmw.com/com/en/newvehicles/7series/sedan/2012/showroom/safety/head-up-display.html [Accessed: July 22, 2013]
Supporting Online Materials:
Copyright© 2013 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.